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Picpus-Gesellschaft

(300 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). Die nach dem früheren Mutterhaus in der Pariser Rue de Picpus benannte Kongregation besteht aus einem männlichen (Picpus-Patres; in Deutschland ist auch die Bez. »Arnsteiner Patres« geläufig nach ihrer ersten dt. Niederlassung in Arnstein/Lahn) und einem weiblichen Zweig (Picpus-Schwestern, Ze´latrices) und wurde Ende des 18.Jh. unter dem Eindruck der Franz. Revolution von Hen…

Salesianerinnen

(218 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Visitantinnen, Schwestern von der Heimsuchung Mariä, Ordo de Visitatione Beatae Mariae Virginis, OVM, VSM), 1610 in Annecy (Frankreich) durch Franz von Sales und J.F. F. de Chantal als kontemplative Gemeinschaft mit einfachen Gelübden und milder Klausur zum Zweck der Hausarmen- und Krankenpflege gegründet. Auf Drängen des Erzbf. von Lyon 1618 Annahme der Augustinerregel, der feierlichen Gelübde sowie der päpstl. Klausur, weswegen man sich auf die Unterhaltung von Mädchenpensiona…

Paulisten

(144 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Paulist Fathers; Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), 1858 durch den Konvertiten I. Th. Hecker (1819–1888; 1848–1857 Redemptorist) in New York zur Gewinnung möglichst vieler Amerikaner für den kath. Glauben gegründet. Die Regel der P. ist an die Redemptoristen angelehnt, aber ohne feierliche Gelübde. Die P. vertraten eine kulturfreundliche Richtung innerhalb des Katholizismus und waren daher in die »Amerikanismus«-Kontroverse an der Wende vom 19. zum…

Somasker

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), 1534 in Somasca (Lombardei, Italien) durch den venezianischen Adeligen Gerolamo Miani (Emiliani, hl., um 1486–1537) im Geiste der Kath. Reform als »Gesellschaft der Knechte der Armen« (Compagnia dei Servi dei poveri) gegründeter Regularklerikerorden für pastorale, sozial-karitative und päd. Aufgaben (bes. Waisenerziehung). Nach schwieriger Anfangsphase Konsolidierung, aber um 1800 fast untergegangen. Langsame, bis ins 20.J…

Silvestriner

(159 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Sylvestriner, Congregatio Silvestrina Ordinis Sancti Benedicti, CSilvOSB), 1231 durch den Eremiten Silvestro Guzzolini (um 1177–1267) in Montefano bei Fabriano (Italien) gegründete Benediktiner-Reformkongregation, die Innozenz IV. 1247 als »Ordo S. Benedicti de Montefano« anerkannte. Die Benediktsregel wurde durch eremitische und mendikantische Interpretation verschärft (kleine Konvente, Handarbeit und Bettel). Unter dem vierten Generalprior Andrea di Giacomo da Fabriano (1298–1…

Oratorianer

(377 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . I.Oratorianer des hl. Filippo Neri (Oratorium der göttl. Liebe, Nerianeroratorium, Filippini, Institutum Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii), Gemeinschaft von Weltpriestern, die im Geiste F. Neris ein gemeinsames Leben in Gebet und seelsorglicher Tätigkeit, nur geeint durch das Band gegenseitiger Liebe, aber ohne Gelübde und bindende Versprechen (allerdings mit 1612 approbierten Statuten), führt. Entstanden 1552 in Rom aus Zusammenkünften mit dem Gründer im Betsaal (lat. oratorium) von des…

Unbefleckte Empfängnis, Orden von der Unbefleckten Empfängnis

(357 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Es existieren zahlreiche Kongregationen dieses Namens, die bes. nach der Dogmatisierung der U.E. Mariens 1854 gegründet wurden. – Die mitgliederstärksten (Stand: 2000) sind: Brüder der Unbefleckten Empfängnis von Maastricht (Congregatio Fratrum Immaculatae Conceptionis Beatae Mariae Virginis, FIC), 1840 in Maastricht (Holland) von Ludwig Hubert Rutten (1809–1891) und Jacob Adrian Hoecken (1810–1880) zu Jugend- und Lehrerausbildung sowie sozialpäd. Arbeit gegründet. Mit etwa 400 Mitgliedern in Holland, Belg…

