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Tranquillitas

(246 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Until the 1st cent. BC, the usual meaning of tranquillitas is 'peace, stillness' (as late as in Caes. B Gall. 3,15,3); after that, under the influence of Stoicism and the philosophy of Epicurus (analogous with the Greek γαλήνη/ galḗnē, 'calm' = 'peace of mind'), the word becomes the Latin philosophical term for 'calmness of mind' ( maris t.: Cic. Tusc. 5,6,16; t. animi: Cic. Fin. 5,8,23; cf. Sen. Dial. 9: De tranquillitate animi). In combination with 'security' and 'peace' (cf. Cic. Leg. agr. 1,24; Cic. Off. 1,20,69; Cic. De orat.1,1,2) t. gained political significance…

Syrian Wars

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] In modern scholarship, the term SW refers to a group of six wars fought between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids for possession of southern Syria (between the River Eleutherus, modern Nahr al-Kabīr, north of Byblus and the eastern frontier of Egypt at Rhaphia; cf. map 'The Hellenistic states in the 3rd Cent. BC'; Coele Syria) between 274 and 168 BC. The war between Antiochus [5] III and Rome (192-188, treated in App. Syr. 11), which is often referred to as a 'Syrian War', is not included in them. The precondition for the SW was the state of possessions following the p…

Parties (political)

(229 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The modern term cannot be applied to antiquity. However, even in ancient polities, there were groupings which formed temporarily for the achievement of political ends ( hetairía [2]; factiones ), though they developed no fixed membership or longer-term political programmes. It did also happen that citizenries divided into separate 'partisan affiliations' reinforcing differing conceptions of political content and methods in a quasi-programmatical way ( oligarchía / dēmokratía ; optimates / populares ), playing out differences concer…

Council meetings

(160 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] of increasing complexity served in ancient society to reduce and regulate conflict for the purpose of enabling collective action. Independently of the respective constitutional form, council meetings (CM), whose members were usually drawn from economically powerful and socially respected circles, supported the  ruler in decision-making (cf.   basileús ,   gerousía ; the Roman senate under the monarchy), formulated a consensus of peers in the aristocracy (  Áreios págos ;   senatus ) and prepared the resolutions of the popular assemb…

Poppaea

(628 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Goffin, Bettina (Bonn)
[German version] [1] P. Sabina Daughter of Poppaeus [1] Sabinus, 1st cent. AD Daughter of Poppaeus [1] Sabinus, married to T. Ollius, then, after his death, to P. Cornelius [II 33] Lentulus Scipio (proconsul of Asia in AD 41/2). She was the mother of P. [2] Sabina by T. Ollius, and by Scipio probably of P. Cornelius [II 49] Scipio Asiaticus, whose cognomen indicates that he was born in Asia. P. was regarded as the most beautiful woman of her day (Tac. Ann. 13,45,2), was embroiled in numerous scandals (Tac. Ann. 11,2,1) and committed suicide in AD 47 to a…

Epilycus [2]

(212 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἐπίλυκος; Epílykos). [German version] Epilycus Writer of comedies Comedy writer, whose surviving work consists of the title of one play (Κωραλίσκος; Kōralískos, The little lad from Crete? cf. Phot. p. 198,15) and of nine fragments; fr. 3 (remnants of catalectic anapaestic tetrameters) and fr. 4 (catalectic anapaestic dimeter in Doric dialect) show that he belonged to the Old Comedy (late 5th, early 4th cent. BC). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 170-173. [German version] [2] Nephew of Andocides [1], 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC The son of Teisander…

Sacramentum

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Mali, Franz (Fribourg)
[German version] I. General remarks In contrast to ius iurandum , which in Latin generally refers to the oath itself and the act of swearing an oath, the sacramentum ('oath') has to do with the obligations an individual assumes vis-à-vis the god who is invoked (usually Iuppiter (I. B) in his function as Dius Fidius or 'all gods'). The sacramentum threatens that one may become sacer , in thrall to a god and consequently outlawed, by taking an oath affirming a false statement or failing to keep a promise made under oath (assertive or promissory oath) [1. 76-84]. Eder, Walter (Berlin) …

