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SABALĀN MOUNTAIN

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Kuh-e-Sabalān; 4,740 m), the highest and spatially most extended volcano in northwestern Iran. SABALĀN MOUNTAIN (Kuh-e-Sabalān; 4,740 m), the highest and spatially most extended volcano in northwestern Iran. The mountain and its surroundings are part of the Armenian-Azerbaijan knot of mountains, where Pontus and Taurus mountain chains have their eastern roots and Alborz and Zagros their starting point. Thus, the whole region is a highly active tectonic and volcanic area stretching over an east-west extension …
Date: 2014-12-24

FORESTS AND FORESTRY

(3,385 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
i. Forests and Forestry in Persia. ii. Forests and Forestry in Afghanistan. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 1, pp. 86-90 FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Thus, altogether 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas (FIGURE 1). From a botanical and ecological perspective, Persia’s forest vegetation is not uniform. On the contrary, in line with the country’s ecological differentiation, Ha…
Date: 2014-07-09

SAHAND MOUNTAIN

(696 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
(Kuh-e Sahand), With 3710 m the third of the great volcanoes in the volcano province of Eastern Anatolia and Northwestern Iran, the other two being Ararat and Sabalān. SAHAND MOUNTAIN (Kuh-e Sahand), With 3710 m the third of the great volcanoes in the volcano province of Eastern Anatolia and Northwestern Iran, the other two being Ararat and Sabalān (qq.v.). In its geological history and structure comparable to the Kuh-e- Sabalān, the Kuh-e Sahand marks the southern fringe of the highly active volcanic-tectonic geological pr…
Date: 2015-07-17

GORGĀN

(19,573 words)

Author(s): Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni | Eckart Ehlers | Muhammad Yusof Kiani | A. D. H. Bivar | C. Edmund Bosworth | Et al.
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 139-154 GORGĀN i. Geography GORGĀN, the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea. In June 1997, the eastern part of the Māzandarān Province, consisting of the two sub-provinces of Gorgān and Gonbad-e Kāvus/Qābus (formerly c…
Date: 2017-04-10

NOMADISM

(8,560 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Pastoral nomadism is a livelihood form that is ecologically adjusted at a particular level to the utilization of marginal resources. These resources occur in areas too dry, too elevated, or too steep for agriculture to be a viable mode of livelihood, and the nomadic pastoralist thus makes use of resources that otherwise would be neglected. i. Pastoral nomadism This form of nomadism is a very old way of life that differentiated in time and space, and developed a variety of genres de vie. Pastoral nomadism is difficult to define with an overarching and all-embracing definition.…
Date: 2014-01-04

SAFIDRUD

(3,380 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
With a length of 670 km the Safidrud is the second largest river of Iran. Its headwaters are located in the Zagros ranges of northwestern Iran in the province of Kordestān. Originating in the mountain range of the Kuh-e Čehel Čašma, the headwater region is moist and rainy. SAFIDRUD (lit. White River), the Amardos of the Classical sources, the largest Iranian river discharging into the Caspian Sea, which it reaches in Gilan Province after flowingthrough the southeastern part of Azerbaijan. The largest part of Iran is characterized by internal …
Date: 2014-01-04

KARḴEH RIVER

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range. A version of this article is available in print Volume XV, Fascicle 6, pp. 583-585 KARḴEH RIVER (Rud-e Karḵeh), the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud,flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range and, flowing for about 755 km in a southwestward direction, reaches the Hur-al-ʿAẓim lagoon on the Iran-Iraq border…
Date: 2012-11-02

QOM LAKE

(377 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
(DARYĀČA-ye QOM, or Qom Basin), also called Daryāča-ye Sāva, one of the interior watersheds in northwestern Persia (see DRAINAGE). It is situated between the southern flanks of the western Alborz system and the eastern slope of the northern Zagros, and covers just over 92,000 km². QOM LAKE (DARYĀČA-ye QOM, or Qom Basin), also called Daryāča-ye Sāva, one of the interior watersheds in northwestern Persia (see DRAINAGE). It is situated between the southern flanks of the western Alborz system and the eastern slope of the northern Zagros, and co…
Date: 2012-11-08

