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Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. remained on the side of Rome…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Calvinus

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Calvinus [1] see  Domitius [German version] Calvinus [2] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period particularly common in the  Domitii family, but also in the Sextii and Veturii (ThlL, Onom. 108). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Privernas

(24 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('Victor over“Privernum”'), byname of L. Aemilius [I 24] Mamercinus P. (perhaps invented later). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 182.

Antius

(238 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebian gentile name. [German version] [1] (Ateius ?), C. Senator (middle of the 1st cent. BC) Senator 54 BC (Cic. Att. 4,17,4). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Sp. Roman envoy 438 BC Roman envoy, killed by Fidenates in 438 BC (statue on the rostra, Cic. Phil. 9,4 f.; Livy 4,17,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Briso, M. Tribunus plebis 137 BC Tribune in 137 BC, effective in opposing lex tabellaria of L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Brut. 67). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Restio (?), C. Tribunus plebis probably 68 BC Tribune …

Baebius

(1,433 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (Schulze 133; ThlL 2,1674f.). The family played an eminent role since the 2nd Punic War but did not achieve a lasting position in the top ranks of Roman nobility during the Republic. The most important family is that of the Tamp(h)ili. The Baebii produced several officials in imperial times. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] B. (Tamphilus), M. Tribunus plebis 103 BC (?), as tribune of the people, he offered resistance against the lex agraria of L.  Appuleius Saturninus in 103 BC (Vir. ill. 73,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] B. Deleg…

Nucula

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probable origin as a nickname, ‘nut’ (Fest. 176 L.; cf. Cic. De or. 2,253), Numisius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 89; 337.

Aburius

(90 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] C., Roman envoy (171 BC) C., envoy to King Masinissa and the Carthaginians 171 BC; his offspring was possibly the mint master C. Aburius Geminus 134 (MRR 1, 418; RRC 276). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Tribunus plebis (187 BC) M., attempted as tribunus plebis in 187 BC to prevent the triumph of M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 39,4-6); Praetor inter peregrinos 176 (Liv. 41,14; 15). His offspring was possibly the mint master M. Aburius Geminus 132 (MRR 2,369; 400; RRC 280). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Heius

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Latin proper name (Schulze 459). [German version] H., C. Around 75 BC a respected and rich citizen of the Sicilian city of Messana. Of his possessions  Verres stole four famous Greek statues and valuable carpets (Cic. Verr. 2,4,3-19; 27). In spite of this, in 70, on behalf of his community, he appeared in Rome for Verres as a witness for the defence but incriminated him in the cross-examination by Cicero (Verr. 2,2,13; 4,15-19; 150; 5,47). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Florus

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘blond’, ‘radiant’, with ablaut, related to flavus [1]), in the Republican period epithet of C. Aquilius [I 11] F. and L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Annius F. Lat. poet and writer, 1st/2nd cent. AD Under the cognomen Florus (in conjunction with the family name Annius or Ann(a)eus and the first name P. or L.) four works or groups of works are known: 1. the introduction to a dialogue Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. and 3. fragment of a correspondence (Charisius, Gramm. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) and an exchange o…

Gurges

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Throat’, pejorative ‘Spendthrift’, Macrob. Sat. 3,13,7; cf. gurgulio), in the Republican period in the family of the Fabii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 269 Walde/Hofmann 1, 627f.

Lafrenius, T.

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] One of the twelve praetors of the insurgent Italians during the Social War [3]. L. fell in 90 BC, in the battle against Ser. Sulpicius Galba (App. B Civ. 1,181; 204-206; ILLRP 1089). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cn.

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Abbreviation of the uncommon Lat. Praenomen Gnaeus (Old Lat. Gnaivos, Oscan Gnaivs, Etruscan cneve), from (g)naevus, ‘birthmark’, also abbreviated as Gn. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Walde/Hofmann, 1, 613 Salomies, 29f.

Gallus

(122 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[II] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘Gaul’). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] see Cornelius [II 18] Gallus see  Cornelius [II 18] Gallus Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P.G. Eques, exiled AD 65 Eques, who was friendly with the praef. praet.  Faenius Rufus and the consular  Antistius [II 12] Vetus and was therefore exiled in AD 65 (PIR2 G 66). In Tacitus the name is rendered as Publius Gallus, but that is out of the question. A nomen gentile is concealed behind Publius, perhaps Publilius? Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, in: Splendidissima civitas.…

Centho

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (perhaps of Etruscan origin) in the Claudian family [1. 149]; probably linked to cento ‘suit of rags’ [2. 200]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 2 Walde/Hofmann I3.

