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Mützell, Wilhelm Julius Karl

(196 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[German Version] (Nov 18, 1807, Konitz, Poland – Apr 8, 1862, Berlin). Mützell spent his childhood in Elbing; from 1826 he studied theology and philology in Halle; and from 1829 in Berlin, with a doctoral thesis on Hesiod's theogony. In 1833 he became an assistant, then a full lecturer, and in 1836 professor at the Royal Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin. In 1847 he founded the Zeitschrift für das Gymnasialwesen [Journal of secondary education]. In 1857 he was elevated to the schools council of the Mark of Brandenburg. Mützell worked for a German educational syst…

Mahrenholz, Christhard

(217 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[German Version] (Christian Reinhard; Aug 11, 1900, Adelebsen near Göttingen – Mar 15, 1980, Hannover) studied theology and musicology in Göttingen and Leipzig; wrote his doctoral thesis on S. Scheidt. After part-time academic work, marriage and ordination, he was from 1925 to 1926 pastor at St. Marien in Göttingen and co-founder of the Organ Reform Movement. From 1926 to1930 he was pastor at Groß-Lengden near Göttingen; from 1931 he served full time in the Hannover regional church office; and from 1935 to1937 was a member of the Reichskirchenausschuss. From 1960 to 1971 he was ab…

Ramin, Günther Werner Hans

(119 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[German Version] (Oct 15, 1898, Karlsruhe – Feb 27, 1956, Leipzig), German organist, harpsichordist, choirmaster, and composer; in Leipzig from 1910. Ramin studied under K. Straube; he was organist at Sankt Thomas and at the Gewandhaus (Leipzig) from 1933 to1938, and from 1945 to 1951, he directed the Gewandhaus choir; and from 1935 to 1943, the Berlin Philharmonic Choir. He was cantor at Sankt Thomas from 1940 to 1956. Ramin composed works for organ and choir, and wrote about the organ and the Bach tradition; he also published practical editions. Christian Finke Bibliography L. v. Koer…

Organist

(377 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[German Version] As generally understood, an organist is someone who plays the musical instrument known as the organ (cf. pianist, harpsichordist), also, in a more specialized sense, the name of an unprotected profes-¶ sion (Cantor and organist, church musician [Church music: VII]). