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Ctesiphon

(390 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin)
(Κτησιφῶν; Ktésiphôn). [German version] [1] Athenian, supporter of Demosthenes [2], 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Leosthenes from Anaphlystus, supporter of  Demosthenes [2], whom he had successfully, though technically pre-empting official endorsement ( Euthynae), proposed in 337/6 for a crowning.  Aeschines [2] lodged a protest against this that was unambiguously rejected in 330 at the ‘crown trial’ (Aeschin. In Ctes.; Dem. Or. 18; Plut. Mor. 840C and 846A). C. was also one of the emissaries to queen Cleopatra in Epirus (Aeschin. In Ctes. 242). Engels, Johannes (C…

Xenocles

(633 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ξενοκλῆς; Xenoklês). [German version] [1] See Little-Master cups See Little-Master cups. Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Attic tragic poet, end of 5th cent. BC Attic tragic poet, end of the 5th cent. BC, son of Carcinus [3] (family tree: TrGF I 21, p. 129), frequently mocked in comedy (TrGF I 33 T 1-7); successful at the Dionysia in 415 (DID C 14) with Oedipus, Lycaon, Bacchae and the satyr play Athamas. There is evidence of the further titles Licymnius (one surviving verse, F 2) and possibly Myes (Μύες, Mice) (but cf. TrGF I 21 T 3 d-e). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) …

Dinarchus

(546 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δείναρχος; Deínarchos). [German version] A. Life Attic orator, born about 361 BC in Corinth, son of Sostratus, died after 292. The source of information on his life is the (incompletely transmitted) treatise De Dinarcho of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who relied in particular on a lost speech by D. (‘Against Proxenus’); the other lives (Ps.-Plut., Photius, Suda) depend on Dionysius. D. relocated in his younger years ( c. 340/38) to Athens, lived there as a metic and had links to the Peripatetic school. After about 336/5 he was active as a  logographer. Despite his successful activity …

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Leosthenes

(368 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωσθένης; Leōsthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 4th cent. BC Outstanding Athenian rhetor from the Cephale deme (Aeschin. Leg. 124), father of Leosthenes [2]. Sent as stratēgós against Alexander [15] of Pherae in 362/1 or 361/60 BC, L. was prosecuted in Athens for treason and condemned to death after Peparethus and Panormus had fallen to Alexander and the Piraeus was threatened (Polyaenus, Strat. 6,2,1f.). L. went into exile at the Macedonian court, where he was held in high standing by Philippus II (Diod. Sic. 15,95,2f.; Aeschin. Leg. 124; Hyp. 3,1 Jensen ).…

Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Lycinus

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυκῖνος; Lykînos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Athenian, initiated a paranómōn action against a psḗphisma in 347 BC, which at the request of Aeschines [2] required Philip II to send envoys to Athens to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC). L. petitioned for a fine of 100 talents against Aeschines but did not even receive a fifth of the judges' votes (Aeschin. Leg. 13f.; Aeschin. In Ctes. 62). PA 9198. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Commander of a Macedonian garrison in Megara, 3rd cent. BC Greek of the 3rd cent. BC, was exiled from his homela…

Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Lysitheides

(159 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυσιθείδης; Lysitheídēs). [German version] [1] Persian-friendly Greek, 5th cent. BC A pro-Persian Greek of the 5th cent. BC, rendered great services to the army of Xerxes and is said to have introduced to it Themistocles who had fled from Greece (Diod. Sic. 11,56,4-8; however in Plut. Themistocles 26,4 Nicogenes is mentioned instead of L.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Rich Athenian, 4th cent. BC Rich Athenian (Dem. Or. 21,157) from the deme of Cicynna who owned land in the mining area of Attica; student of Isocrates and honoured with a go…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Lamian War

(157 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Lamian (or ‘Hellenic’) War, named after the polis of Lamia, was waged by the Athenians and Aetolians and their allies against Antipater [1]. Its causes were, specifically, Alexander [4] the Great's decree on the exiles, and generally, the hope that the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas could be undone in the wake of Alexander's death (323 BC). After early successes under the leadership of Leosthenes [2], the land war became bogged down at Lamia, where Antipater was besieged i…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Thucritus

(46 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θούκριτος; Thoúkritos). Son of Thucritides of the deme Halimus; Athenian, whose son Euxitheus had to attest to the citizenship of Th. in a trial c. 346 BC (Dem. Or. 57,28,67 f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN 2, s. v. T., p. 227 No 7  PA 7259.