GLACIERS

(1,471 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 1, pp. 7-9 GLACIERS and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to …
Date: 2013-06-03

HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE

(1,635 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Gherardo Gnoli
(or simply Hāmun), lit. “lake of the plain, lowland,” a lake covering the deepest part of the Sistān depression and the Sistān watershed. A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 6, pp. 646-648 HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE (Lake Hāmun, lit. “lake of the plain, lowland”), also called Hāmun-e Helmand (Av. Haētumant- “provided with banks,” AirWb., cols. 1728-29; Gk. Etymandros, Pauly Wissowa, VI/1, cols. 806-7), a lake in Sistān covering the deepest part of the Sistān depression and the Sistān watershed. HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE i. GEOGRAPHY The Sistān basin is the easternmo…
Date: 2013-06-05

GEOLOGY

(2,703 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its inhabitants, primarily (1) geological structure and orohydrographic differentiation of Persia, (2) geology and natural hazards, and (3) geology and natural resources. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 5, pp. 456-460 GEOLOGY. This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its i…
Date: 2013-06-02

BORUJERD

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 375-376 BORUJERD, town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran. i. BORŪJERD BORŪJERD (or Barūjerd), town and šahrestān in the province of Lorestān in western Iran. Situated along the highway between Tehran and the oil province of Ḵūzestān and located halfway between Hamadān and Kermānšāh (now Bāḵtarān), Borūjerd has always been a road and railway junction of great strategic importance. Little is known about the origins and the earl…
Date: 2015-06-26

FLOODS

(2,859 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Charles Melville
( sayl, sayl-āb) in Persia. i. Geographical survey. ii. Historical survey. Surplus or deficit of water, mainly caused by Persia’s topography, undergoes seasonal variations with decisively stronger precipitation during the winter months, which explains why floods occur predominantly during these periods. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 1, pp. 39-43 i. GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY A common saying holds that probably more people died in deserts by being drowned than by thirst. Such a statement indicates that even in extremely dry …
Date: 2013-05-28

GONBAD-E QĀBUS

(2,345 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | M. Momeni, | EIr | Habib-Allāh Zanjāni | Sheila S. Blair
(now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province ( šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012). A version of this article is available in print Volume XI, Fascicle 2, pp. 126-129 GONBAD-E QĀBUS (KĀVUS), city and sub-province in the Golestān Province. i. GEOGRAPHY The city of Gonbad-e Qābus (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative…
Date: 2013-06-04

ĀB-E GARM

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
There is a special kind of spring, the karst spring, in areas which have no consistent water table. The water usually collects in great clefts within chalky formations or flows in a subterranean channel and often includes the best-known springs in Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume 1, Fascicle 1, pp. 43-46 ĀB-E GARM “warm water”: hot springs and mineral springs in Iran (Figure 10). Springs in general. Springs are defined as places on the earth’s surface where underground water fed by rainfall issues forth either continuously or periodically…
Date: 2016-06-22

GAČSĀRĀN

(390 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume X, Fascicle 3, pp. 245 GAČSĀRĀN, town and oilfield in the province of Ḵūzestān, southwestern Persia. Gačsārān, located in the arid foothills of the Zagros, approximately 70 to 80 km southeast of Behbahān, owes its growth to the discovery of oil, which was found there in 1928. Gačsārān subsequently developed into one of the most important oilfields in Persia. It has been exploited commercially since …
Date: 2013-05-29

HYDROLOGY

(3,623 words)

Author(s): ECKART EHLERS | XAVIER DE PLANHOL
i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology. A version of this article is available in print Volume XII, Fascicle 6, pp. 596-600 i. IRANIAN PLATEAU. See ĀB. ii. SOUTHWESTERN PERSIA From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part o…
Date: 2013-06-11

