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Daimachos (716)

(9,037 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2010. About this Historian Historian: Daimachos (of Plataiai) Jacoby number: 716 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC, 4th century BC-3rd century BC 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XI. India Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 716 T 1 Source: Strabo, Geographica [Vide: Apollodorus et Eratosthenes apud Strabonem], 2, 1, 9, 70 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC 1st century AD Source language: Greek Fragmen…

Antipatros (114)

(1,463 words)

Author(s): Buckler, John | Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and John Buckler and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Antipatros Jacoby number: 114 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | B. Specific History and Monographs | b. Philippika Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 114 T 1 Source: Suda, α 2703, s.v. Ἀντίπατρος Adler Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: biography-to 500 - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Suda, Lexicon , Ἀντίπατρος· ᾽Ιολάου·…

Anonymoi (721)

(27,277 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2014. About this Historian Historian: Anonymoi Jacoby number: 721 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC 3rd century BC Historical focus: Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 721 F 1 Source: Strabo, Geography, 1.2.35 C. 43,18-20 Radt Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century BC, 1st century BC-1st century AD 1st century AD Source language: Fragment subject: mythology, greek - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Strabo, Katasterismoi, 1.2.35 C. 43,18-20 RadtΘεόπομπος δὲ ἐξομολογεῖται, φήσας ὅτι καὶ μύθ…

Daimachos (of Plataiai) (65)

(11,277 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2011. About this Historian Historian: Daimachos (of Plataiai) Jacoby number: 65 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC 3rd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | A. General History and Chronography | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 65 T 1a Source: Porphyrios, apud Eusebium Caesariensem 10.3.3 p. 464b (ed.: K. Mras, Die Praeparatio evangelica T. 1. Einleitung. die Bücher I-X, 2. überarbeitete Auflage hg. von E. Des Places (Berlin 19822)) Work mentioned: Source date: 3rd …

Orthagoras   (713)

(9,299 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2010. About this Historian Historian: Orthagoras   Jacoby number: 713 Attested works: uncertain: F1, F2, F4, F5; Indian Accounts: F3, F4, F5 Historian's date: 4th century BC, late 4th or early 3rd century BC (?) 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XI. India Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 713 F 1 Source: Philostratos (L. Flavius Philostratus), The Life of Apollonios of Tyana (ed. Jones), 2.17 Work mentioned: uncertain Source dat…

Xenophon of Athens (111)

(967 words)

Author(s): Buckler, John | Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and John Buckler and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Xenophon of Athens Jacoby number: 111 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | B. Specific History and Monographs | a. The Period until Philip and Alexander Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 111 T 1 Source: Diogenes Laertios, Lives of the Philosophers 2.29 (ed. M. Marcovich, Diogenis Laertii vitae philosophorum, vol. I, Libri I-X (Stuttgart - Leipzig 1999), 132-133 modified) W…

Kephisodoros (112)

(1,808 words)

Author(s): Buckler, John | Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and John Buckler and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Kephisodoros Jacoby number: 112 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | B. Specific History and Monographs | a. The Period until Philip and Alexander Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 112 F 1 Source: Anonymous, Commentary on Aristotle, Ethica Nicomachea 3.11.2 p. 1116b 6 (ed. G. Heylbut, Eustratii et Michaelis et anonymi in Ethica Nicomachea commentaria = Commentaria in Aristotelem …

Demetrios of Kallatis (85)

(9,691 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2008. About this Historian Historian: Demetrios of Kallatis Jacoby number: 85 Attested works: On Asia and Europe: T1 - T5, F1 - F6 Historian's date: 3rd century BC 2nd century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | A. General History and Chronography | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 85 T 1 Source: Diogenes Laertios, Lives of the Philosophers 5.83 (M. Marcovich, Diogenis Laertii vitae philosophorum, vol. I, libri I-X, Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana (…

Sosander (714)

(2,162 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2007. About this Historian Historian: Sosander Jacoby number: 714 Attested works: Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XI. India Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 714 T 1 Source: Markianos of Heraclea, Epitomes, 2 Work mentioned: Source date: uncertain Source language: Greek Fragment subject: geography, ancient - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Markianos of Heraclea, Epitomes, 2γράφω δὲ ταῦτα πολλ…

Lamachos (of Smyrna?) (116)

(1,569 words)

Author(s): Buckler, John | Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and John Buckler and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Lamachos (of Smyrna?) Jacoby number: 116 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | B. Specific History and Monographs | b. Philippika Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 116 T 1a Source: Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes 9.1 (ed. K. Ziegler, Plutarchi vitae parallelae 1.2 (Leipzig 1959)) Work mentioned: Source date: 1st century AD, late 1st - early 2nd century AD 2nd century AD Source language: Gree…

Philiskos of Miletos (337B)

(9,319 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2009. About this Historian Historian: Philiskos of Miletos Jacoby number: 337B Attested works: On Miletus: T1b, On Amphictyonies: T1b, Art of Rhetoric: T1b, T9, Sayings of Isokrates: T1b, funeral epigram on Lysias??: T8, On Egypt: T9, On Sicily: T9, On the Trikaranon: T9, On Naukratis: T9, On the Tyrant Dionysios: T9, Theology of the Egyptians: T9, Demegoria: T9, On Syria and Lybia: T9, Life of Lykourgos: F1, uncertain: F2, Historian's date: 5th century BC 4th century BC Historical focus: Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 3…

