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Paulisten

(144 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Paulist Fathers; Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), 1858 durch den Konvertiten I. Th. Hecker (1819–1888; 1848–1857 Redemptorist) in New York zur Gewinnung möglichst vieler Amerikaner für den kath. Glauben gegründet. Die Regel der P. ist an die Redemptoristen angelehnt, aber ohne feierliche Gelübde. Die P. vertraten eine kulturfreundliche Richtung innerhalb des Katholizismus und waren daher in die »Amerikanismus«-Kontroverse an der Wende vom 19. zum…

Opus Dei

(430 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (»Werk Gottes«; offiziell: Praelatura personalis Sanctae Crucis et Operis Dei), eine der einflußreichsten und zugleich umstrittensten Einrichtungen innerhalb der kath. Kirche. 1928 in Madrid durch den span. Priester Josemari´a Escriva´ de Balaguer y Alba´s (hl., 1902–1975) als Verein für männliche Laien (1930: Gründung der streng getrennten weiblichen Abteilung) zur Heiligung der Arbeit und zur Verchristlichung der Gesellschaft ins Leben gerufen und 1941 als »Pia unio« approbiert…

Xaver, Franz, Brüder und Schwestern vom heiligen Franz Xaver

(222 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Die missionarische Tätigkeit des Apostels Indiens und Japans und sein hohes Ansehen machten F. Xavier zum Patron diverser Ordensgemeinschaften, so z.B.:m I.Männlich: Missionari Saveriani (Societas Xaveriana, SX), 1895 in Parma von Guido Maria Conforti (1865–1935) für Missionsarbeit gegründet; ab 1898 in China. In der Gegenwart v.a. in Afrika, Amerika und Ostasien tätig. – Missionary Society of St. Francis Xavier (Pilar Fathers, SFX), 1887 in Goa (Indien) gegründet, 1939 als diözesanrechtliche Gesellschaft des Apostolischen Lebens reorganisiert. – Brüd…

Trinitarier

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Ss. Trinitatis et redemptionis captivorum, OSST; Fratres O.S. T.), von Johannes v. Matha (hl., 1160–1213) um 1194 in Cerfroid bei Metz (Frankreich) zur Verehrung der Hl. Dreifaltigkeit, zum Loskauf bzw. Austausch gefangener Christen (16. – 19.Jh. Einsatz für Sklavenbefreiung) sowie zur Seelsorge und Krankenpflege in Hospizen und Gefängnissen gegründeter Priesterorden (1198 päpstl. anerkannt), der im Spät-MA 150 Klöster in zwölf Ordensprovinzen in ganz Südfrankreich, Spanien…

Ursulinen

(366 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Gesellschaft der hl. Ursula; Ordo Sanctae Ursulae, OSU), bedeutendster Frauenorden zur Erziehung (: V.,2.) und Unterweisung junger Mädchen. Gegründet 1535 in Brescia (Norditalien) durch Angela Merici (hl., um 1470–1540) als Frauenvereinigung mit Keuschheitsversprechen und Regel, aber ohne gemeinschaftliches Leben. Bedeutendster Förderer war K. Borromäus, der die Überarbeitung der urspr. Regel veranlaßte und 1576 die Ansiedlung der seit 1566 in Mailand wirkenden U. in allen Diöz…

Sulpizianer

(169 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Prêtres du Clergé, Congregatio Sulpitiensis, Societas Presbyterorum a Sancto Sulpitio, PSS), 1641 durch Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), Pfarrer von St.-Sulpice in Paris, zur Erziehung und spirituellen Formung von Theologiestudenten und Priestern gemäß dem Trienter Seminardekret gegründete Weltpriesterkongregation (ohne Gelübde), benannt nach Erzbf. Sulpicius II. von Bourges (615–647). Die S., deren Frömmigkeit christologisch, eucharistisch und marianisch geprägt und stark von Pi…

Theatiner

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Ordo Theatinorum; Clerici Regulares, CR), ältester Regularkleriker-Orden, gegründet 1524 in Rom durch Gaetano da Tiene (1480–1547) und weitere Mitglieder des 1517 ins Leben gerufenen »Oratoriums der göttlichen Liebe«, darunter Gian Pietro Carafa, Bf. von Chieti (lat. Theate; daher der Ordensname) und nachmals Papst Paul IV. Ordensziel war die Erneuerung der Kirche durch einen reformierten Klerus und seine Hauptaufgaben Seelsorge, karitatives Wirken (Sorge um unheilbar Kranke) un…

Retraite

(166 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] Retraite, Ordensschwestern. Im Frankreich des 17.Jh. zur Ermöglichung von Exerzitien für Frauen entstandene Gemeinschaften, die alsbald Exerzitienhäuser einrichteten. Vorbildgebende Gründung waren die »Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite« (Töchter der allerseligsten Jungfrau von der Zurückgezogenheit) von Vannes (1674) mit ignatianischer Regel (Ignatius von Loyola) und einfachen Gelübden. Nach dem Untergang dieser Vereinigungen in der Franz. Revolution Restauration im 19.Jh.…

Picpus-Gesellschaft

(300 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). Die nach dem früheren Mutterhaus in der Pariser Rue de Picpus benannte Kongregation besteht aus einem männlichen (Picpus-Patres; in Deutschland ist auch die Bez. »Arnsteiner Patres« geläufig nach ihrer ersten dt. Niederlassung in Arnstein/Lahn) und einem weiblichen Zweig (Picpus-Schwestern, Ze´latrices) und wurde Ende des 18.Jh. unter dem Eindruck der Franz. Revolution von Hen…

Orden, katholische

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] I. Begriff und Wesen O. sind organisierte Verbände geistl. Gemeinschaften. Konstitutives Element des Ordensstandes (status religiosus) ist die auf Dauer angelegte Lebensweise in bes. enger Nachfolge Christi zur Verherrlichung Gottes, zur Auferbauung der Kirche und zum Heil der Welt (c.573 @ 1 CIC/1983). Diese Lebensweise wird meist von den in Christi Lehre und Beispiel grundgelegten Evangelischen Räten (Armut, Ehelosigkeit und Gehorsam) bestimmt (c.575) und in den drei klassischen G…

Paulus, Orden vom heiligen Paulus

(620 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[English Version] . Während sich die Paulaner (Minimen) von Franz von Paula und die Eremitenkongregationen der Pauliner von Paulus von Theben herleiten (im span. Sprachraum werden auch die Lazaristen wegen ihres Gründers Vincentius a Paulo Pauliner genannt), berufen sich folgende bedeutendere Ordensgemeinschaften auf den Apostelfürsten Paulus: I.Angeliken (Sorores angelicae S. Pauli), 1530 im Zuge der vortridentinischen Reformbewegung durch den Arzt und Priester Antonio Maria Zaccaria (hl., 1502–1539) und die Gräfin Ludovica Torelli (1499–…

Tertiaries

(426 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] members of a third order ( tertius ordo). I. Secular Tertiaries Tertiaries are members of a third order for men or women; since the 11th/12th century, they have associated with the male (First Order) or female (Second Order) branch of existing orders, especially the mendicant orders that arose in the 13th century, in order to pursue religious or social goals. The most important was and still is the Franciscan Third Order ( Tertius OrdoFranciscanus, TOF). In his Letter to the Faithful, Francis had limited himself to urging them to live active Christian lives,…

Picpus Society

(367 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Sacrorum Cordium Jesu et Mariae necnon adorationis perpetuae SS. Sacramenti Altaris, SSCC). The congregation, named after its former motherhouse in the Rue de Picpus in Paris, consists of a male branch (the Picpus Fathers, in Germany also commonly known as the “Arnstein Fathers,” after their first settlement in Arnstein on the Lahn), and a female branch (the Picpus Sisters or Zélatrices). It was founded in the late 18th century, in response to the pressure of the Fren…

Vincentians/Lazarists

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Missionis, CM; also Vincentian Fathers, Preti della Missione), founded in Paris in 1625 by Vincent de Paul to evangelize the rural French population through home missions (Mission to the People). Their apostolate soon expanded to include the training of priests, leading retreats (Exercises, Spiritual), spiritual guidance of the sisterhoods established by Vincent, pastoral care of prisoners and galley slaves, and foreign missions (after 1645; after 1697 in China, where…

Sisters of Christian Charity

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (SCC; Daughters of the Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Conception). The congregation was founded in Paderborn in 1849 by Pauline v. Mallinckrodt (1817–1881) for social and charitable work (initially primarily education of the blind, followed soon by education of girls and pastoral ministry). When they were expelled during the Kulturkampf (1873, return in 1887), they spread to the United States and Chile. Today some 700 sisters work in Germany, Italy, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Philippines. They are a congregation under papal law; their general council is in Rome. Manf…

Paulist Fathers

(183 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Sacerdotum Missionariorum a Sancto Paulo Apostolo, CSP), founded in New York in 1858 by the convert I.T. Hecker (1819–1888; Redemptorist 1848–1857) for the purpose of winning ¶ as many Americans as possible to the Catholic faith. The rule of the Paulists is an adaptation of the rule of the Redemptorists, but without solemn vows. The Paulists represented a school of Catholicism open to modern culture and therefore became entangled in the “Americanism” controversy in the late 19th and early 20th cent…

Retraite, Sisters of La

(180 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] In 17th-century France, communities arose to facilitate spiritual exercises for women; soon afterward they began building retreat houses. An outstanding example was the house of the Filles de la Sainte-Vierge de la Retraite (Daughters of Our Lady of Retreat) in Vannes (1674); the sisters followed the Ignatian rule (Ignatius of Loyola) and took simple vows. These communities perished during the French Revolution, but the sisterhood was restored in the 19th century, transformed into…

John of God, Saint

(135 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (João de Deo, Juan de Dios; actually: João Cuidad; 1495, Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal – Mar 8, 1550, Granada), canonized in 1690, founder of the Merciful Brothers and Sisters and innovator in the care for and assistance of those in need. Converted in 1539 by John of Avila, John devoted his life to the care of the sick (including the mentally ill) and the poor. In 1540, he established his own hospital in Granada, which became the prototype of the modern hospital because of the novel c…

Sisters of Elizabeth

(276 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, the Sisters of Elizabeth of Hungary lived communally or semicommunally in Franciscan style; they were major supporters of the religious women’s movement and the semi-religious life. After Trent they usually lived in independent houses. In the 19th century, several congregations were organized, usually associated with a male Franciscan order, including: 1. The Order of the Sisters of St. Elizabeth (of Hungary), founded in Aachen in 1622 by Apollonia Radermecher (1571–1626). They spread through the Rhineland and Lux…

Schönstatt Movement

(247 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] This movement of spiritual renewal emerged in 1914 from the educational work of Father J. Kentenich at the seminary of the Pallottines in Schönstatt (today a district in Vallendar am Rhein); it became independent in 1964. It seeks to provide support for a humane Christian life in a pluralistic society, through a spirituality and teaching ministry emphasizing the biblical notion of a covenant (V), pursuit of “everyday holiness,” and an apostolic mindset. Its goal is ultimately to t…

School Sisters

(488 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] in the broad sense are members of the many orders and congregations of women whose primary apostolate is in the field of education and teaching; in the narrower sense, the term denotes sisters of the communities whose names reflect their teaching ministry. I. Sisters of the Christian Schools of Mercy (Soeurs des Écoles chrétiennes de la Misericorde, Sisters of St. Mary Magdalene Postel, SMMP), founded in Cherbourg (Normandy) in 1807 by Julie Postel (St.; 1756–1846), a teacher, to educate the rural population. The first Ge…

Ursulines

(424 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ordo Sanctae Ursulae, OSU), the most important women’s religious institute for the education (V, 2) of young girls. The order was founded by St. Angela Merici (c. 1470–1540) in Brescia (northern Italy) as a women’s congregation with vows of chastity and a rule but without living in community. Its most important sponsor was C. Borromeo, who saw to a revision of the original rule and in 1576 ordered settlement of the Ursulines, who had been working in Milan since 1566, in all the d…

Sisters of the Holy Redeemer

(216 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Redeemer was founded in 1849 by the mystically inclined Elisabeth (Maria Alfonsa) Eppinger (1814–1867) in Niederbronn (Alsace), with the assistance of the local pastor Johann David Reichard (1796–1867), for the care of the sick and the poor (fourth vow), and of children; it was ecumenically oriented from the outset. The congregation grew rapidly in Alsace, Germany (from 1852), Belgium, Switzerland, Holland, African countries (from 1931),…

