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Siculi

(290 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Σικελοί/ Sikeloí). People in Sicilia. Ancient writings date the arrival of the S. from Italy variously (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 79b 3: three generations, Philistos FGrH 556 F 46,4: 80 years before the Trojan War, Thuc. 6,2,5: 300 years before the Greeks' western colonisation). Modern archaeological studies date it to the end of the 2nd millennium BC (end of the Bronze Age; finds from Cassibile: 1050-850 BC). It was preceded by settlement of small Ausonian groups to the north east from…

Sicani

(604 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Σικανοί/ Sikanoí). People in Sicily whose origin was already being discussed by ancient authors: Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 38; according to Thuc. 6,2,2 also others) considers them autochthonous, according to others (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 79; Thuc. 6,2,2; Philistus FGrH 556 F 45; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 136; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,22,2) they originated near the Sicanus River in Iberia, from where they had been driven away by the Ligures. It was from them that the island of Sicily, previously call…

Trogilus

(92 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Τρώγιλος;  Trṓgilos). Coastal strip near Syracusae (Thuc. 6,99,1; 7,2,4; Liv. 25,23,10: portus Trogilorum; Sil. Pun. 14,259), identical with either (1) the 1 km long Cape Mazzarona with its many caves on the eastern edge of Epipolae (between the coast of Cappuccini and the Scoglio Due Fratelli [1. 827]) or (2) the coast on the northeastern edge of Epipolae (near Cape Santa Panagia [2. 28 f.; 3. 61 f.]). Falco Bibliography 1 H. P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakusai, RE Suppl. 13, 815-836 2 L. Polacco, R. Mirisola, Tucidide: la spedizione ateniese contro Sir…

Iaitia

(26 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia
[English version] (Ἰαιτία). Stadt auf Sizilien (Diod. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; vgl. HN 148), wohl identisch mit Ietai (s. Nachträge). Falco, Giulia

Stiela

(147 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Στίελ(λ)α; Stíel(l)a). Fortified city in Sicilia of unknown location (Sophron fr. [1.67]; Philistus FGrH 556 F 20), in the vicinity of Megara according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Στύελλα (corrected to Στιελα based on coins) [3]. In view of the legends STA/STI/ STIA, S. is to be attributed with two series of coins (5th/4th cent. BC) ([2]; a single coin was found in excavations: Francavilla di Sicilia west of Taormina [3]). The relationship with coins from Catane and Leontini suggests that S. was located there ([4; 5]: near Portiere Stella in the plain of Catania). Falco, Giulia (…

Cossura

(91 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος; Kóssoura, Kós(s)ouros, Lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulcanic island between Sicily and Africa, modern Pantelleria, before the Punic Wars under Carthaginian rule, in the First Punic War temporarily, after 217 BC finally conquered by Rome and attached to the province of Sicilia. The partially Phoenician inscriptions of coins demonstrate that the population was Punic for a considerable time later. Remains from the Prehistoric to Byzantine periods. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff. Id., At…

Elymi

(292 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔλυμοι; Élymoi). Pre-Greek tribe in western Sicily, thought by Thucydides (6,2,3; cf. Str. 13,1,53) to be descendants of Trojan refugees ( Elymus); according to Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 79b), they were forced out of southern Italy by the Oinotroi. They were generally allied with the Phoenicians and hostile towards the Greeks. Following their Hellenization in the 5th cent. BC, they are no longer mentioned as a tribe. The names of their towns ( Eryx, Segesta,  Entella) point to Ligurian…

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Ecnomum

(149 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (ἔκνομον; éknomon). Massif in southern Sicily near the mouth of the Salso above Licata. The discovery of remnants from archaic times (chthonic sanctuary, necropolis) in Mollarella and newer studies about the mountain [1], which was bordered by a subsidiary of the ancient Himeras and was located towards the sea, suggest [2] the location of E. west of Monte S. Angelo (Poliscia plateau) and not on its eastern foothills as was previously thought. References: Diod. Sic. 19,108 (fortress…

Himera

(487 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Ἱμέρα; Himéra). The settlers understood the non-Greek place name as ἡμέρα ( hēméra, ‘day’) and made the cock their coat-of-arms (coins), also alluded to by Pind. Ol. 12,13. Apart from  Mylae, H. was the only ancient Greek colony on the north coast of Sicily, pushed way up towards Phoenician territory, founded, starting from Zancle  - 240 years before its destruction in 409, in other words in 649 BC (Diod. Sic. 1…

Miscera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μίσκερα/ Mískera). Town in Sicania (Sicani; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Location unknown. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Thapsus