ĀBŠŪR RŪD

(400 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
“salt river.” The name ābšūr is very common in Iran for those rivers with a high salt content. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 247-248 ĀBŠŪR RŪD “salt river.” The name ābšūr is very common in Iran for those rivers with a high salt content. Salt may generally arrive from two sources: firstly, from minerals of the soil which are transported to the surface by the upward direction of groundwater and by soil-water evaporation due to the arid climate of most of Iran (see Kavīr); secondly, from solu…
Date: 2016-07-22

ĀBĪ

(256 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Persian term for those agricultural lands which are irrigated. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 2, pp. 217 ĀBĪ, Persian term for those agricultural lands which are irrigated; unirrigated (i.e., rain-fed) fields are called daymī (see discussion s.v. Agriculture). Cf. also the more specialized term fāyrāb/pāyrāb, applied to lands irrigated by diversion of river water. The two traditional forms of irrigation are diversion of stream water and use of the qanāt; both can be traced to pre-Achaemenid times and may be seen as causes of the early…
Date: 2016-07-21

ALBORZ

(8,076 words)

Author(s): W. Eilers | Mary Boyce | Marcel Bazin | Eckart Ehlers | Bernard Hourcade
modern Persian name for the east-west massif in northern Iran, lying south of the Caspian districts. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 8, pp. 810-821 ALBORZ (ELBORZ, ELBORS), modern Persian name for the east-west massif in northern Iran, lying south of the Caspian districts. ALBORZ i. The Name The more ancient name of the range is not known; perhaps, however, the Assyrian name Bikni designated Mt. Damāvand, the volcanic cone (5,600 m) northeast of Tehran. In the Sasanian period part of the region may have been known by the Middle Persian Padišxwār-gar (F. Sp…
Date: 2017-12-05

ĀBŠĪNA HAMADĀN RŪD

(203 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
name of a drainage system that covers several streams and small rivers along the eastern flank of the Alvand Kūh; it flows north into the kavīr of Qom. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 3, pp. 247 ĀBŠĪNA HAMADĀN RŪD, name of a drainage system that covers several streams and small rivers along the eastern flank of the Alvand Kūh; it flows north into the kavīr of Qom. The annual discharge of this river system varies between approx. 100 million cu m and 500 million cu m, depending on the amount of winter precipitation and the consequen…
Date: 2016-07-22

ĀBYĀR

(121 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Title of the person given official charge of the irrigation of ābī “irrigated” lands. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 4, pp. 405 ĀBYĀR, title of the person given official charge of the irrigation of ābī “irrigated” lands. He may be a farmer or sharecropper elected by the cultivators, in those villages where farmers work their own land (see Ḵorda-mālek, and Raʿīyat), or he may be appointed by a landlord. The ābyār’s duty is to oversee the just and equal distribution of irrigation water; he is compensated by either a share in the produce of the ābī lands or a fix…
Date: 2016-08-02

CLOUDS

(626 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Large tracts of central Persia and the adjacent arid plateaus of Afghanistan lie under cloudless skies for most of the year, which contributes to typical “contiꏂnental” climatic conditions. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 8, pp. 870-871 CLOUDS (Skt. abhrá-, Av. aβra-, Sogd. ʾβr, Khot. pyaurā- [< * pari-abrā-, but aurā- “sky”], Pashto wryaj fem. [< * abračī], Pers. abr, etc.; see Bailey, Dictionary, pp. 47a, 256b), masses of condensed water vapor. Four general categories are differentiated: high clouds, clouds at medium elevation…
Date: 2013-07-10

ALLĀHO AKBAR, KŪH-E

(278 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
a mountain range that forms part of the northern rim of the Khorasan trench in northeastern Iran, to the north of the city of Qūčān. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 8, pp. 890-891 ALLĀHO AKBAR, KŪH-E, a mountain range that forms part of the northern rim of the Khorasan trench in northeastern Iran, to the north of the city of Qūčān. The massif is almost 100 km long and rises to a height of over 3,000 m. It links Kopet-Dag (Qobba Dāḡ) in the northwest with Hazār Masǰed in the southeast and is regarded b…
Date: 2017-11-10