Capitolium

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Capitol Hill in Rome, consisting of a summit called C. in the south (46 m) and the Arx in the north (49 m), linked by the depression of the asylum. Until Trajan's forum was built, the C. was the south-western spur of the Quirinal and linked with it by a bridge. From archaic times, buildings on the C. had to have very deep foundations because of unfavourable geological conditions; in addition, since ancient times, there have been landslides, terracing (in the 15th and 16th cents.), as well as other substa…

Tirocinium fori

(151 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ('period of recruitment for the forum', in distinction to a military one; Tiro [2]) describes both the public presentation in the forum of a young man from the upper classes after his donning the toga virilis ( deductio in forum: Suet. Aug. 26,2; Suet. Tib. 54,1; Suet. Nero 7,2) and the ensuing approximately one year period of education for famous politicians, orators and lawyers (Cic. Lael. 1,1: cf. Cic. Brut. 89,306). The instruction did not happen systematically, but rather by constant accompaniment and observation …

Political administration

(4,328 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. General The states of antiquity had no executive PA independent of government and legislature in the sense of the modern separation of powers. The triple division of constitutions, indicated in Aristot. Pol. 1297b 35-1301a 15 ( tría mória, 1297b 37), into a decision-making, legislating organ ( tò bouleuómenon), an executive element ('on the offices': tò perì tàs archás) and judicature ( tò dikázon) owes more to the schematically working mind of the author than to a political concept as such, especially since the fields defined show conside…

Xiphares

(121 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξιφάρης/ Xiphárēs). Son of Mithridates [6] VI and Stratonice [7], who was killed by his father in 64 BC in revenge for the betrayal of his mother (App. Mithr. 502-505). In 64 Stratonice - without knowing that X. was with his father - had handed over a fortress (Sinoria?) which had been entrusted to her by Mithridates after losing a battle against Pompeius [I 3] in 66 ( Mithridatic Wars C), together with all its treasures to Pompeius [III 1] who promised in return to spare X. if he should fall into Roman hands (Plut. Pompeius 36,6; Cass. Dio 37,7,5). Eder, Walter (Berlin) Biblio…

Timaeus

(1,738 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Τίμαιος; Tímaios). [German version] [1] Main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus T. of Locri [2] Epizephyrii in southern Italy (Τίμαιος Λοκρός/ Tímaios Lokrós), the main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus, was in Antiquity regarded as a Pythagorean [1.83-85]. The Suda s.v. T. (IV p. 553,26f. Adler) and the scholia to Pl. Tim. 20 A Greene report that he wrote on mathematical problems, on nature and on the life of Pythagoras [2] (μαθηματικά, περὶ φύσεως, περὶ τοῦ Πυθαγόρου βίου/ M athēmatiká, Perì phýseōs, Perì toû Pythagórou bíou) [1.85]. One treatise, in the Doric dialect [2.11-19], ent…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Sacrosanctus

(301 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] According to Festus (318, s. v. s.) s. described objects or persons who were protected by oath ( Sacramentum ) in such a way that by harming them the culprit came under the threat of the death penalty. As examples Festus gives the tribune of the plebs ( Tribunus plebis ) and, incorrectly, also the plebeian aediles. From their inception (in 494 BC; Struggle of the orders), the people's tribunes were protected by the lex sacrata (Liv. 2,33,1 and 3;  Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,89,2-4; Cic. Rep. 2,58), i.e. by an oath of the plebs to have every injury to a tribu…

Squeeze

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] 'Squeeze' (German abklatsch, French estampage) is the term for a negative impression of an inscription on paper or a latex sheet. After the inscribed surface has been cleaned, soft paper is pressed with a firm brush, or a thin film of liquid latex is poured, on to the inscription. After drying the squeeze can be detached and transported at will; under suitable lighting it can often be read better than the original. Large collections of squeezes can be found in the Akademie der Wissens…

Bouleuterion

(45 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Building where the  boule met. Attestable from the archaic period, from the 4th cent. BC the bouleuterion was regularly one of the public buildings at or in the vicinity of the  agora. On function and construction  assembly buildings. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Prytaneion

(140 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (πρυτανεῖον/ prytaneîon). Official building of the prytáneis , usually near the bouleuterion in the centre of a Greek polis (Agora; cf., e.g., Athens; Messene; Priene) and ostensibly of great age (cf. Thuc. 2,15,2). As the location of the state hearth, often with a constantly burning flame, the prytaneîon was the sacred centre of the polis and at the middle of numerous cult activities (Hestia). After the Persian Wars the 'contaminated' fires had to be extinguished and rekindled by Delphi in the prytaneîon (Plut. Aristides 20,4 f.). Participation in meals in the prytaneî…

S.

(125 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the Roman forenames Sextus and Spurius (also Sp.). S stands also for senatus in the formula SPQR, as S.S. for the Senate's resolution ( S[enatus] S[ententia]) and as S.C. on coins that were minted on behalf of the Senate ( [ex] S[enatus] C[onsulto]; s enatus consultum ). Very often to be found on inscriptions instead of the possessive pronouns of the 3rd person suus, sua, suum (in all the oblique cases), such as S(ua)P(ecunia)P(osuit) ('built with one's own money'). On coins, frequently used within imperial propaganda for s alus ('health'), s ecuritas

Coriolanus

(168 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcius C., Cn, received the epithet C. for his deeds of heroism in the capture of Corioli in 493 BC (Liv. 2,33,5). The unyielding patrician's proposal to exploit a famine in order to render the plebs submissive led to his banishment in 491, and to his attempt to return home at the head of the Volsci enemy. According to tradition (Liv. 2,39-41; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,14-36), his mother Veturia and wife Volumnia persuaded him to turn back before the gates of Rome, and this cost him…

Catualda

(75 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Marcomannian noble who had fled from  Marbod to the Gothic Gutones. At the instigation of Drusus he invaded the kingdom of Marbod in c. AD 18 with the help of the Gutones who wanted to free themselves from Marcomanni subjugation and drove him into exile in Ravenna. Shortly afterwards he himself was driven out by the Hermundurian Vibilius and fled to Forum Iulii (Fréjus) (Tac. Ann. 2, 62-63). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Teispes

(136 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τείσπης; Teíspēs). According to the testimony of a cylinder inscription of Cyrus [2] II (TUAT I 409,21) an ancestor of his grandfather Cyrus [1] I and hence probably, like him, of Persian descent and a ruler in Fars (Persis) in the 7th cent. BC. The genealogical connection with the Achaemenids [2] in Hdt. 7,11, who puts into the mouth of Xerxes I a family tree with a T. as the son of Achaemenes [1] and another T. as great-great-grandson, can presumably be traced to Darius [1]. The…

Secret police

(629 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Ancient Near East Xenophon (Cyr. 8,2,10ff.) tells of undercover informants, the “eyes and ears of the king”, who reported to the Persian king. Antecedents of this Achaemenid institution can be found in Mesopotamia: soothsayers (Mari 18th cent. BC) and state officials (Assyria 8th/7th cents.) undertook in their oath of office to report to the king any moves or actions against him. The extent to which fear of the “eyes and ears of the king” was an encumbrance to contemporaries can be…

Balthi

(226 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The B. (‘the Bold’) are the royal line of the Visigoths, which is held in lesser esteem than the  Amali line of the Ostrogoths. Although the B. are also considered to be a line of ‘kings and heroes’, in contrast with the Amali, the memory of divine descent was lost. The historical descent of the royal family also remains obscure, because the relationship of the first identifiable Balthi prince, Alaric I ( Alaricus [2], died AD 410), to the three Terwingian judges of the 4th cent. …

Xerxes

(685 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ξέρξης/ Xérxēs; Old Persian Xšayāršā, 'ruling over heroes'). [German version] [1] X. I Achaemenid great king (486-465 BC), son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1]. 'Born in the purple', X. was designated by his father as his successor (XPf 31 ff. = [6. 81-85]; Hdt. 7,2 f.; Porphyrogénnētos ). At the beginning of his reign he defeated an uprising in Egypt (Hdt. 7,3), and later the rebellions of Šamaš-Erība and Bēl-Šimmanni in Babylonia [3. 361 ff.]. A campaign to Greece (in 480/79 BC) - about which only accounts from the…