(352 words)

Author(s): Falco | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Θάψος/ Thápsos). [German version] [1] Tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily Flat, sandy (Serv. Aen. 3,688) tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily, northwest of Syracusae, connected with the mainland via an isthmus of c. 100 m (Thuc. 6,97,1), modern Penisola di Magnisi. Around 730 BC Lamis from Megara [2] settled on T. after he had abandoned Trotilum and been driven out of Leontini; after his death, his companions left T. in order to make a new home in Megara [3] Hyblaia 7 km to the north (Thuc. 6,4,1). There was an empórion ('trade port') on T. from the 15t…

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Mons Neptunius

(49 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Mountain range in north-eastern Sicily (Solin. 5,12), modern Monti Peloritani, named after the Temple of Poseidon which the mythical hunter Orion [1] is said to have erected on Mt. Pelorias (Hes. in Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Eryce

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐρύκη; Erýkē). Town in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐ., s.v. Παλική), located most probably in the mountainous area [1] of Ramacca [2]. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἰαιτία; Iaitía). Town in Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; cf. HN 148), probably identical to  Ietae. Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Endesa

(100 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Siculan town [1] in the territory of Himera, mentioned in a dedication to Hera Thespis (rather than to Leukaspis [2]) inscribed on both sides of a relief. It was found in the Heraion of Samos and shows on one side a round shield and on the other the bow of the ship Samaina. The dedication was probably presented by citizens of Samos when they besieged Endesa (500 BC). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis?, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 120-126.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to …

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Tyche

(702 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Falco
(Τύχη/ Týchē, Τύχα/ Týcha). [German version] [1] Greek goddess of fate Greek goddess of fate, the personification of the abstract term tyche ('fate', 'chance'; 'fortune' - both good and bad), etymologically related to the verb τυγχάνειν/ tynchánein ('hit', 'meet with', 'be favoured with', 'happen accidentally'). The close connection between the two aspects (by what is called 'Person-Bereichdenken') often makes it very difficult in Greek literature to distinguish between the deity and the abstraction [3.35-36]. No specific myth is associated with the personified figure…

Eknomon

(148 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἔκνομον). Gebirgsstock in Südsizilien nahe der Mündung des Salso oberhalb Licata. Die Entdeckung von Resten aus archa. Zeit (chthonisches Heiligtum, Nekropole) in Mollarella und neuere Untersuchungen über den Berg [1], der von einem Nebenfluß des ant. Himeras berührt wurde und auf der Seeseite lag, legen es nahe [2], E. im Westen des Monte S. Angelo (Poliscia-Hochebene) zu lokalisieren und nicht, wie bisher angenommen, an seinen östl. Ausläufern. Erwähnungen: Diod. 19,108 (Burg …

Thermai

(223 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus; Falco, Giulia
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sicilia | Straßen (Θέρμαι αἱ τῶν Ἱμεραίων/ Th. hai tōn Himeraíōn, wörtl. “Th. der Himerer”, lat. Thermae). Stadt an der Nordküste von Sicilia, h. Termini Imerese. Zwei J. nachdem die Karthager (Phönizier) Himera zerstört hatten, gründeten sie 407 v. Chr. die 12 km westl. gelegene, nach den dortigen heißen Quellen benannte Stadt Th. als punisch-libysche Kolonie (Diod. 13,79,8). Auch die Überlebenden von Himera fanden hier eine Heimat (Cic. Verr. 2,86). 39…

Engyon

(111 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἔγγυον). Stadt im Innern von Sizilien, angeblich von Kretern gegründet (Diod. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), von Timoleon dem Tyrannen Leptines entrissen (Diod. 16,72), im 2. Pun. Krieg auf Seiten von Karthago und doch von Marcellus glimpflich behandelt (Plut., ebd.), nach Cic. Verr. 3,103 civitas decumana, nach Plin. nat. 3,91 stipendiarii; berühmt war das Heiligtum der ‘Mütter’ (Plut. ebd.), bei Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 der Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, mit Reliquien des Meriones und des Odysseus. Zweifelsfrei mit Troina gleichzusetzen [1. 13013; 2]. Falco, Giuli…

Makella

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μάκελλα; lat. Macela, ILS 65, Z. 4). Sizil. Binnenstadt, nicht lokalisierbar. Nach dem Seesieg bei Mylai 260 v.Chr. von C. Duilius [1] erobert, im 2. Punischen Krieg zeitweise auf pun. Seite, im Sklavenkrieg 102 v.Chr. Standquartier des Athenion [2]. Plin. nat. 3,91 rechnet die Magellini unter die stipendiarii. Belegstellen: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Echetla