DAŠT

(479 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
lit. "plain, open ground"; Persian term for a very specific type of landscape, the extended gravel piedmonts and plains that are almost ubiquitous in arid central Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 1, pp. 94-95 DAŠT (plain, open ground) ,Persian term for a very specific type of landscape. In scientific geographical literature it is applied to the extended gravel piedmonts and plains that are almost ubiquitous in arid central Persia. Sloping down from the upper reaches of the mountains and highlands, dašt areas are built up by more or less c…
Date: 2013-10-04

BOJNŪRD

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Hossein Nejatian | Eckart Ehlers | C. Edmund Bosworth
a town and district in Khorasan. i. The town and district. ii. History. The town (1976: 47,719 inhabitants; lat 37°29’ N, long 57°17’ E) is situated at the foot of the Ālādāḡ. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 3, pp. 326-327 BOJNŪRD, a town and district in Khorasan. i. The Town and District The town of Bojnūrd (1976: 47,719 inhabitants), situated at 37°29’ north latitude and 57°17’ east longitude at the foot of the Ālādāḡ (q.v.) and in the center of the Khorasan trench, is of relatively recent origin. Possibly founded b…
Date: 2016-12-02

ASTARĀBĀD BAY

(344 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 840-841 ASTARĀBĀD BAY, also known as Gorgān Bay or Ḵalīǰ-e Gorgān, is a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea. It is some 40 km long and only a few meters deep. It is separated from the Caspian Sea proper by the Mīānkāla peninsula, a narrow tongue of land which consists largely of sand dunes and extends almost the length of the lagoon. As a result of the drop in …
Date: 2016-10-03

DRAINAGE

(869 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
the carrying away of excess surface water through runoff in permanent or intermittent streams. Persia can be divided into four main drainage regions: the Caspian region, the Lake Urmia region, the Persian Gulf region, and the interior. Most of it is characterized by endorheic basins, that is, by interior drainage. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 5, pp. 526-529 DRAINAGE, the carrying away of excess surface water through runoff in permanent or intermittent streams. On Persian territory, because of seasonal variations in the …
Date: 2017-02-17

ĀLĀ DĀḠ

(417 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
name of a number of mountains in Iran; of Turkish origin, the words mean “colored mountain.” A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 769 ĀLĀ DĀḠ, name of a number of mountains in Iran; of Turkish origin, the words mean “colored mountain.” Many mountains or mountain ranges in Turkey or regions inhabited by Turkman peoples, including Soviet central Asia and Siberia, bear this name. In Iran there are several mountains or smaller massifs known (often only to local inhabitants) as Ālā Dāḡ, especial…
Date: 2016-09-19

BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

(1,618 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 5, pp. 551-553 BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS, central part of the Zagros mountain range, more or less identical to the settlement area of the Baḵtīārī nomads. The Baḵtīārī mountains…
Date: 2016-10-24

ČAHĀR MAḤĀ(L) WA BAḴTĪĀRĪ

(1,443 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Hūšang Kešāvarz
second smallest province (ostān) of Persia in area, located in the Zagros mountains of southwestern Persia. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 6, pp. 620-621 ČAHĀR MAḤĀ(L) WA BAḴTĪĀRĪ, second smallest province ( ostān) of Persia in area (Farajī et al., II, p. 533; after Kūhgīlūya wa Boir Aḥmad with 14,261 km2, ibid., p. 967), located in the Zagros mountains of southwestern Persia. It covers an area of 14,870 km2 (14,820 km2 acc. to Farajī et al., II, p. 533) between 31.14° and 32.47° N and between 49.49° and 51.24° E, bounded by the provi…
Date: 2013-05-07