Aquillius

(1,358 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentile name (less commonly Aquilius; see ThLL, 2,375), in the 5th cent. BC also patrician, but the bearers do not appear to be historical. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Aquillii fratres (end of the 6th cent. BC) Supposedly conspired against the newly established Republic and were executed (Liv. 2,4-5; Plut. Pobl. 4-7 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. (Tuscus ?), C. Cos. 487 BC Consul in 487 BC, fought according to tradition against the Hernici and received an ovatio (Liv. 2,40,14; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,67,1; MRR 1,19-20).    Elvers, Ka…

Caedicius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian lineage, attestable from the 5th cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 18f.). [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune in 475 BC People's tribune in 475 BC (MRR 1, 28). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., M. Roman, allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC allegedly heard a divine voice near the Vesta temple in 391 BC, warning him of the impending attack by the Gauls. In the same place, the sanctuary of  Aius Locutius was later erected. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] C., Q. Centurion against the Etruscans According to a later a…

Pius

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen. In the Republican Period, confined to the Caecilii Metelli (Caecilius [I 31-32]); found among numerous other gentes in the Imperial Period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 251. [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 2nd or 3rd cent. AD? Grammarian, tentatively dated to the late 2nd or late 3rd cent. AD, active in Memphis and Sparta (Schol. Hom. Od. δ 356; θ 372), i.a.; author of a commentary (EM 821,55) on Homer, the essentials of which (explanations of voca…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Rufus

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
Common Roman cognomen ('red-haired', 'redhead', Quint. Inst. 1,4,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] [- - -]us R. Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia with an impressive monument in Rome Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia, probably in the final period of the Republic or the first years of Augustus. An impressive monument was erected for him in Rome by more than six cities of the province (CIL VI 1508 = 41054; cf. IGUR 71). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, CIL VI 1508 (Moretti IGUR 71) und die Gestaltung senatorischer Ehrenmonumente, in: Chiron 14, 1984, 201-217  PIR2 R …

Thalna

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, Iuventius [I 5-8]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 94.

Annius Fetialis

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman historian, probably of the 1st cent. AD, often cited as a source in Pliny's HN (HRR 12 317). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius 2, 649.

Calenus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably for descent from Cales) in the gens  Fufia in the 1st cent. BC; frequent epigraphical attestations in the imperial age (ThlL, Onom. 79). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Sicinius

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian nomen gentile, often confused with Siccius; members of the family frequently appear as people's tribunes in the 5th cent. BC, but the family is otherwise insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., C. Tradition links S. with the origins and early development of the people's tribunate ( tribunus plebis ): S. was firstly the initiator of the secessio plebis of 494 BC and then one of the people's tribunes, subsequently elected for the first time (Liv. 2,32,2; 2,33,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,45,2; 6,8…

Caninius

(427 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Plebeian family name, attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (Schulze, 144; ThlL, Onom. 137f.). [German version] [1] C. Gallus, L. People's tribune 56 BC People's tribune 56 BC; he sought, without success, the reinstatement of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt (MRR 2,209). In 56 BC, he was defended by Cicero (Fam. 7,1,4), in 51 BC in Athens frequently in his company, and visited him in Rome in 46 BC. He died in 44 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C. Gallus, L. Consul in 37 BC Son of C. [1], consul of 37 BC with M. Vipsanius  Agrippa (MRR 2,395; PIR 22 C 389). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) …

Satureius

(32 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Tr. pl. in 133 BC, in a fight was the first to hit Ti. Sempronius [I 16] Gracchus with a chair leg (Plut. Ti. Gracchus 19,10). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Carvilius

(362 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian (probably immigrant) family, attested in the 3rd-2nd cents. BC, but later disappeared (ThlL, Onom. 219f.; Schulze, 139, A.8; 403; 454). The quaestor and witness in the trial of Camillus in 391 BC, Sp. C. (MRR 1,93), may have been a later fabrication; there was also a chieftain of Britain by the name of C. (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1). [German version] [1] C., L. Tribunus plebis 212 BC People's tribune in 212 BC, alongside Sp. C., perhaps his brother. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] C., Sp. Leader of a scribal school Freedman of Sp. C. Maximus Ruga, around 2…

Kaeso

(91 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also Caeso). Uncommon Latin praenomen, perhaps of Etruscan origin, abbreviated K.; according to ancient etymology it indicates a child born by Caesarean section (Liber de praenominibus 6; Fest. 50L; Plin. HN 7,47). Because K. appears among patrician families only in the Fabii and Quinctii, who were the first to hold the priesthood of the luperci, according to Mommsen it may denote the ritual ‘striking’ ( caedere) at the festival of the Lupercalia and originally have been the name of a lupercus ( Lupercal). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Salomies, 26f.

