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Stiela

(147 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Στίελ(λ)α; Stíel(l)a). Fortified city in Sicilia of unknown location (Sophron fr. [1.67]; Philistus FGrH 556 F 20), in the vicinity of Megara according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Στύελλα (corrected to Στιελα based on coins) [3]. In view of the legends STA/STI/ STIA, S. is to be attributed with two series of coins (5th/4th cent. BC) ([2]; a single coin was found in excavations: Francavilla di Sicilia west of Taormina [3]). The relationship with coins from Catane and Leontini suggests that S. was located there ([4; 5]: near Portiere Stella in the plain of Catania). Falco, Giulia (…

Cossura

(91 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος; Kóssoura, Kós(s)ouros, Lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulcanic island between Sicily and Africa, modern Pantelleria, before the Punic Wars under Carthaginian rule, in the First Punic War temporarily, after 217 BC finally conquered by Rome and attached to the province of Sicilia. The partially Phoenician inscriptions of coins demonstrate that the population was Punic for a considerable time later. Remains from the Prehistoric to Byzantine periods. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff. Id., At…

Elymi

(292 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔλυμοι; Élymoi). Pre-Greek tribe in western Sicily, thought by Thucydides (6,2,3; cf. Str. 13,1,53) to be descendants of Trojan refugees ( Elymus); according to Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 79b), they were forced out of southern Italy by the Oinotroi. They were generally allied with the Phoenicians and hostile towards the Greeks. Following their Hellenization in the 5th cent. BC, they are no longer mentioned as a tribe. The names of their towns ( Eryx, Segesta,  Entella) point to Ligurian…

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Ecnomum

(149 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (ἔκνομον; éknomon). Massif in southern Sicily near the mouth of the Salso above Licata. The discovery of remnants from archaic times (chthonic sanctuary, necropolis) in Mollarella and newer studies about the mountain [1], which was bordered by a subsidiary of the ancient Himeras and was located towards the sea, suggest [2] the location of E. west of Monte S. Angelo (Poliscia plateau) and not on its eastern foothills as was previously thought. References: Diod. Sic. 19,108 (fortress…

Himera

(487 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Ἱμέρα; Himéra). The settlers understood the non-Greek place name as ἡμέρα ( hēméra, ‘day’) and made the cock their coat-of-arms (coins), also alluded to by Pind. Ol. 12,13. Apart from  Mylae, H. was the only ancient Greek colony on the north coast of Sicily, pushed way up towards Phoenician territory, founded, starting from Zancle  - 240 years before its destruction in 409, in other words in 649 BC (Diod. Sic. 1…

Miscera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μίσκερα/ Mískera). Town in Sicania (Sicani; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Location unknown. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Mons Neptunius

(49 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Mountain range in north-eastern Sicily (Solin. 5,12), modern Monti Peloritani, named after the Temple of Poseidon which the mythical hunter Orion [1] is said to have erected on Mt. Pelorias (Hes. in Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.

Eryce

(46 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐρύκη; Erýkē). Town in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐ., s.v. Παλική), located most probably in the mountainous area [1] of Ramacca [2]. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 V. Tartaro, La montagna di Ramacca e l'antica città di E., 1980 2 E. Procelli, s.v. Ramacca, BTCGI 14, 549-554.

Macella

(84 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μάκελλα/ Mákella; Latin Macela, ILS 65, l. 4). Sicilian inland city, cannot be located. After the naval victory of Mylae in 260 BC, captured by C. Duilius [1], in the Second Punic War at times on the Punic side, in the Slave War in 102 BC a military base of Athenion [2]. Plin. HN 3,91 counts the Magellini among the stipendiarii. Evidence: Pol. 1,24,2; Liv. 26,21; Diod. Sic. 23,4,2; Cass. Dio fr. 93,4; Ptol. 3,4,14. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 300-304.

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἰαιτία; Iaitía). Town in Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; cf. HN 148), probably identical to  Ietae. Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Endesa

(100 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Siculan town [1] in the territory of Himera, mentioned in a dedication to Hera Thespis (rather than to Leukaspis [2]) inscribed on both sides of a relief. It was found in the Heraion of Samos and shows on one side a round shield and on the other the bow of the ship Samaina. The dedication was probably presented by citizens of Samos when they besieged Endesa (500 BC). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis?, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 120-126.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to …