Tullianum

(217 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Part of the Roman state prison ( carcer ) for prisoners sentenced to death by strangulation, including the fellow conspirators of Catilina and the leaders of subjugated people paraded in triumphs (Triumph/Triumphal procession, with map). The name Tullianum led ancient authors to suppose that it was built by Tull(i)us Hostilius[4] or Servius Tullius [I 4] (Varro, Ling. 5,151; Fest. 490), but modern scholars think that it may have originally been a spring house (cp. Fest. 492: tullios = 'wellsprings'). Liv. 1,33,8 ascribed the construction of the carcer itself to An…

Timoxena

(68 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιμοξένα; Timoxéna). Wife of Plutarchus [2], daughter of Alexion (Plut. Mor. 701d), probably herself an author (a writing on obsessive cleanliness is mentioned by Plutarch Mor. 145a). The marriage produced a daughter of the same name, but she died at the age of two (writing of condolence to T.: Plut. Mor. 608a-612b), and four sons; two of these also died young. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Herdonius

(194 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Appius H. Rebellious Sabine in Rome, 5th cent. BC A Sabine who in 460 BC seized the Capitol with the help of 2,500 exiles and slaves (Liv. 3,15,5-18,11; according to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,14,1-17,1 with 4,000 clients and servants). He died in the battle against the troops of consul Valerius and L. Mamilius, the dictator of Tusculum. This story, modelled on the conspiracy of  Catilina, might be a possible indication of ethnic tensions in early Republican Rome. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography P. M. Martin, Des tentatives de tyrannies à Rome, in: Eder, Staat, 49-72…

Italia [I-II]

(5,411 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Mastrocinque, Attilio (Verona) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. The name and its development The name I. acquired its modern meaning during the Augustan period; it originally described the kingdom of the Oenotrian ruler Italus, comprising the Bruttian peninsula from Sila to Scylletium (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 5; according to Hecat. FGrH 1 F 41,51-53, Medma, Locris, Caulonia, and Krotalla were in I.). Hellanicus links I. with the term vitulus (‘calf’) and the legend of the calf of  Geryoneus which had run away from Hercules (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,35); Timaeus associates the name wit…

Provincial administration

(612 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East State territory during the history of the ancient Near East was structured and administered variously in keeping with the form of state organization (centralized state, small territorial state, etc.). In Egypt, state territory was divided into so-called 'districts' (in the Ptolemaic Period called nomoí (Nomos [2])) administered by 'district rulers' (Nomarches). External territories, especially in Syria-Palestine during the New Kingdom, were subject to the Pharaoh as vassal states. In Mesopotamia, the empire of the 3rd dynasty of U…

C.

(82 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the widespread Roman name Gaius. This abbreviation must have occurred already before the introduction of the letter G into the Roman alphabet by the censor Appius  Claudius Caecus (312 BC). In the Roman system of numbers, C represents the value 100 ( centum), but it probably developed from the Greek aspirate Θ (via its form), which did not have any application as a letter in the early Latin alphabet.  Italy (alphabetic scripts);  Numerical systems Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Skytalismos

(139 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (σκυταλισμός; skytalismós). The killing of 1200 (Diod. 15,57,3-58,4; in Plut. Mor.  814B: 1500) rich citizens in Argos (in the autumn of 370 BC) by beating them with clubs ( skytálē: 'stick, club'). The occasion was an attempt by an oligarchic group, with the help of mercenaries, to gain power in order to prevent a radicalization of democracy in Argos, probably after the defeat of Sparta at Leuctra (in 370 BC). The attempt was betrayed (Aen. Tact. 11,7-10) and 30 respected citizens were executed; the ensuing atmosphere of turmoil resulted in the skytalismós, to which ev…

Mutina, war of / Bellum Mutinense

(330 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] The bellum Mutinense (Oros. 6,18,2)of December 44 to April 43 BC, named after the City of Mutina (modern Modena), was the first military dispute, after Caesar's death, between Antonius [I 9] and a curious coalition formed out of the troops of Caesar's murderer Decimus Iunius [I 12] Brutus, of Caesar's heir Octavianus (the later Augustus) and of the Senate, and it was at the same time the last and unsuccessful attempt by the Senate to deprive Antonius of power and to once again acquire political leadership. When D. Brutus was faced with the threat of losing his province Galli…