Sulpicians

(205 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Prêtres du Clergé, Congregatio Sulpitiensis, Societas Presbyterorum a Sancto Sulpitio, PSS), a congregation of secular priests (without vows) founded in 1641 by Jean-Jacques Olier (1608–1657), pastor of St.-Sulpice in Paris, for the education and spiritual formation of seminarians and priests in the spirit of the Tridentine decree on seminaries. It is named after Archbishop Sulpicius II of Bourges (615–647). Their spirituality is christological, eucharistic, and Marian and was st…

Feuillants

(142 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Feuillants are a reform order of the Cistercians (separated 1592) named for the abbey at Feuillant (Lat. Fulium) near Toulouse and founded by abbot Jean-Baptiste de la Barrière O. Cist (1544–1600). It is characterized by rigorous intensification of the observance of the rule (going barefoot, sleeping on boards, kneeling to eat) and liturgical peculiarities. In 1630, it divided into a French congregation with 33 monasteries (abolished in the French Revolution) and an Italian congregation with 43…

Confraternities of Christian Doctrine

(363 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] Since the turn of the 14th to the 15th century, in the wake of Humanism and of J. de Gerson's pastoral work with children, youth fraternities and communities of Christian doctrine in northern Italy (e.g. in Florence and Bologna) had already begun to devote themselves to the main interests of the later Christian doctrine brotherhoods. The latter emerged in the second half of the 16th century as a reaction to the confessional conflicts of the time and aim…

Secular Institutes

(223 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] are institutes of consecrated life in which members of the faithful (clergy and laypeople, hardly distinguishable outwardly) remain in their secular (and often familial) environment while pursuing perfection in love and sanctification of the world from within. Secular institutes were recognized canonically by the pontifical constitution Provida Mater issued in 1947. They are rooted in efforts, observable since the 17th century, to live a life consecrated to God without the characteristic features of the traditional orders, as …

Salesian Sisters

(249 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Visitationists, Sisters of the Visitation, Ordo de Visitatione Beatae Mariae Virginis, OVM, VSM). The order was found in 1610 in Annecy (France) by Francis of Sales and J.F. of Chantal as a contemplative order with simple vows and modified enclosure, enabling them to minister to the poor and the sick. In 1618, at the insistence of the archbishop of Lyon, they adopted the Augustinian rule (Augustine, Rule of Saint), solemn vows, and papal enclosure; as a result, they concentrated …

Passionists

(358 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio Passionis Jesu Christi, CP) was founded in 1720 as a clerical congregation on Monte Argentario near Orbetello, in Italy, by the hermit and preacher of repentance Saint Paul of the Cross (Paolo Francesco Danei, 1694–1775); the original name of the congregation was Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Members take a special vow to venerate and preach the passion and death of Jesus Christ; they engage in a contemplative life, alon…

Teutonic Order

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Origins The origins of an Ordo fratrum hospitalis sanctae Mariae Theutonicorum Ierosolymitanorum are said to date back ¶ to a hospital of Mary in Jerusalem in the first half of the 12th century. The spiritual order of knights arose in 1198/1199 from a hospital brotherhood that was set up during the Third Crusade (1189/1190) near Acre by merchants from Lübeck and Bremen. Because they were supported both by German crusaders and the Hohen­staufen, most members came from the Empire, and their estates…

Marianists

(234 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Marianists (Societas Mariae, SM; Society of Mary; also Brothers of Mary) were founded in Bordeaux in 1817 by Guillaume-Joseph Chaminade (blessed; 1761–1850) to establish and lead Marian congregations as well as for pastoral and educational ministry. They take a fourth vow of stability (daily renewal of their commitment to Mary). Since priests and lay brothers engaged in teaching and other work tend to live together as equals, the Marianists occupy a special place among the cle…

Lefebvre, Marcel

(393 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nov 29, 1905, Tourcoing, France – Mar 25, 1991, Martigny, Switzerland) studied at the Gregoriana in Rome from 1923 to 1930 (Dr.phil. 1925; Dr.theol. 1929), was ordained to the priesthood in 1929, and subsequently served as parish curate in a suburb of Lille. He joined the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Spirit; Order of the Holy Spirit, CSSp, Spiritans) in 1931 (member until 1968) and worked as a missionary in Gabon from 1932 to 1947. In 1948, he was appointed apostolic delegate…

Poor Handmaids of Jesus Christ (PHJC)