Diopeithes

(409 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Διοπείθης; Diopeíthēs). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Author of Old Comedy, only known from inscriptions; probably won at the Dionysia for the first time in 451 BC [1. test.]. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 43. [German version] [2] Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by Pericles Athenian oracle consultant and fanatical opponent of the enlightenment promoted by  Pericles. Following his petition it was decided in 437/6(?) BC to prosecute those who did not believe in the …

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Cercidas

(694 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Κερκιδᾶς, Κερκίδας; Kerkidâs, Kerkídas). [German version] [1] Arcadian orator, supposedly acting in the political interest of Philippus II C., an Arcadian orator mentioned by  Demosthenes [2] (Dem. Or. 18,295) in his famous ‘list of traitors’ in the speech ‘On the Crown’ and supposedly acting in the political interest of  Philippus II (similar also Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 119; Pol. 18,14,1-2). The conclusiveness of the accusations by Demosthenes and Theopompus can no longer be verified. C. was descended from a rich…

Polycles

(443 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Πολυκλῆς/ Polyklês). [German version] [1] Athenian councillor 367/6 BC Son of Polycrates from the deme of Anagyrous; Athenian councillor in 367/6 BC (Agora XV,14) and several times trierarch and syntrierarch (IG II2 1609,105 f.; 1611,371; 1622b,238 and 1630,6: again 327/6-325/4 BC). P. did not take over his trierarchy until a long time after the appointed date, for which he was taken to court by Apollodorus [1] in 359 BC (Dem. Or. 50). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 465 f.  Develin, Nr. 2567  PA 11988. [German version] [2] Sculptor in bronze from Argos, 4th cent. BC Scul…

Therippides

(70 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θηριππίδης; Thērippídēs). Athenian of the first half of the 4th cent. BC from the Paeania deme, lessee of mines, friend of the father of the rhetor Demosthenes [2] and appointed his guardian. On reaching majority Demosthenes sued him for misappropriating his inheritance (Dem. Or. 27,4 and 12-49; 28,12-16; SEG 28,205; 29,155). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN II T. S. 225 No. 3  PA 7238  Schäfer vol. 1, 270 f.

Cephisodotus

(988 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κηφισόδωτος; Kēphisódōtos). [German version] [1] Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of Aigos Potami Athenian stratēgós, killed in 405/4 BC in the battle of  Aigos Potami or executed afterwards with other Athenian prisoners of war (Xen. Hell. 2,1,16-32; Diod. Sic. 13,105f.; Plut. Alcibiades 36,4; Plut. Lysander 13,1) [1]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian stratēgós, friend of  Charidemus, whom he unexpectedly faced as enemy in 360/59 BC Athenian stratēgós from the Acharnae deme; friend of  Charidemus [2], on whose request he …

Demochares

(472 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δημοχάρης; Dēmochárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian delegate to Philip II, mocked by Seneca Mentioned by Seneca as an Athenian delegate to Philip II and compared to the Homeric  Thersites because of his open and bold style of speech (cf. Il. 2,212ff.) (Sen. De ira 3,23,2f.). Possibly identical with D. [3] PA 3716. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Relative of Demosthenes the orator The son of Demon of the Paeania deme, a relative of  Demosthenes, possibly as commander of the cavalry, he was Athenian delegate and witness of the oath of symmachia with Amyntas (IG II2 102,19?…

Mantias

(261 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Μαντίας; Mantías). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 360/359 BC Son of Mantitheus of Thoricus In 377/76 BC tamias of the shipyards (IG II2 1622,435f). In 360/359 BC Athenian strategos of a naval division and auxiliary troops sent to assist the Macedonian claimant Argaeus against Philip II. By delaying in Methone, he was co-responsible for Argaeus's defeat (Diod. Sic. 16,2,6 and 16,3,5; in c. 358/7). Details about his family are distorted by diabolḗ (‘slander, calumny’) in Demosthenes (Or. 39 and 40). For his trierarchies cf. IG II2 1604,10 and 46 as well as 1609,61f. Engels, Joh…

Lachares

(480 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Λαχάρης; Lacháres). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and confidant of Cassander Athenian, demagogue and confidant of Cassander. L. succeeded, with a mercenary force, in establishing a rulership in Athens, probably from early in 300 BC to early in 295 (Olympiad Chronicle FGrH 257a F 1-4; Plut. Demetrius 33; however, IG II2 646 indicates 294 BC), which is described in ancient sources as a tyrannis, although fundamental organs of democracy continued to operate. Following the death of Cassander (297), L. managed to hold out, but was forced …

Chremonides

(135 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Χρεμωνίδης; Chremōnídēs). Son of Eteocles; Athenian politician of the 3rd cent. BC, from the Aethalidae deme. In the summer of 268 BC he proposed the resolution that the Athenian people ally themselves with Sparta and other Greek states; their decision led to the Chremonidean War (cf. IG II2 686-687 = StV 476), at the end of which C. fled to Ptolemy II in Alexandria with his brother Glaucon (cf. Teles, περὶ φυγῆς p. 23 Hense). There he became a counsellor and adviser (σύμβουλος; sýmboulos and πάρεδρος; páredros, Teles p. 23 H.). It was as a nauarch of Ptolemy that…