ECOLOGY

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
the study of organisms, both flora and fauna, in relation to their environments. Five primary ecological regions in Persia each have a characteristic combination of features: Caspian lowlands, Alborz system and mountains in Khorasan, Persian plateau, Zagros system. Makrān mountains, and the Persian Gulf lowlands. A version of this article is available in print Volume VIII, Fascicle 1, pp. 84-88 ECOLOGY, the study of organisms, both flora and fauna, in relation to their environments. The biosphere generally encompasses the thin outer shell of the earth, w…
Date: 2016-10-01

BEHŠAHR

(730 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
older Ašraf, a town situated at 36°41′55ʹ north latitude and 53°32′30ʹ east longitude in the eastern part of central Māzandarān. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 2, pp. 113 BEHŠAHR, older Ašraf, a town situated at 36°41′55ʹ north latitude and 53°32′30ʹ east longitude in the eastern part of central Māzandarān, 35 miles east of Sārī and 43 miles west of Gorgān. It is located halfway between the foothills of the Alborz to the south and the Caspian Sea (Astarābād Bay/Ḵalīj-e Gorgān) which is five mi…
Date: 2016-11-11

ČĀH-BAHĀR

(2,192 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
Name of a town and bay on the Makrān coast of Persian Baluchistan facing the coast of Oman. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 6, pp. 642-644 ČĀH-BAHĀR (in Western sources written Chahbar, Charbar, Chobar), name of a town and bay on the Makrān coast of Persian Baluchistan facing the coast of Oman. The bay is a shallow (6-9 fathoms) semicircular inlet eleven by ten miles in area and accessible only to moderate-sized vessels. It is surrounded by lowlands except at the mouth, about eight miles wide…
Date: 2013-05-07

AGRICULTURE in Iran

(6,202 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 6, pp. 613-623 AGRICULTURE in Iran. The rural economy, for millennia the economic and social basis for all Persian governments, is characterized by a series of ecological and economic restraints that have hampered its development. While the natural limitations of …
Date: 2016-08-05

BAḴTAGĀN LAKE

(377 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz. At present, it is common to divide the basin of the Nīrīz into a northern portion ( daryāča-ye Ṭašk) and a larger southern part ( daryāča-ye Baḵtagān). A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 5, pp. 538-539 BAḴTAGĀN LAKE, part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz. Originally identical with the Nīrīz lake itself, it has be…
Date: 2016-10-21

ASK SPRINGS

(338 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
The Ask springs, like those in other places around the base of Damāvand, are as yet used only by the local inhabitants. It remains to be seen whether they would repay commercial development (in the form of spa baths, bottling plants, etc.). A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 7, pp. 767-768 ASK SPRINGS (Figure 53). Situated at the foot of Damāvand (5,670 m) in the valley of the Harāz-rūd, Ask is one of a number of places in the Alborz where one finds thermal mineral springs (see Āb-e Garm). The town itself is 1,700m abov…
Date: 2016-09-30

ĀJĪ ČĀY

(475 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
(Talḵa-rūd, “Bitter river”), a river some 200 km in length which flows into Lake Urumia. Due to the mountain origins of many of its source rivers and tributaries, the flow of the river shows marked seasonal variations. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 701-702 ĀJĪ ČĀY ( Talḵa-rūd, “Bitter river”), a river some 200 km in length which rises on the western flank of Kūh-e Sabalān near Sarāb and flows into Lake Urmia (Reżāʾīya) near the town of Gogān. In its upper and middle reaches, east of Tabrīz, numerous small …
Date: 2016-09-14

BĪNĀLŪD, KŪH-E

(407 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
mountain range in northeastꏂern Iran between Mašhad in the east and Nīšāpūr in the west with elevations of up to 3,211 m. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 3, pp. 261-262 BĪNĀLŪD, KŪH-E, mountain range in northeastern Iran between Mašhad in the east and Nīšāpūr in the west with elevations of up to 3,211 m. Geologically, the Bīnālūd ranges are of special importance as the orographic link between the Paropamisus mountains (belonging to the Hindu Kush system) and the Alborz of northern Iran. Due to th…
Date: 2013-04-26