(185 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Ger. Dernbacher Schwestern [Dernbach Sisters]), founded in 1851 by the maidservant Katharina (Maria) Kasper (1820–1898; beatified in 1978), in her hometown of Dernbach (Westerwald; today the general mother house), for the care of the sick and the poor, for the education of girls, and work in orphanages. They were recognized as a society by papal right in 1870; in 1890, the regulations based on the rule of St. Vincent de Paul were approved. The Dernbach Sisters, who at the founder…

Loreto

(355 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] is a significant Marian pilgrimage site near Ancona (central Italy). According to legend, the sanctuary there (“Santa Casa”), a simple rectangular wall with no foundation surrounded by a magnificent hall church (1468–1587) and clad with marble (1513–1538), probably following plans by D. Bramante, is Mary's place of birth in Nazareth, the house in which the annunciation of the immaculate conception took place, and in which Jesus grew up. After the Muslim conquest of Akko in 1291, a…

Sisters of Christ the King

(122 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Societas Christi Regis, S.Chr.R.). Founded in Graz in 1917/1919 by the Catholic priests M.J. Metzger and Joseph Wilhelm Impekoven (died 1918) as the Missionary Society of the White Cross (male order terminated in 1944), the order was renamed the Society of Christ the King when the Solemnity of Christ the King was instituted. Its headquarters was moved to Meitingen, near Augsburg. The sisters (since 1969 a secular institute under diocesan law), located primarily in Germany, Austria,…

Oblates

(958 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Pueri oblati – II. Adults – III. Oblate Institutes I. Pueri oblati Oblates (from Lat. oblati, “offered”) were already known in the Early Church. Parents or guardians dedicated children to a monastic vocation, thus – echoing the Old Testament example of Samson and Samuel – offering their most precious possession to God. The legal basis of this practice was the paternal right of disposal recognized by Jewish and Roman legal tradition. The early monastic rules make explicit provision for oblation…

Montfort Missionaries

(135 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Mariae Montfortana, SMM), founded c. 1710 in Poitiers by Louis- Marie Grignion de Montfort (Saint; 1673–1716) as a ¶ congregation of priests, to strengthen the Catholic faith and promote the veneration of Mary (Mary, Veneration of). Under Gabriel Deshayes (superior: 1812–1841) the Montfort Missionaries expanded, and since 1871 they have carried out mission work abroad (in Haiti, Colombia, and elsewhere). Today they have 914 members in 30 countries (figures for the year 2008; headquarters in…

Eucharistines

(156 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Societas Sanctissimi Sacramenti, SSS), founded in Paris in 1856 by the Marist Father Pierre-Julien Eymard (1811–1868; beatified 1962) to praise the Holy Eucharist in worship, proclamation and writing (the strictly contemplative female branch in 1858 in Angers: “Sisters of the Most Holy Sacrament”) and was recognized as a congregation with papal rights in 1863. I…

Good Shepherd Sisters

(381 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The image of Christ as the Good Shepherd has been an obvious model and name for religious orders devoted to social and charitable work. The most important women's order of this nature is the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd (Soeurs de Notre Dame de Charité du Bon-Pasteur), a sizeable offshoot of the Sisters of Our Lady of Charity (of the Refuge), founded at Caen in France by Jean Eudes (Eudist Fathers, Jesus and Mary, Congregation of) in 1644. The order was reco…

Brothers of the Christian Schools,

(439 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] term for members of various Catholic congregations with a mission of teaching and training. I. Brothers of the Christian Schools (De La Salle Brothers, Fratres Scholarum Christianarum, FSC), founded in 1681 by J.B. de La Salle in Reims. Gradual development into the congregation recognized by the pope in 1725 which set itself the task of school education for the lower and middle classe…

Institutum Beatae Mariae Virginis

(339 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Mary Ward Sisters; since 2004: Congregatio Jesu), one of the most important female teaching orders of the Catholic Church. The “Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary” was founded by the Englishwoman Mary Ward (1585–1645) in 1609/10 in the Spanish Netherlands during the persecution of Catholics in England in order to care for and educate English girls living there. It was patterned after the model of the Jesuits. The founder, in favor of her youth work, dispensed with both the stri…