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Dercylus

(73 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Δερκύλος; Derkýlos). Son of Autocles of Hagnous, Athenian emissary to  Philippus II for the Peace of Philocrates in 346 BC (Aeschin. Leg. 47; 140; Dem. Or. 19,60,125. 175). D. was guarantor for Athenian ships in 341/40 (IG II2 1623, 179-180) and was strategos in 319/8 (Plut. Phocion 32,5; Nep. Phocion 2,4; IG II2 1187: honour conferred by the demos of the Eleusinians). (PA and APF 3249).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne)

Milyas

(216 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Trustee of the legacy of Demosthenes Milyas (Μιλύας; Milýas), a confidant of Demosthenes [2], administered his inheritance. In a legal dispute between Demosthenes and his guardians, the latter accused M. of irregularities. Aphobus demanded that the presumed slave M. be handed over for interrogation under torture. Demosthenes refused, on the grounds that M. had already been freed by his father (cf. Dem. Or. 29). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Schäfer, Vol. 4, supplements, 1885, 82-85 Traill, PAA 653990. [German version] [2] Region in southern Asia…

Callippus

(640 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κάλλιππος; Kállippos). [German version] [1] Athenian student of Plato Athenian student of  Plato, who took Callistratus, who had been sentenced in an   eisangelía proceeding, to Thasos in 361 BC on the order of the stratēgós Timomachus (Dem. Or. 50,47-52). In 357 C. evaded charges in Athens by accompanying  Dion [I 1] during his enforced return to Sicily (Plut. Dion 22,5 and 54,1; Pl. Ep. 7, 333e). Though initially held in high esteem by Dion as a philosophical and political advisor and ‘condottiere’, C. turned against Dion in 3…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Pythias

(115 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Πυθιάς; Pythiás). [German version] [1] Wife of Aristotle [6] Niece and probably adopted daughter of Hermias [1] of Atarneus, wife of the philosopher Aristotle [6], who married her, presumably after the death of Hermias, in  341. They had a daughter called P. [2] and a son called Nicomachus, the eponym of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Diog. Laert. 5,3-4; Str. 13,1,57). P. died before 322 BC. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Aristotle [6] and P. [1] Daughter of the philosopher Aristotle [6] and P. [1]; wife of Nicanor, a cousin of her fathe…

Democles

(138 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δημοκλῆς; Dēmoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted to flee from erotic pursuit by Demetrius Poliorcetes At the baths the Athenian D. saved himself as an ‘immature boy’ (παῖς ἄνηβος; paîs ánēbos) from erotic pursuit by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes by jumping into a kettle of boiling water but was killed as a result (Plut. Demetrios 24,2-6). D. is not identical with the defender of the sons of Lycurgus against the suits of Moerocles and Menesaechmus (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 842E).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic orator of the school of Theophrastus Attic o…

Aphobetus

(108 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀφόβητος; Aphóbētos). Son of Atrometus of the Attic deme of Cothocidae, younger brother of  Aeschines [2], the rhetor, born c. 395, died after 343 BC, from 377/76 to 353/2 hypogrammateus and   grammateus (Dem. Or. 19,237; 249) and from 350/49 to 347/46?) elected highest financial official of Athens, a friend of  Eubulus whom he helped to manage the   theorika . He enjoyed political influence before 343 (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Envoy from Athens to Philip II in 346 (Aeschin. Leg. 94-95; Dem. Or. 19,124) and in 343 to the Persian court (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Engels, Johannes (Col…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Thrasylochus

(167 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θρασύλοχος/Thrasýlochos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Son of Cephisodorus from the Anagyrus deme, Athenian, brother of Meidias [2] (Dem. Or. 21,78; 28,17); in 363 BC he forced Demosthenes [2] into a costly trierarchia with an antidosis action; he was himself a triḗrarchos, probably as early as 361 (Ps.-Dem. Or. 50,52) yet before 325/4 (IG II2 1629d,753 f.; 1631b,121 f.). A dedication to Amphiaraus 338-330 BC is preserved epigraphically (SEG 15,285); PA 7347; Davies 385 f. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Messene, politician, 4th cent. BC Mess…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Cephisius

(58 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Κηφίσιος; Kēphísios). The Athenian C. was the main accuser of  Andocides [1] in the Trial of the Mysteries in 399 BC; C. levelled harsh reproaches against his political and religious violations, which must in part be ascribed to rhetorical slander (And. 1,92-93; Lys. 6,42). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography A. Missiou, The Subversive Oratory of Andokides, 1992, 50.

Phano

(60 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φανώ; Phanṓ). Daughter of the hetaera Neaera [6] and Stephanus, first married to the Athenian Phrastor, then divorced. Then her father married her to the árchōn basileús Theogenes ([Dem.] Or. 59,79ff.). After a scandal because of her doubtful citizenship she was divorced from him as well. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Carey, Apollodoros Against Neaira [Demosthenes 59], 1992.

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…
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