Porphyrogennetos

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (πορφυρογέννητος/ porphyrogénnētos, 'born in the purple') was used as a cognomen (not a title) for children born to an emperor in his period of office (Konstantinos [1] VII). The Greek porphyrogénnētos was applied to both sexes, the Latin form distinguished ( porphyrogenitus or porphyrogenita). A similar Latin version ( natus in purpure) is recorded as early as for Honorius [3] (born AD 384), a Greek one (ἐν τῇ πορφύρᾳ/ en tȇi porphýrāi) for Theodosius II (born 401). In official texts the adjective appears in Latin form in the 8th cent., in Greek not…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…

Cornelius

(14,783 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stroh, Wilfried (Munich) | Et al.
Name of one of the oldest and most celebrated Roman patrician families; during the Roman Republic the largest and most extensive gens, giving its name to the tribus Cornelia. Its patrician branches probably stem from the Maluginenses, frequently attested in the 5th cent. BC (C. [I 57-58]); the sequence was probably as follows: in the 5th cent. the Cossi [I 20-22]; in the 4th cent. the Scipiones [I 65-85], Rufini [I 62] and Lentuli [I 31-56]; from the 3rd cent. the Dolabellae [I 23-29], Sullae [I 87-90], Blasiones [I 8-10],…

T.

(20 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] As an abbreviation in names, T. stands for the Roman given name Titus. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Herminius

(138 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Nomen gentile of a Roman family of Etruscan origin. After the expulsion of the Etruscan king at the beginning of the republic, it produced two consuls but then disappeared from history like most Etruscan families from the middle of the 5th cent. BC. The consul of 506 (T.H. Aquilinus) is mentioned, partly with his colleague Sp. Larcius (likewise of Etruscan origin), in the battle against the Etruscans and Latins (Liv. 2,10,6f.; 11,7-10; 20,8f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,22,5; 23,2 and…

A.

(35 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Abbreviation of the common Roman name Aulus. A. is of Etruscan origin (Aules?) and was also used as a cognomen in the imperial period. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography Salomies, 11, 24, 165.

P.

(73 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is used as an abbreviation of the Roman name Publius and very often appears on coins and in inscriptions to stand for functions and titles (e.g. PM = pontifex maximus; PP = pater patriae). For the numerous meanings of P in numismatics and epigraphics see [1. 310-319] and [2. XLIV-XLIX]. Eder, Walter (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, Epigrafia, 1974 2 H.Cohen, J.C. Egbert, R. Cagnat, Coin-Inscriptions and Epigraphical Abbreviations of Imperial Rome, 1978.

Triumph, Triumphal procession

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
Ritual marking the end of a campaign of warfare. At the same time it constituted the army's rite of entry into the city and the highest attainable honour for the general. [German version] I. Name and origins The Latin triumphus is derived from the interjection io triump(h)e, which had formed from the Greek cry θριάμβε/ thriámbe in the cult of Dionysus (Varro, Ling. 6,68; Serv. Aen. 10,775) and was originally a plea for the manifestation of the god, comparable to the fivefold triumpe in the cult song of the Arvales fratres [8. 38-55; 7. 223]. The supposed origin …

Emmenids

(27 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Sicilian dynasty of tyrants from Acragas, who were closely related to the  Deinomenids in Syracuse (genealogical table with the Deinomenids). Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Hellenism

(576 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] ( hellēnismós). In antiquity from the time of Aristotle or his pupil  Theophrastus, this was the name for the correct use of the Greek language ( hellēnízein = ‘speaking Greek’), but it is not attested as a term until the 2nd cent. BC (2 Macc 4,13) and there designates the Greek way of life, disapproved of from a Jewish point of view. Based on the meaning of Hellenism, originating among Alexandrian scholars at almost the same time, as ‘Greek spiritual world’, Christian writers then use Hellenism in the sen…

Flavian Dynasty

(738 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Modern term for two series of Roman emperors in the 1st and 3rd/4th cents. AD, who were descended from the same family: one series of succession was founded in AD 69 by T. Flavius  Vespasianus (69-79) and was continued to AD 96 by his sons  Titus [3] (79-81) and  Domitianus [1] (81-96); the other series, which is occasionally called the ‘Second Flavian Dynasty’, was founded by the house of Flavius Valerius  Constantinus [1] I, which fictively began with (Flavius)  Claudius [III 2]…