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Netum

(172 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νέητον, Νεαίτιον/ Néēton, Neaítion; Latin Netum). City of the Siculi in the southeastern part of Sicilia (Plin. HN 3,91: Netini; Ptol. 3,4,13), modern-day Noto Antica, located on the upper course of the Asinaro on a steep, heart-shaped bluff (420 m high), 16 km to the northwest of Noto. At the beginning of the 1st Punic War in 263 BC N. was awarded by Rome to the kingdom of Syracuse (Diod. 23,4,1: Νεαιτῖνοι; StV 3, No. 479). As part of the Roman province, N. was one of the favoured municipalities ( civitates foederatae) and expressly exempted from providing grain shipments ( cu…

Catane

(544 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Natural catastrophes (Κατάνη; Katánē, Lat. Catina). City on the east coast of Sicily on the fertile plain south of the volcano Mount  Etna [1], modern Catania; it was founded in 729 BC by Chalcidians who had some years previously settled in Naxos. In the 2nd half of the 6th cent., the lawgiver  Charondas was active in C; the town was visited by  Ibycus and  Xenophanes;  Stesichorus died there. In the 1st half of…

Motyca

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυκα, Μότουκα; Mótyka, Mόtouka). City of the Siculi in the southeast of Sicily (Ptol. 3,4,14), modern Módica to the south of Ragusa. Finds from as early as the prehistorical period. Ancient inscriptions from the area (IG XIV 243-253). The ager Mutycensis was the ager decumanus of the Roman province of Sicilia (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101; 120), the Mutycenses were stipendiarii (Plin. HN 3,91). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. M., RE 16, 407  BTCGI 10, 169-177  Morgantina Studies, 5 vols., 1981-1996.

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in the lagoon 8 km to the north of Marsala, modern Mozia on San Pantaleo. With Solus and Panormus, M. was the last fortress held by the Phoenicians in their retreat from the Greeks in western Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,6; own coins inscribed in Greek and Phoenician in the 5th and 4th cents. BC: HN 157f.) and was conquered and destroyed by Dionys…

Phocaeae

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φωκαῖαι/ Phokaîai). Unidentified quarter (χωρίον/ chōríon) of the city of Leontini. Some aristocrats from Leontini, who had gone away and settled in Syracuse (Syracusae) but then left again because of  conflicts, withdrew to Ph. and the nearby fortress of Bricinniae in 422 BC. Many of the democrats previously driven out of Leontini also soon gathered here in order to take up the fight with Syracuse (Thuc. 5,4,4). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 218.

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Phoenicussa, Phoenicodes

(107 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φοινικοῦσσα/ Phoinikoûssa, Φοινικώδης/ Phoinikṓdēs, Latin Phoenicusa). The sixth of the Aeoliae Insulae in Plin. HN 3,94, modern Filicudi, between the islands of Aliculi in the west and Salina in the east. The date-palm island (φοῖνιξ/ phoînix, Aristot. Mir. 132; Str. 6,2,11) was used for pasture, but at times was settled: a prehistorical settlement has been discovered on Cape Graziano in the east of P., and also numerous graves of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Below sea-level there are remains of buildings surviving from various eras. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) F…

Camarina

(848 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | | Colonization | Punic Wars (Καμάρινα; Kamárina, Lat. Camarina, Camerina). Dorian town 60 km west of the southern tip of Sicily on a hillside of about 40 m in height, at the mouth of the Hipparis. The foundation by  Syracusae in 599 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3) marked the end of the Dorian-Syracusan expansion into the south-western hinterland. Its original foundation may have taken place from the sea; however, contact by land must soon have been established,…

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Casmenae

(415 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κασμέναι; Kasménai). Town in Sicily, founded by Syracuse in 644 BC (Thuc. 6,5,3); its fortified position and the lack of its own mint indicate its status as a dependent ‘military colony’. In 554/3 BC, Camarina, supported by several Siculan communities, attempted to free itself from Syracusan dependency. In the ensuing war, in which C. supported Syracuse, the town was destroyed (Dion. Hal. Epist. ad Pompeium 5,5 = FGrH 556 Philistus F 5 with the reading of 1. 2361). The remains of an inscription on a bronze…

Mazara

(125 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] Town on the Sicilian south coast 20 km southeast of Marsala at the mouth of the river of the same name, modern Mazara del Vallo, probably a Phoenician foundation. After the foundation of Selinus, the Mazara river was the border to Motya (later Lilybaeum) and Segesta and was therefore much disputed. In 409 BC, the town was conquered by Hannibal [1] on the march to Selinus (Diod. Sic. 13,54,6), and early in the First Punic War it was destroyed by the Romans (23,9,4) but continued to…