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Septumuleius

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Rare Roman family name. In 121 BC L. S. delivered the head of C. Sempronius [I 11] Gracchus to the consul C. Opimius [1] and allegedly was given its weight in gold for it (Cic. De or. 2,269; Diod. Sic. 35,29; Plut. C. Gracchus 17,4 f. etc.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Lactuca

(307 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Lettuce plant Lettuce (θρίδαξ/ thrídax, also θρύ-, θρόδαξ/ thrý-, thródax, θριδακίνη/ thridakínē, Lactuca sativa L.), the lettuce plant known in several varieties (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,4,5 et passim), whose cultivation and protection against pests, as well as culinary and medical uses, are described by Theophrastus. Thus, according to Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,6,2, its juice is said to help against dropsy and eye sores. Lettuce has been cultivated in Europe, North Africa and Asia for a long time …

Varius

(1,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from Varus. Name-bearers first attested in the 1st cent. BC, but only in the Imperial period did they attain any prominence. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V. Cotyla, L. Aedile in 48, 47 or 44 BC (Cic. Phil. 13,26), emissary at Rome for M. Antonius [I 9] in 43, and his legate in Gallia transalpina (Cic. Phil. 5,5-7; 8,24-32; Plut. Antonius 18,8). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V. Rufus, L. Roman poet, c. 70-15 BC Renowned Roman poet (Hor. Ars P. 55) of the Augustan period (c. 70-15 BC). Wi…

Maecenas

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Μαικήνας; Maikḗnas). Etruscan family name (cf. mehnate, mehnati and similar); the family is recorded in inscriptions for Perusia (modern Perugia) and was probably originally settled there. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Friend and counsellor of Octavian (Augustus), 1st cent. BC Father of M. [2], mentioned as early as 44 BC among the friends and counsellors of Octavian ( Augustus) (Nicolaus of Damascus, Vita Caesaris 31,133). Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) [German version] [2] Patron of literature, 1st cent. BC M., less often - with the family name of the…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Bulbus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the onion’) among the Atilii (ThlL 2.2239). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Aelius

(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Friend des M. Antonius Friend of the triumvir Marcus Antonius [I 9], who tried in vain to persuade the latter to return to Rome in 32 BC and become reconciled with Octavian (Plut. Antonius 59,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1]…

Tucca

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen of Etruscan origin, Plotius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 106.

Aternius

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name of a Patrician gens, disappeared early, in Imperial times occasionally the name for slaves and freedpersons (Schulze 269; ThlL 2,1022). In 454 BC, consul A. Varus Fontinalis enacted a law regarding the payment of penalties; in 448, he allegedly became a tribunus plebis though he was a patrician (Liv. 3,65,1; MRR 1,42f.; 50). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Dives

(57 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen indicating wealth in the case of L. Baebius [I 7] D. and L. Canuleius [I 5] D. It became hereditary for the descendants of P.  Licinius Crassus D. ( pontifex maximus in 212 BC; cf. Plin. HN 33,133). Wrongly attributed to the triumvir M.  Licinius Crassus (cos. 70, 55 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ocella

(50 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('small-eyed'). It appeared first in the family of the Livii, from the time of the Late Republic, and then also in the families of the Servii and the Sulpicii (the emperor Galba [2] for instance). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 260 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 239.

Alfius

(360 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] Historian, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC, published a work of history or epic probably about the first Punic war ( bellum Carthaginiense Fest. 158 M), perhaps identical to no. 5 [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Banker Banker (Hor. Epod. 2,67). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Marius, 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC Marius, Campanian, fell in 215 BC fighting against Rome (Liv. 23,35,13; 19). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schanz/Hosius, 1, 202. [German version] [4] Avitus Latin poet of the 2nd/3rd…

Bithynicus

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman family cognomen among the Pomponii and for M.  Insteius B. (cos. suff. AD 162) otherwise used among slaves and emancipated slaves (ThlL 2,2018f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Favonius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Flamant, Jaques (Venelles)
Rare Roman family name, occurring in Latium (Schulze 563). [German version] [1] F., M. Opponent of P. Clodius Pulcher He came from the municipal elite and was a follower of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), whose political and personal intransigence he attempted to imitate, leading to envy and numerous electoral defeats. In 61 BC he attacked P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, in 60 he unsuccessfully charged Q. Caecilius [I 32] Metellus Pius Scipio. In the 50s he opposed Caesar, Pompey and Crassus in vain. He became aedile in 5…

Flaminius

(897 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentile name (occupational designation, derived from the priestly office of the flamen [1]). Bearers of the name have emerged from the 3rd cent. BC. But the family is probably older, as can be seen from the place names campus Flaminius and prata Flaminia (Varro, Ling. 5,154; Liv. 3,54,15; 3,58,7) that can, however, also be interpreted as ‘property of the flamines’ (Oros. 5,18,27; [2]). Via Flaminia  F. [1]. [German version] [1] F., C. Cos. 217 BC in the 2nd Punic War Homo novus who was successful in his career despite the resistance of a large part of the nobili…

Lucanus

(1,709 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon)
Italic surname, Lucanius [1. 532]; better known as a Roman cognomen, probably originally an ethnicon from the place name Luca [1. 532; 2. 193]. In the fasti of the Imperial period in the family of the Claudii, Curvii, Domitii, Titii [3. 257]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] M. Annaeus L. Epic poet Lucan, 1st cent. AD The Roman epic poet Lucan. Vessey, David T. (Huntingdon) [German version] A. Life L. was born on 3 November AD 39 in Corduba as son of a family often described as Spanish, but more probably descended from Italic colonists. He came t…
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