BĪĀBĀNAK

(549 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
a group of isolated oasis settlements in central Iran, stretching over an area of 70 by 90 miles of what is mostly desert. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 2, pp. 196 BĪĀBĀNAK, a group of oasis settlements in central Iran. Located approximately between 54° 15’ and 55° 15’ E and 35° 10’ N, these isolated desert settlements stretch over an area of 70 by 90 miles of what is mostly desert. The administrative district of Ḵūr (Ḵᵛor)-Bīābānak is one of three baḵšes in the šahrestān of Nāʾīn. The whole district is bounded in the north by the salt swamps of t…
Date: 2016-11-21

CLIMATE

(3,441 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
The Persian national weather service first began publishing its observations only in the year 1956, when a network of synoptic observation stations was first constructed in conforꏂmity with international standards; detailed data for many parts of the country are thus available for only about twenty-five or thirty years. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 7, pp. 707-713 CLIMATE. Both the climate of Persia as a whole and the differences in weather among its various regions are determined primarily by its location within the ari…
Date: 2013-11-18

ČAŠMA

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
“spring.” Iran and Afghanistan, as well as wide parts of Central Asia, have a great variety of natural springs. A very general classification divides all springs into (1) those produced by gravity acting on the groundwater, (2) those that have their origins in tectonic volcanic forces within the earth’s crust. A version of this article is available in print Volume V, Fascicle 1, pp. 37-38 ČAŠMA (spring). Although mainly characterized by dry and arid climatic conditions, Iran and Afghanistan, as well as wide parts of Central Asia, have a great variety of natur…
Date: 2016-10-12

ALVAND KŪH

(563 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
mountain range near Hamadān, an isolated massif at a point of junction between the Zagros folds and the central Iranian plateau. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 9, pp. 915-916 ALVAND KŪH, mountain range near Hamadān, an isolated massif at a point of junction between the Zagros folds and the central Iranian plateau. It consists mainly of intrusive granites and diorites, which were thrust through geosynclinal sediments in tectonic processes connected with the orogenesis of the Zagros in late Jurassi…
Date: 2017-12-01

ĀSTĀNA

(996 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Marcel Bazin, | Christian Bromberger
a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 837 ĀSTĀNA, town and district in the province of Gilān. The town, also called Āstāna-ye ašrafiya, is located at lat 37°16′ N, long 49°57′ E, along the highway between Rasht and Lāhijān and approximately 2 miles to the east of its crossing of the Safidrud. Āstāna, although only a small community, is of regional importance because of the Emāmzāda Čenār Pādšāh. This shrine, established und…
Date: 2016-10-03

COTTON

(11,030 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Ahmad Parsa | Hassan Hakimian | Daniel Balland
Cotton ( panba < Mid. Pers. pambag; katān; in Isfahan kolūza; genus Gossypium), particularly the short-staple species Gossypium herbaceum, is cultivated in almost all parts of Persia, and is of great economic importance both for home consumption and for export. A version of this article is available in print Volume VI, Fascicle 3, 4, pp. 333-351 COTTON, (panba < Mid. Pers. pambag; katān; in Isfahan kolūza; genus Gossypium), particularly the short-staple species Gossypium herbaceum, is cultivated in almost all parts of Persia, and is of great economic importance both …
Date: 2013-08-15

BĪJĀR

(396 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers
a town and a šahrestān (county) in the Kurdistan province of Iran. The town, which has the highest elevation in Iran (1,920 m), lies ca. 120 miles north-northwest of Hamadān. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 3, pp. 254 BĪJĀR, a town and a šahrestān (county) in the Kurdistan province of Iran. The town, which has the highest elevation in Iran (1,920 m), lies ca. 120 miles north-northwest of Hamadān, on the old route from this city to Tabrīz, and is a center of an important and internationally renowned carpet ind…
Date: 2013-04-26
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