(99 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἐχέτλα). Stadt im Innern von Sicilia, Leontinoi, Syrakusai und Kamarina benachbart (Diod. 20,32), im Grenzgebiet zw. den Einflußgebieten Karthagos und Hierons II. (Pol. 1,15,10). Zu Anf. des 1. Pun. Krieges von den Römern belagert. Plin. nat. 3,91 nennt die Bürger von E. stipendiarii. E. lag, nach der Namensähnlichkeit zu schließen, auf dem Hügel Occhialà bei Grammichele östl. Caltagirone, wo sikulisch-griech. Reste und ein Demeter-Heiligtum festgestellt wurden. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, BTCGI 7, 164-169  R.M. Alba…

Eryke

(45 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἐρύκη). Stadt in Sizilien (Steph. Byz. s.v. E., s.v. Παλική), höchstwahrscheinlich im Bergland [1] von Ramacca [2] zu suchen. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Kossura

(85 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος, lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulkanische Insel zw. Sizilien und Afrika, h. Pantelleria, bis zu den Pun. Kriegen unter karthagischer Herrschaft, im Ersten Pun. Krieg vorübergehend, 217 v.Chr. endgültig von den Römern erobert und zur Prov. Sicilia geschlagen. Die z.T. phoinik. Beschriftung der Mz. zeigt, daß die Bevölkerung noch lange pun. war. Überreste von prähistor. bis zu byz. Zeit. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff.  Ders., Attività ricognitiva a Pantelleria, in: Kokalos 39/40,…

Miskera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μίσκερα). Nicht lokalisierte Stadt der Sikania (Sikanoi; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Piakos

(63 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Πίακος). Stadt auf Sicilia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), verm. nordwestl. von Catania bei Adrano im Viertel Mendolito. Mz.-Funde legen diese Lokalisierung nahe: eine br. (425-420 v.Chr.) und eine silberne (ca. 400 v.Chr.) Emission sowie die auf einem Exemplar verzeichnete doppelte Legende Piakinos/ Adran. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Trogilos

(89 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia; Olshausen, Eckart
[English version] (Τρώγιλος). Küstenstreifen bei Syrakusai (Thuk. 6,99,1; 7,2,4; Liv. 25,23,10: portus Trogilorum; Sil. 14,259), identisch entweder mit (1) dem am östl. Rand von Epipolai gelegenen, 1 km langen, grottenreichen Kap Mazzarona (zw. der Küste von Cappuccini und dem Scoglio Due Fratelli [1. 827]) oder mit (2) der Küste am nö Rand von Epipolai (beim Kap Santa Panagia [2. 28 f.; 3. 61 f.]). Falco, Giulia; Olshausen, Eckart Bibliography 1 H. P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakusai, RE Suppl. 13, 815-836 2 L. Polacco, R. Mirisola, Tucidide: la spedizione ateniese co…

Tissa

(58 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus; Falco, Giulia
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sicilia (Τίσσα). Stadt im Innern von Sicilia, Lage unbekannt (Philistos FGrH 556 F 37; Ptol. 3,4,12). Als civitas decumana war T. an der Klageerhebung gegen Verres 71/0 v. Chr. beteiligt (Cic. Verr. 2,3,86 f.: Tissenses). Meister, Klaus; Falco, Giulia Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 236 f.

Motyon

(55 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μότυον). Festung im Gebiet von Akragas, 451 v.Chr. von Duketios besetzt, im J. darauf von Akragas zurückerobert (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Möglicherweise beim h. Vassallaggi zu lokalisieren. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Phalarion

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Φαλάριον). Festung (φρούριον) bei Gela auf Sicilia, wohl die am Monte Desusino (429 m H) entdeckte Befestigungsanlage, im 6. Jh.v.Chr. von Phalaris gegr. Hier lagerte 311 v.Chr. Agathokles [2] im Kampf gegen die Karthager (Diod. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Mons Neptunius

(45 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Gebirgszug im NO von Sicilia (Solin. 5,12), h. Monti Peloritani, benannt nach dem Poseidon-Tempel, den der mythische Jäger Orion [1] auf dem Pelorias errichtet haben soll (Hes. bei Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Pantakyas

(67 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Παντακύας, Παντακίας). Fluß, der an der Ostküste von Sicilia im Süden der Bucht von Katane bei Brucoli mündet, h. Porcaria. Am P. legte Lamis aus Megara 729 v.Chr. die Siedlung Trotilon an, die aber nach kurzer Zeit aufgegeben wurde. Weitere Belege: Thuk. 6,4,1; vgl. Plin. nat. 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Merusion