Fey, Klara

(187 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Clara; Apr 11, 1815, Aachen – May 8, 1894, Simpelveld, The Netherlands) was the daughter of a factory owner. Heavily influenced by her teacher L. Hensel, she found her way to charitable work at an early age. With the help of two friends, she opened a school for abandoned and neglected girls in 1837, for whose care and education she founded the congregation of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus in 1844. The mother-house in Aachen as well as many subsidiary houses having been disbanded in the wake of the Kulturkampf , the founder of the order and lifel…

Camillians

(208 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] ( Clerici regulares ministrantes infirmis, MI; Ordo Sancti Camilli, OSC). The Camillians are the only clerical order of the Catholic Church devoted entirely to charitable service. The order was founded in Rome in 1582 by Camillo de Lellis (1550–1614) to renew the ministry of service to the sick (fourth vow: to serve the sick, regardless of mortal danger – hence grave losses during epidemics of the plague and cholera). After the demise of the Order of Servants o…

Olivetians

(207 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Congregatio S. Mariae Montis Oliveti OSB; Ordo S. Benedicti Montis Oliveti, OSBOliv), a reformed Benedictine congregation with strictly central organization, appointment of officers for a limited time, frequent transfers of monks, and spirituality with eremitical and mariological features. It was initiated by blessed Bernardo Tolomei (1272–1348), who settled around 1313 with a few companions on Monte Oliveto near Siena in Italy. The movement spread rapidly, but only in central an…

Kentenich, Josef

(233 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Nov 18, 1885, Gymnich near Cologne – Sep 15, 1968, Schönstatt) was the founder and leader of the Schönstatt movement. He joined the Societas Apostolatus Catholici (SAC) in 1909 (member until 1965) and was ordained to the priesthood in 1910. He founded the movement in 1914, further structuring and expanding it from 1919 onward. The movement grew out of educational work with the pupils of the Pallottines in Schönstatt near Vallendar on the Rhine. From 1941 to 1945 he was imprisoned by the Gestapo and sent …

Rosminians

(112 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Istituto della Carità, Fathers of Charity, IC), founded by A. Rosmini-Serbati in 1828 on Monte Calvario near Domodosolla in northern Italy. The members of the congregation take simple life vows and retain their personal assets. The congregation includes priests and lay brothers, who engage in educational work, apostolate to intellectuals, care for emigrants, and mission. As of 2001, there were some 400 religious in Italy, England, Ireland, the United States, India, and Africa; th…

Pallottines

(343 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] (Society of the Catholic Apostolate, Societas Apostolatus Catholici), founded in 1835 by St. Vincent Pallotti (1795–1850) in Rome as a community of priests and brothers, in order to spread and deepen faith. Its members take no vows, but promise to live in ¶ community according to the counsels of perfection, for a limited time, or permanently. Clergy promise furthermore not to seek church honors, or to accept them without permission. From 1854 to 1947 the society was known as the Pia Societas Missionum. It has missions in the Cameroon (1890), southern Brazil, no…

Oratorians

(444 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri – II. French Oratory I. Oratorians of Saint Philip Neri (Oratory of Divine Love, Congregation of the Oratory, Philippians, Institutum Oratorii S. Philippi Nerii), congregation of secular priests who lead a common life of prayer and pastoral ministry in the spirit of P. Neri, united only by bonds of mutual love, without vows and binding commitments (albeit under statutes approved in 1612). The congregation was founded in 1552 in the oratory of its founder’s commu…

Johannesbund

(110 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] The Johannesbund at Leutesdorf (Rhine) was founded in 1919 by Johannes M. Haw (1871–1949) as an initiative on the part of lay people and priests to spread the kingdom of God after the example of John the Baptist. Its members work in cooperation with the Sisters of St. John the Baptist and the Missionaries of St. John the Baptist to support charitable and educational institutions in Germany, Portugal, Mozambique, and India; they also have a press apostolate and conduct retreats (Exercises, Spiritual). Manfred Eder Bibliography J. Fleckenstein, Über die Idee und die h…

Relief Organizations, Catholic (Germany)

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred
[German Version] These are predominantly internationally oriented organizations, which aim to offer aid through solidarity and partnership, to work for development and peace, mission and the proclamation of the gospel. In Germany, they include: Adveniat (Essen), diocesan action to support ministry among impoverished peoples in Latin America (est. 1961). Bonifatiuswerk (until 1967: Bonifatiusverein für das katholische Deutschland; Paderborn), for support of ministry amongst the Catholic diaspora in…
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