Rex

(661 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] King Rex (pl. reges; Indo-Germanic * rḗg̑-s, Old Indo-Aryan rā́j-, Celtic -rīx) in Latin denotes a king; in the Greek world, the Indo-Germanic term probably gave way in the Mycenaean period to the ruler designations anax ( wanax ) and basileús . The Imperial and Byzantine word ῥῆξ ( rhêx) was originally a mere Greek transliteration of the Latin rex and generally refers to tribal kings of foreign peoples. According to the root of the word * h3reg̑- ('to straighten', 'to stretch out'), the job of the rex was to 'rule', i.e. to keep the world 'upright' and perpendic…

Philanthropa

(151 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (φιλάνθρωπα/ philánthrōpa, neuter? pl. 'philanthropic <decrees>'). Specific, publicly announced measures by the Ptolemaic kings on economic and/or political preferential treatment (e.g. tax reduction, amnesty) for the population of the kingdom or certain groups (see Ptolemaeus [9] VI. Philometor; Ptolemaeus [12] VIII. Euergetes II.). As a rule, the philanthropa's aim was to prevent unrest which was threatening or had already arisen, and of also increasing the favourable reception of the respective ruler. On inscriptions in Hell…

Butilinus

(87 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] Alemannic duke in Frankish service. In AD 539, he accompanied king Theudebert I on a campaign to Italy. In 552, B. accepted a request for help by the Goths and, on his own initiative, crossed Italy together with his brother Leuthari and reportedly 75,000 men down to the straits of Messina. After great success ini- tially, the venture came to an end in 554 near Casilinum where B. lost a battle against Narses and his life as well. PLRE 3A, 253f. Eder, Walter (Berlin)

Troezen inscription

(242 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] An inscription discovered in Troezen in 1959 ([1; 2]; translation in [3. 20 f.]) with the text of a decree of the Athenian People's Assembly proposed by Themistocles (the 'Decree of Themistocles'), which decreed the evacuation of the inhabitants of Attica to Salamis and the repatriation of exiles before the naval battle of Cape Artemisium (Persian Wars) in 480 BC; in its present form, it can be dated to the 3rd cent. BC [4. 2; 2. 48]. Its authenticity was soon doubted and the TI w…

Zenis

(113 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ζῆνις/ Zênis). [German version] [1] Sub-satrap of Pharnabazus [2], 5th cent. BC Z. from Dardanus [4], sub-satrap of Pharnabazus [2] in the Troad (in Xen. Hell. 3,1,10: Aeolis); after his death, his wife Mania [3], with the assent of Pharnabazus, took over power and ruled successfully until her assassination shortly before the arrival of Dercylidas in 411 BC (Xen. Hell. 3,1,14; 3,1,16). Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] From Chios, author of a work on his homeland, 4th cent. BC? (also Ζηνεύς/ Zēneús). Writer from Chios, possibly 4th cent. BC; he wrote 'about his hom…

Envoys

(181 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] (Greek ἄγγελοι/ ángeloi, πρέσβεις/ présbeis, ἀπόστολοι/ apóstoloi; Lat. missi, nuntii). Despite a lively inter-state exchange, antiquity had no fixed institution for maintaining contact with foreign states through envoys in the sense of constant representation. Envoys were mostly appointed for a certain period, for certain duties and with set competencies. The importance of the work is shown from the fact that they were never appointed by  lot but in Greece as a rule were selected by the p…

Latin Wars

(582 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin)
[German version] is the term for the military conflicts between Rome and the Latin League ( Latini D.) - of which Rome was not a member - and between Rome and individual Latin towns that sporadically occurred from the beginning of the Republic (about 510 BC) to the dissolution of the League by Rome in 338 BC. The first Latin War can be considered as an attempt of the Latins to end Rome's dominant position. Rome had become the dominant power among the Latins under its kings Servius Tullius [I 4] and Tarquinius [12] Superbus (cf. Liv. 1,52) and made it …
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