(37 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Μερούσιον). Nicht lokalisierte, 70 Stadien (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) von Syrakusai entfernte Siedlung, wahrscheinlich in der Nähe eines Heiligtums der Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Elymoi

(278 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Ἔλυμοι). Vorgriech. Volk in Westsizilien, von Thukydides (6,2,3; vgl. Strab. 13,1,53) für Nachkommen geflüchteter Troer (Elymos) gehalten, nach Hellanikos (FGrH 4 F 79b) von den Oinotroi aus Südit. verdrängt; meist mit den Phoinikes verbündet und den Griechen feindlich; nach ihrer Hellenisierung im 5. Jh.v.Chr. nicht mehr als Volk erwähnt. Die Namen ihrer Städte (Eryx, Segesta, Entella) weisen auf ligurische Herkunft. Neue arch. Untersuchungen [1; 2] haben jedoch Inschr. zutage …

Endesa

(102 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Sikulische Ortschaft [1] im Gebiet von Himera, in einer Weihung an Hera Thespis (eher als an Leukaspis [2]) erwähnt, die sich auf den beiden Seiten eines Reliefs befindet. Sie wurde im Heraion von Samos gefunden und zeigt auf der einen Seite einen runden Schild, auf der anderen den Bug des Schiffes Samaina. Die Weihung wurde wahrscheinlich von Bürgern von Samos dargebracht, als sie E. belagerten (500 v.Chr.). Falco, Giulia (Athen) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis…

Himera

(437 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Kolonisation | Sicilia (Ἱμέρα). Den nichtgriech. ON verstanden die Siedler als ἡμέρα ( hēméra, “Tag”) und machten den Hahn zu ihrem Wappen (Mz.), worauf auch Pind. O. 12,13 anspielt. H. war außer Mylai die einzige alte griech. Kolonie an der Nordküste Siziliens, weit gegen den phöniz. Bereich vorgeschoben, gegr. von Zankle aus - 240 J. vor der Zerstörung 409, also 649 v.Chr. (Diod. 13,62,4) - als ion.-dor. Siedlung (Thuk. 6,5,…

Entella

(185 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sicilia (Ἔντελλα), h. Rocca d'Entella westl. Corleone. Stadt der Elymoi in Westsizilien (Thuk. 6,2,3), oft gen. in den Kriegen Dionysios' I. und des Timoleon mit den Karthagern (Diod. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), von Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 zu den civitates decumanae, von Plin. nat. 3,91 zu den stipendiarii gezählt, erst im 13. Jh. von Friedrich II. zerstört. Die Unt. der Siedlung und des dazugehörigen Gebiets (1983 begonnen) hat Zeugnisse aus archa. Zeit bis ins MA zutage gefördert [1…

Gaulos

(195 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athen)
[English version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος). Nordwestl. Insel der Malta-Gruppe (h. Gozzo), zuerst erwähnt von Hekataios (FGrH 1 F 341; vgl. Strab. 6,2,11; Diod. 5,12,4: Lage im offenen Meer mit guten Häfen; Prok. BV 1,14; Plin. nat. 3,92). Name wohl phoinik.: γαῦλος, “rundes Lastschiff”. Im 8. Jh. von Phoinikern besiedelt, später in karthagischem, griech. und seit 220 v.Chr. in röm. Besitz. Im Innern der Insel lag ein gleichnamiger Ort. Mz. mit griech. und pun. Aufschriften (HN 883). - In Ggantija zwei in …

Ustica

(107 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin; Falco, Giulia
[English version] (Οὐστίκα; auch h. Ústica). Kleine (8,6 km2, 239 m H) urspr. vulkanische Insel vor der NW-Küste von Sicilia (Plin. nat. 3,92; Ptol. 3,4,17), 57 km nördl. von Panormos [3] im mare Tyrrhenum, wohl identisch mit der bei Diod. 5,11,1 zu den Aeoli insulae gerechneten νῆσος Ὀστεώδης/ nḗsos Osteṓdēs (vgl. Mela 2,7,120). Arch. Grabungen im Bereich von I Faraglioni (Colombaia): eine prähistor. Siedlung der mittleren Brz. und Gräber mit phoinikischen oder karthagischen Beigaben; des weiteren Mosaike, Mz. und anderes Material aus röm. Zeit. Gärtner, Hans Armin; Falco, …

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…
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