Protagorides of Kyzikos (853)

(5,818 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2008. About this Historian Historian: Protagorides of Kyzikos Jacoby number: 853 Attested works: Lectures on Love: T2, On the Games at Daphne: F1, On the Festive Assemblies at Daphne: F2a, On the Festive Assemblies at Daphne: F2b, Comic Histories: F3, Historian's date: 2nd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXXII. Syria Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 853 T 1 Source: Scholia, Alexipharmaca, 1 Work mentioned: Source date: 1st centu…

Dionysodoros Boiotos (68)

(3,886 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2008. About this Historian Historian: Dionysodoros Boiotos Jacoby number: 68 Attested works: On Greece: T1, F1 Historian's date: 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | A. General History and Chronography | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 68 T 1 Source: Diodoros of Sicily, Historical Library 15.94.4 (ed. C. Vial, Diodore de Sicile Bibliothèque historique. Livre XV (Paris 1977), 120) Work mentioned: On Greece Source date: 1st century BC Source language: Greek Fragment subject…

Theagenes (774)

(9,366 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 April 2008. About this Historian Historian: Theagenes Jacoby number: 774 Attested works: On Macedonia: T1, F1 - F18 Historian's date: uncertain Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | C. Authors on Single Countries | XXII. Macedonia Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 774 T 1 Source: Photios, Bibliotheca (Bekker I.) [Vide: Agatharchides, anonymus.Proclus & Ptolemaeus Chennus apud Photium], 161, 104 b 13 Work mentioned: On Macedonia Source date: 9th century AD Source language: Greek Fr…

Hegemon of Alexandreia Troas (110)

(1,592 words)

Author(s): Buckler, John | Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and John Buckler and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Hegemon of Alexandreia Troas Jacoby number: 110 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | B. Specific History and Monographs | a. The Period until Philip and Alexander Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 110 T 1 Source: Stephanos of Byzantion, Ethnika, α 200, s.v. ᾽Αλεξάνδρεια (ed. M. Billerbeck, Stephani Byzanini Ethnica, vol. I: A-G (Berlin 2006)) Work mentioned: Source date: 6th century AD S…

Agias and Derkylos (305)

(13,442 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Agias and Derkylos Jacoby number: 305 Attested works: Historian's date: 4th century BC 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | B. Authors on Single Cities and Regions | IX. Argos Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 305 T 1a Source: Scholia on Antimachus = Papyrus Cairo 6574.2.21-22 (ed. B. Wyss, Antimachi Colophonii Reliquiae (Berlin 1936; repr. 1974), 83) Work mentioned: Source date: 3rd century BC, 3rd century BC - 2nd …

Dionysios of Halikarnassos (251)

(17,889 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2011. About this Historian Historian: Dionysios of Halikarnassos Jacoby number: 251 Attested works: Historian's date: 1st century BC, 1st century BC - 1st century AD 1st century AD Historical focus: II. Chronography ( Political-Military History) | D. Chronologies | Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 251 T 1 Source: Suda, δ 1174, s.v. Διονύσιος ᾽Αλεξάνδρου ᾽Αλικαρνασεύς Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Fragment subject: rhetoric, ancient - Library of Congress Textual base: Jacoby Suda…

Agathokles (472)

(16,343 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes
This entry was prepared by Johannes Engels and published on 1 October 2008. About this Historian Historian: Agathokles Jacoby number: 472 Attested works: On Kyzikos: F7bis, Historian's date: 3rd century BC Historical focus: III. History of Cities and Peoples ( Horography and Ethnography) | B. Authors on Single Cities and Regions | XLII. Kyzikos Place of origin: unknown   BNJ 472 T 1 Source: Suda, π 3035, s.v. Πτολεμαῖος (ed. A. Adler, Suidae Lexicon, Pars IV P-PS, Lexicographi Graeci 1 (Leipzig 1935), 254) Work mentioned: Source date: 10th century AD Source language: Greek Source genre: F…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Leosthenes

(368 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωσθένης; Leōsthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 4th cent. BC Outstanding Athenian rhetor from the Cephale deme (Aeschin. Leg. 124), father of Leosthenes [2]. Sent as stratēgós against Alexander [15] of Pherae in 362/1 or 361/60 BC, L. was prosecuted in Athens for treason and condemned to death after Peparethus and Panormus had fallen to Alexander and the Piraeus was threatened (Polyaenus, Strat. 6,2,1f.). L. went into exile at the Macedonian court, where he was held in high standing by Philippus II (Diod. Sic. 15,95,2f.; Aeschin. Leg. 124; Hyp. 3,1 Jensen ).…

Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Lycinus

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυκῖνος; Lykînos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Athenian, initiated a paranómōn action against a psḗphisma in 347 BC, which at the request of Aeschines [2] required Philip II to send envoys to Athens to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC). L. petitioned for a fine of 100 talents against Aeschines but did not even receive a fifth of the judges' votes (Aeschin. Leg. 13f.; Aeschin. In Ctes. 62). PA 9198. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Commander of a Macedonian garrison in Megara, 3rd cent. BC Greek of the 3rd cent. BC, was exiled from his homela…

Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Lysitheides

(159 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυσιθείδης; Lysitheídēs). [German version] [1] Persian-friendly Greek, 5th cent. BC A pro-Persian Greek of the 5th cent. BC, rendered great services to the army of Xerxes and is said to have introduced to it Themistocles who had fled from Greece (Diod. Sic. 11,56,4-8; however in Plut. Themistocles 26,4 Nicogenes is mentioned instead of L.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Rich Athenian, 4th cent. BC Rich Athenian (Dem. Or. 21,157) from the deme of Cicynna who owned land in the mining area of Attica; student of Isocrates and honoured with a go…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Lamian War

(157 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Lamian (or ‘Hellenic’) War, named after the polis of Lamia, was waged by the Athenians and Aetolians and their allies against Antipater [1]. Its causes were, specifically, Alexander [4] the Great's decree on the exiles, and generally, the hope that the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas could be undone in the wake of Alexander's death (323 BC). After early successes under the leadership of Leosthenes [2], the land war became bogged down at Lamia, where Antipater was besieged i…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Thucritus

(46 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θούκριτος; Thoúkritos). Son of Thucritides of the deme Halimus; Athenian, whose son Euxitheus had to attest to the citizenship of Th. in a trial c. 346 BC (Dem. Or. 57,28,67 f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN 2, s. v. T., p. 227 No 7  PA 7259.

Nausicles

(155 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ναυσικλῆς; Nausiklês). Son of Clearchus from the deme of Oe, c. 390-before 325/4 BC (IG II2 1629c,707), in 352 sent as an Athenian strategos (Diod. 16,37,3; Demosth. or. 18,115) to help the Phocaeans. Possibly commander of the Athenian troops that stopped Philip II at Thermopylae. Follower of Eubulus [1]. In 346 one of the negotiators of the peace of Philocrates (hypothesis 2,4 on Demosth. Or. 19). N. was given the distinction of two wreaths of honour (Demosth. Or. 18,114; IG II2 1496 col. 2,40; 3,49), was renewed as strategos in 334/3 (IG II2 1623b,329f), proposed impo…

Xenophron

(90 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ξενόφρων/ Xenóphrōn). 4th cent. BC Athenian living as one of the hetaíroi of Philippus [I 4] II at his court in Pella [1], son of Phaedria (according to Xen. Hell. 2,3,2 one of the 'Thirty', Triákonta , of 404/3, but in Dem. Or. 19,196, it is his father Phaedimus that is mentioned). X. organized a symposium in Pella in 346 for the Athenian ambassadors to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates [2] (but Aeschin. Leg. 157 names the host as Xenodocus). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11295 Traill, PAA 733980.

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian s…

Hegesileos

(86 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγησίλεως; Hēgēsíleōs). Relative of Eubulus of Probalinthus (Dem. Or. 19,290),   strategos of the Athenian troops in the battle of Mantinea in 362 BC (Xen. Vect. 3,7; Ephoros FGrH 70 F 85; Diod. Sic. 15,84,2) and probably in 349/8 again strategos of the At…

Xenopeithes

(142 words)

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Antiphon

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris)
(Ἀντιφῶν; Antiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of the 5th cent. BC) Athenian, who towards the end of the Peloponnesian War equipped two triremes. He was executed 404/403 BC by the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,3,40; Traill PAA, 138325). He is probably identical with an A., for whose daughter  Lysias gave an oration (Traill PAA, 138320; cf. Theop. FGrH 115 F 120 = Plut. Mor. 833A-B). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian (middle of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian, was removed from the list of citizens. Thereafter he allegedly promised  Philippu…

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Ar…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/…

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he was sent with a command to the Hellespont in 360/59 BC. Since Charidemus had switched to fight on  Cotys' [I 1] side, he and C. unexpectedly faced each other as enemies. A treaty negotiated by C. to end hostilities was rejected by Athens, C. was deposed, accused with an   eisangelía and senten…

Demochares

(472 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δημοχάρης; Dēmochárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian delegate to Philip II, mocked by Seneca Mentioned by Seneca as an Athenian delegate to Philip II and compared to the Homeric  Thersites because of his open and bold style of speech (cf. Il. 2,212ff.) (Sen. De ira 3,23,2f.). Possibly identical with D. [3] PA 3716. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Relative of Demosthenes the orator The son of Demon of the Paeania deme, a relative of  Demosthenes, possibly as commander of the cavalry, he was Athenian delegate and witness of the oath of

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Chremonides

(135 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Χρεμωνίδης; Chremōnídēs). Son of Eteocles; Athenian politician of the 3rd cent. BC, from the Aethalidae deme. In the summer of 268 BC he proposed the resolution that the Athenian people ally themselves with Sparta and other Greek states; their decision led to the Chremonidean War (cf. IG II…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed …
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