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Latomiai

(366 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λατομίαι/ Latomíai, Λιθοτομίαι; Lithotomíai, Latin Lautumiae). The quarries on the southern slope of the limestone terrace of Epipolae north of Syracusae that were obviously already in operation from the early period of Syracusae and that were later used as a prison. Xenophanes (123 A 33 DK) mentions the fish fossils found in them. The three largest latomiae (from which a total of 2.4 million m3 of rocks were quarried), with walls 25-35 m high, a length of up to 250 m and a width of 40-170 m (in Ael. VH 12,44: 1 stadium long, 2 plethra wide),…

Helorus

(294 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Ἕλωρος; Hélōros). [German version] [1] Ally of the Trojan Telephus Son of the river god Ister and brother of Actaeus; as an ally of the Trojan  Telephus, he fell in the battle of the Mysians against the Achaeans (Philostr. Heroicus 23,13f.,157). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) Bibliography A. Bettini, s.v. Aktaios II, LIMC 1.1, 470f. [German version] [2] River in eastern Sicily River in eastern Sicily, modern Tellaro. It has its origin near Palazzolo and flows into the mare Ionium 20 km north of the southern tip of the island. Often mentioned because of the battl…

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Phintias

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Town on the southern coast of Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Φιντιάς; Phintiás). Town on the southern coast of Sicily, modern Licata, founded in c. 280 BC by P., the tyrant of Acragas and settled by the residents of Gela driven out by the Mamertini (Diod. Sic. 22,2,2; 22,7,1); the inhabitants of P. therefore also continued to call themselves Gelṓioi (Γελῷοι, IG XIV 256-261; [1. 711 no. 588f.]). In 249 BC a Roman fleet was defeated at P. by the Carthaginians in connection with the 1st Punic War (Diod. Sic. 24,1,7…

Segesta

(657 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages (Σέγεστα/ Ségesta, Ἔγεστα/ É gesta, Αἵγεστα/ Haígesta). City (elevation 318 m) of the Elymi, like Entella and Eryx [1] in the west of Sicily (with map), 10 km to the southwest of Castellammare; the acropolis towers over the city to the northwest on Monte Bàrbaro (431 m). In traditional rivalry with Selinus [4] (earliest verifiable conflict 580/576 BC; Diod. Sic. 5,9), S. opposed Greek occup…

Mylae

(512 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Town in southern Perrhaebia (Μύλαι; Mýlai). Town in southern Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) between Chyretiae und Phalanna, mentioned in literature only about the year 171 BC, when it was captured and plundered by Perseus after a long resistance (Liv. 42,54,1ff.). Starting from the evidence in Livy, M. has been located in a citadel's ruins - the walls had been restored during the Byzantine period - on a steep hill above the Xerias (= Titaresius) near present Damasion, where also inscriptions attributed to M. have been discovered (IG IX 2, 332-337; [1]). Kramolisch, Herwig …

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Naxos

(1,805 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Island and city in the Cyclades This item can be found on the following maps: Ionic | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Νάξος, Náxos, Latin Naxus). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Geography City and island of the same name, the latter, with an area of just 420 km2, the largest of the Cyclades. A significant topographical  characteristic is a chain of mountains dividing the island from north to south (highest peak the Zia at 1004 m, also the highest poi…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Petra

(874 words)

Author(s): Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Πέτρα/ Pétra, 'rock') [German version] [1] Capital of the Nabataean Empire This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Limes | Rome | Rome | Egypt Capital of the Nabataean kingdom (Nabataei) in Edom, about 80 km to the south of the Dead Sea in the Wādı̄ Mūsā (in modern Jordan). The city is first mentioned by Diodorus [18] under the name Pétra (Diod. Sic. 19, 95-98) as the Nabataei's place of refuge and assembly ('High place, rock'). The inscriptionally documented Semitic name of P. is Raqmu. Although the surrounding are…

Panormus

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Πάνορμος; Pánormos). [German version] [1] Harbour on the coast of Karia Harbour on the coast of Karia (Stadiasmus maris magni 285; 287; 294 with contradictory details) between Miletus [2] and Myndus, located at a distance of 80 stadia (14.8 km) from them, therefore near (Aşağı) Gölköy, which is the location also assumed for Caryanda, near the natural harbour of the Türkbükü bay or further to the west at the Ağaçbaşı-Limanı bay (Paşa Limanı). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. P. (1), RE 18,3, 654  G.E. Bean, J.M. Cook, The Halicarnassus Peninsula, in: ABSA 50,…
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