Oblaten

(789 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] I. Pueri oblati O. (von lat. oblati, »Dargebrachte«) sind bereits in altkirchl. Zeit belegt. Eltern oder Vormünder brachten Kinder für den Mönchsstand dar und übergaben damit – nach atl. Vorbild (Simson, Samuel) – Gott ihr Kostbarstes. Juridische Grundlage war die väterliche Verfügungsgewalt der jüd. und röm. Rechtstradition. In den alten Mönchsregeln ist die Oblation ausdrücklich vorgesehen (Benediktsregel, Kap.59), wobei die II. Trullanische Synode 692 (c.40; Quinisextum) zehn Ja…

Retraite

(166 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Retraite, Ordensschwestern. Im Frankreich des 17.Jh. zur Ermöglichung von Exerzitien für Frauen entstandene Gemeinschaften, die alsbald Exerzitienhäuser einrichteten. Vorbildgebende Gründung waren die »Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite« (Töchter der allerseligsten Jungfrau von der Zurückgezogenheit) von Vannes (1674) mit ignatianischer Regel (Ignatius von Loyola) und einfachen Gelübden. Nach dem Untergang dieser Vereinigungen in der Franz. Revolution Restauration im 19.Jh.…

Sulpizianer

(169 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Prêtres du Clergé, Congregatio Sulpitiensis, Societas Presbyterorum a Sancto Sulpitio, PSS), 1641 durch Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), Pfarrer von St.-Sulpice in Paris, zur Erziehung und spirituellen Formung von Theologiestudenten und Priestern gemäß dem Trienter Seminardekret gegründete Weltpriesterkongregation (ohne Gelübde), benannt nach Erzbf. Sulpicius II. von Bourges (615–647). Die S., deren Frömmigkeit christologisch, eucharistisch und marianisch geprägt und stark von Pi…

Regularkleriker

(244 words)

Author(s): Eder , Manfred
[English Version] (clerici regulares) sind im weiteren Sinne klerikale Mitglieder eines Ordens oder einer Kongregation im Gegensatz zu den Welt- bzw. Diözesanklerikern (clerici saeculares), wobei diese Bez. im MA und der frühen Neuzeit auch für Regularkanoniker (Chorherren/ Kanoniker) Verwendung fand. Im engeren Sinne sind die Mitglieder der im Zeichen der Kath. Reform neuentstandenen klerikalen Ordensgemeinschaften des 16./17.Jh. gemeint. Deren Kennzeichen sind das gemeinsame Leben nach den Evang…

Terziaren/Terziarinnen

(360 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Tertiarier, -innen), Mitglieder eines Dritten Ordens (tertius ordo). I.Weltliche Terziaren/Terziarinnen. Vereinigungen von Männern oder Frauen, die sich seit dem 11./12.Jh. zur Erreichung rel. oder sozialer Ziele an den männlichen (Erster Orden) oder weiblichen (Zweiter Orden) Zweig bestehender Orden anschlossen, insbes. an die im 13.Jh. entstehenden Bettelorden. Der wichtigste war und ist bis heute der Franziskanische Dritte Orden (Tertius Ordo Franciscanus, TOF; Franziskaner/Franziska…

Olivetaner

(165 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio S. Mariae Montis Oliveti OSB; Ordo S. Benedicti Montis Oliveti, OSBOliv), streng zentralistisch organisierte benediktinische Reformkongregation mit zeitlich begrenzten Ämtern, häufiger Versetzung der Mönche sowie eremitisch und marianisch geprägter Spiritualität. Initiiert durch Bernardo Tolomei (selig, 1272–1348), der sich um 1313 mit einigen Gefährten auf dem Monte Oliveto bei Siena (Italien) niederließ. Rasche, aber auf Mittel- und Oberitalien beschränkte Ausbreit…

Trappisten, Reformierte Zisterzienser

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Cisterciensium Reformatorum, OCR), Zisterzienser von der Streng(er)en Observanz (Ordo Cisterciensium Strictioris Observantiae, OCSO), gehen zurück auf das Zisterzienserkloster La Trappe (Normandie), in dem Abt A.-J.  Le Bouthillier de Rancé 1664 eine von rigoristischer Bußstrenge gekennzeichnete Reform durchführte. Da die 1794 im Exil zu Valsainte (Schweiz) gegründete Kongregation von La Trappe deutliche Distanz zum alten Orden zeigte und in sich zerstritten war, teilte sie…

Passionisten

(265 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio Passionis Jesu Christi, CP), 1720 als klerikale Kongregation durch den Einsiedler und Bußprediger Paul vom Kreuz (Paolo Francesco Danei [hl., 1694–1775]) unter dem Namen »Unbeschuhte Kleriker vom Heiligsten Kreuz und Leiden unseres Herrn Jesus Christus« auf dem Monte Argentario bei Orbetello (Italien) gegründet. Sondergelübde der Verehrung und Verkündigung des Leidens und Sterbens Jesu Christi; Betonung der kontemplativen Lebensform, daneben Wanderpredigt, Volksmissi…

Rosminianer

(95 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), 1828 auf dem Monte Calvario bei Domodossola (Norditalien) von A. Rosmini-Serbati gegründet. Die Kongregation, deren Mitglieder einfache ewige Gelübde ablegen und ihr Privatvermögen behalten, besteht aus Priestern, Klerikern sowie Laienbrüdern und betätigt sich in Unterricht, Intellektuellenapostolat, Auswandererbetreuung und Mission. Derzeit (2001) gibt es etwa 400 Religiosen in Italien, England, Irland, den USA, Indien und Afrika …

Petrus, katholische Ordensgenossenschaften vom heiligen Apostel

(246 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Petrus, katholische Ordensgenossenschaften vom heiligen Apostel, bez. nur wenige, heute nicht mehr existierende oder mitgliederschwache Gemeinschaften. Erwähnung verdienen: 1.Congre´gation de St-Pierre. 1828 von den Brüdern Jean-Marie-Robert (1780–1860) und Hugo-Fe´licite´-Robert (1782–1854) de La Mennais in La Che^naie (Bretagne, Frankreich) als Ersatz für die unterdrückten Jesuiten mit dem Grundsatz unverbrüchlicher Treue zum Nachfolger Petri gegründet. Innerhalb weniger Jahre über 60 Mitglieder …

Schwestern vom armen Kinde Jesu

(149 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Zusters van het Arme Kind Jesus, PIJ), 1844 in Aachen von K. Fey zu Erziehung und Unterricht armer und verlassener Mädchen gegründete Kongregation päpstl. Rechts. 1872 fast 700 Schwestern in 25, meist im Rheinland gelegenen Filialen mit ca.13 500 Zöglingen. Infolge des Kulturkampfes 1878 Verlegung des Mutterhauses nach Simpelveld (Holland, »Haus Loreto«). Nach der Wiederzulassung in Deutschland 1887 im höheren Mädchenschulwesen und in der Pensionatserziehung tätig. Heute in Euro…

Rosminians

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), founded by A. Rosmini-Serbati in 1828 on Monte Calvario near Domodosolla in northern Italy. The members of the congregation take simple life vows and retain their personal assets. The congregation includes priests and lay brothers, who engage in educational work, apostolate to intellectuals, care for emigrants, and mission. As of 2001, there were some 400 religious in Italy, England, Ireland, the United States, India, and Africa; th…

Little Brothers/Sisters of Jesus

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Petits Frères de Jésus/Petites Soeurs de Jésus), established in 1933 by René Voillaume (1905–2003) and in 1939 by Elisabeth Hutin (1898–1989) in Algeria in the spirit of C.-E.V. de Foucauld (today congregations of papal right). These small communities (two to four brothers and four to five sisters) live a life of poverty, work, and worship in the midst of a socially difficult, dechristianized or non-Christian (esp. Muslim) environment (without any institutions of their own) and p…

Retraite, Sisters of La

(180 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] In 17th-century France, communities arose to facilitate spiritual exercises for women; soon afterward they began building retreat houses. An outstanding example was the house of the Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite (Daughters of Our Lady of Retreat) in Vannes (1674); the sisters followed the Ignatian rule (Ignatius of Loyola) and took simple vows. These communities perished during the French Revolution, but the sisterhood was restored in the 19th century, transformed into…

Teutonic Order

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Origins The origins of an Ordo fratrum hospitalis sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Ierosolymitanorum are said to date back ¶ to a hospital of Mary in Jerusalem in the first half of the 12th century. The spiritual order of knights arose in 1198/1199 from a hospital brotherhood that was set up during the Third Crusade (1189/1190) near Acre by merchants from Lübeck and Bremen. Because they were supported both by German crusaders and the Hohen­staufen, most members came from the Empire, and their estates…

John of God, Saint

(135 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (João de Deo, Juan de Dios; actually: João Cuidad; 1495, Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal – Mar 8, 1550, Granada), canonized in 1690, founder of the Merciful Brothers and Sisters and innovator in the care for and assistance of those in need. Converted in 1539 by John of Avila, John devoted his life to the care of the sick (including the mentally ill) and the poor. In 1540, he established his own hospital in Granada, which became the prototype of the modern hospital because of the novel c…

Somaschi

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Clericorum Regularium a Somasc[h]a, CRS), an order of regular clergy founded in Somasca, Lombardy, in 1534 by the Venetian noble Gerolamo Miani (St. Emiliani, c. 1486–1537) in the spirit of Catholic reform as a Compagnia dei Servi deipoveri (“Society of servants of the poor”). It was to have a pastoral, charitable, and educational apostolate, focused especially on education of orphans. After a difficult beginning, the order consolidated but almost died out c. 1800. Later it experienced a slow revival, which las…

Claretians

(184 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] A missionary society founded in 1849 in Vic (Spain) by A.M. Claret. The men's branch (Mission Society of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, CMF; Immaculate Conception, Orders of the), whose constitutions were given papal approval in 1870 and renewed after Vatican II, has always devoted itself to missionary service of the word (popular missions, religious exercises, school teaching, press apostolate, pastoral care beyond the parish, mission…

Regular Clergy

(317 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( clerici regulares) in the broad sense are clerical members of an order or congregation, in contrast to secular or diocesan clergy ( clerici saeculares); in the Middle Ages and the early modern period, the term was extended to include canons regular. In the narrow sense, the term denotes the members of the new religious orders formed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the name of Catholic reform. They are characterized by life in community based on the counsels of perfection and solemn vows. Instead of r…

Stigmatines

(167 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Stigmatines (Stimmatini, Bertoniani, Congregatio Presbyterorum a Sacris Stigmatibus Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, CSS, CPS), founded in Verona (northern Italy) in 1816 by the popular missionary Gaspare Bertoni (1777–1853). Following the model of the previously suppressed Jesuits, the Stigmatines were intended as a missionary and educational ministry. As of 2009, there were 441 members, primarily in Italy, Brazil, the United States, and South Africa. The generalate is in Rome. II. Stigmatine Sisters (Stimmatine, Povere Figlie delle Sacre Stimmate di S…

Fey, Klara

(187 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Clara; Apr 11, 1815, Aachen – May 8, 1894, Simpelveld, The Netherlands) was the daughter of a factory owner. Heavily influenced by her teacher L. Hensel, she found her way to charitable work at an early age. With the help of two friends, she opened a school for abandoned and neglected girls in 1837, for whose care and education she founded the congregation of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus in 1844. The mother-house in Aachen as well as many subsidiary houses having been disbanded in the wake of the Kulturkampf , the founder of the order and lifel…

Peter, Catholic Orders of Saint

(269 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] There have been few orders of St. Peter; most no longer exist or have few members. Three deserve mention. 1. Congrégation de St-Pierre. The congregation was founded in La Chênaie (Brittany) in 1828 by Jean-Marie-Robert de La Mennais (1780–1860) and his brother Hugo-Félicité-Robert (1782–1854). Intended to replace the suppressed Jesuits, it had as its guiding principle absolute loyalty to the successor of St. Peter. Within a few years, it had over 60 members (including J.B.H. Lacordaire, P.L.P. Guéran…

Vincentians/Lazarists

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Missionis, CM; also Vincentian Fathers, Preti della Missione), founded in Paris in 1625 by Vincent de Paul to evangelize the rural French population through home missions (Mission to the People). Their apostolate soon expanded to include the training of priests, leading retreats (Exercises, Spiritual), spiritual guidance of the sisterhoods established by Vincent, pastoral care of prisoners and galley slaves, and foreign missions (after 1645; after 1697 in China, where…

Salvatorians

(250 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Society of the Divine Savior, Societas Divini Salvatoris), founded in Rome in 1881 by Johann Baptist Jordan (1848–1918) as the Apostolic Teaching Society, is a congregation of priests with a broad apostolic ministry, primarily in the area of the Catholic press and in mission (India, South America, China, Africa). “Healing” is the central theme of Salvatorian spirituality; their Marian focus is indicated by their veneration of Mary as the mother of the Savior ( Maria Mater Salvatoris). The congregation quickly spread throughout the world – in the 19th cen…

Orders, Catholic

(2,640 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Concept and Definition – II. History – III. Membership I. Concept and Definition Orders are organized associations of religious communities. The constituent element of belonging to an order ( status religiosus) is a longterm commitment to a particularly close discipleship to Christ (Discipleship, Christian) to the glory of God, the edification of the church, and the salvation of the world ( CIC/1983, c. 573). This way of life is usually set (c. 575) by the evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection (Perfection, Counsels of; poverty, c…

Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus

(178 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Zusters van het Arme Kind Jesus, PIJ), founded as a congregation under papal law in Aachen in 1844 by K. Fey for the education of poor and abandoned girls. In 1872 there were almost 700 sisters in 25 houses, mostly in the Rhineland, with some 13,500 alumnae. As a result of the Kulturkampf, the mother house was moved to Simpelveld in Holland in 1878 (“Loretto House”). After they were readmitted in Germany in 1887, the sisters worked in higher education for girls and boarding schoo…

Doctrinarians

(210 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Congregatio Patrum Doctrinae Christianae, DC). The Congregation of Doctrinarians (Pères Doctrinaires) that exists today was founded in 1592 in Avignon by César de Bus (1544–1607) and arose out of ¶ communities of priests and laity for providing religious instruction (Confraternities of Christian doctrine). Combined with the Somaschi from 1616 to 1647, it was able to develop independently from that time as a Catholic …

Loreto, Sisters of

(284 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] 1. Sisters of Loretto at the Foot of the Cross, founded in 1812 in Hardin's Creek near Louisville (KY, USA) by Charles Nerinckx (1761–1824) for the education of the youth. It was the first female congregation in the United States that originated without the assistance of a European community. The sisters were active in the China mission from 1923 to 1951. Today, there are about 600 sisters (as of 1995) in the United States and Latin America (motherhouse: Nerinx, KY). 2. Loreto Sisters (Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary), one of the five branches of the Ins…

Feuillants

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Feuillants are a reform order of the Cistercians (separated 1592) named for the abbey at Feuillant (Lat. Fulium) near Toulouse and founded by abbot Jean-Baptiste de la Barrière O. Cist (1544–1600). It is characterized by rigorous intensification of the observance of the rule (going barefoot, sleeping on boards, kneeling to eat) and liturgical peculiarities. In 1630, it divided into a French congregation with 33 monasteries (abolished in the French Revolution) and an Italian congregation with 43…

Salesians

(404 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Missionaries of St. Francis of Sales (Missionnaires de St. François de Sales d’Annecy), a congregation founded in 1838 in Annecy (France) by Pierre-Marie Mermier (1790–1862) for pastoral and missionary ministry in the spirit of Francis of Sales. In 1845 the congregation was already working in India, where today more than 75% of its members live; as “Fransalians” they exercise a pastoral and educational ministry and engage in scientific research. Today there are over 1,200 members. Their generalate is in Annecy. II. Oblates of St. Francis of Sales (see Oblates: II…

Minims

(338 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Ordo Minimorum: OM; also: Paulans). The order of the Minims was founded in 1454 by Francis of Paula in Calabria (Italy) as the “Hermits of St. Francis of Assisi” for the purpose of leading an even more austere life than that stipulated by St. Francis for the Friars Minor (Minorites). The order's distinguishing marks are humility and penitence (the superior is designated “corrector”), in addition to a special vow of lifelong fasting that only allows a diet of bread, water, oil, fru…

Relief Organizations, Catholic (Germany)

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] These are predominantly internationally oriented organizations, which aim to offer aid through solidarity and partnership, to work for development and peace, mission and the proclamation of the gospel. In Germany, they include: Adveniat (Essen), diocesan action to support ministry among impoverished peoples in Latin America (est. 1961). Bonifatiuswerk (until 1967: Bonifatiusverein für das katholische Deutschland; Paderborn), for support of ministry amongst the Catholic diaspora in…

Love/Charity Orders, Religious

(641 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Many religious communities have the word love or caritas ( carità, charité, charity, etc.) in their name, referring to love of ¶ God and neighbor and usually further qualified as love of Christ, love of Mary, and so on (Merciful Brothers and Sisters of, Borromeans, Grey Brothers and Sisters, Good Shepherd Sisters, Rosminians, Vincentian Sisters). Frères de la Charité (Brothers of Charity; Congregatio Fratrum a Caritate, FC), founded as a lay congregation in 1807 in Ghent (Belgium) by the priest Pierre- Joseph Triest (1760–1836); today…

Good Shepherd Sisters

(381 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The image of Christ as the Good Shepherd has been an obvious model and name for religious orders devoted to social and charitable work. The most important women's order of this nature is the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (Soeurs de Notre Dame de Charité du Bon-Pasteur), a sizeable offshoot of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity (of the Refuge), founded at Caen in France by Jean Eudes (Eudist Fathers, Jesus and Mary, Congregation of) in 1644. The order was reco…

Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, Societies, Orders, and Congregations of

(943 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The rise of Catholic orders whose apostolate is connected to the veneration of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and is borne by the associated spirituality, is directly related to the spread of the public and liturgical cults of the Heart of Jesus and the Heart of Mary as they prevailed from the 18th century, especially in France. With reference to the Heart of Mary societies, the dedication of the world to the Heart of Mary – a goal envisaged since the 19th century and attained in 1…

Mercedarians

(365 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Ordo Beatae Mariae Virginis de Mercede redemptionis captivorum, OdeM; also: Nolascans). The Order of the Mercedarians was founded in Barcelona in 1218(?) by Pierre Nolasque (also known as Nolasco; c. 1189–1256) as a lay congregation of knights committed to the ransoming of Christian slaves from the Muslims of southern Spain and North Africa (today: deliverance from every form of social, political, and psychological enslavement). The ransom money was raised through the sale of real estat…

Immaculate Conception, Order of the

(438 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Numerous congregations of this name exist. Most of them were founded after 1854, the year in which the immaculate conception of Mary became a dogma. The largest congregations are (as of 2000): The Brothers of the Immaculate Conception of Maastricht ( Congregatio Fratrum Immaculatae Conceptionis Beatae Mariae Virginis, FIC), founded in Maastricht (the Netherlands) in 1840 by Ludwig Hubert Rutten (1809–1891) and Jacob Adrian Hoecken (1810–1880) for the training of young people and teachers as well as for social-educational work.…

Oblates

(958 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Pueri oblati – II. Adults – III. Oblate Institutes I. Pueri oblati Oblates (from Lat. oblati, “offered”) were already known in the Early Church. Parents or guardians dedicated children to a monastic vocation, thus – echoing the Old Testament example of Samson and Samuel – offering their most precious possession to God. The legal basis of this practice was the paternal right of disposal recognized by Jewish and Roman legal tradition. The early monastic rules make explicit provision for oblation…

Conceptionists

(186 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nuns of the Immaculate Conception; see also Immaculate Conception, Order of the) was founded as a strictly contemplative order with the support of the Castilian court in 1484 in Galliana near Toledo by the Portuguese Beatriz de Silva y Meneses (Saint, c. 1426 – c. 1491), previously a lady at the court of Queen Isabella I of Castile, and confirmed by pope Innocent VIII in 1489. They originally lived by the rule and statutes of the Cisterc…

Sylvestrines

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Sylvestrine order ( Congregatio Silvestrina Ordinis Sancti Benedicti, CSilvOSB) was founded in Montefano (near Fabriano, in Italy) in 1231 by the hermit Silvestro Guzzolini (c. 1177–1267) as a reformed Benedictine congregation; it was recognized in 1247 by Innocent IV as Ordo S. Benedicti de Montefano. The Benedictine Rule (Benedict, Rule of Saint) was made more strict by eremitic and mendicant provisions (small houses, manual labor, and begging). The order, limited to central Italy, was reoriented by its fourth prior ge…

Paulist Fathers

(183 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), founded in New York in 1858 by the convert I.T. Hecker (1819–1888; Redemptorist 1848–1857) for the purpose of winning ¶ as many Americans as possible to the Catholic faith. The rule of the Paulists is an adaptation of the rule of the Redemptorists, but without solemn vows. The Paulists represented a school of Catholicism open to modern culture and therefore became entangled in the “Americanism” controversy in the late 19th and early 20th cent…

Hospitallers

(398 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is the collective name for the religious orders ( Ordines hospitaliarii) that emerged in the context of the medieval hospice movement (Hospice). In the wake of the crusades, chivalric groups assumed the responsibility for the care and services in the hospitals, thus leading to the chivalric hospital orders (Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem [Lazarites], established in the late 11th century for the care of lepers, focus on Western Europe from 1254, now present worldwide and activ…

Grey Brothers and Sisters

(298 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Graue Brüder und Schwestern (Grey Brothers and Sisters) was the popular German term in the Middle Ages for the Franciscans (Engl. Grey Friars), sometimes also for the Cistercians and Vallombrosans. The members of the Frati della Carità founded by Ludovio da Casoria OFM (beatified, 1814–1885) in 1859 in Naples and disbanded in 1971 were also called Frati bigi (Grey Brothers). Grey Sisters was the late medieval designation for Beguines/Beghards and sisterhoods living according to the Franciscan rule for the third order, especially in nort…
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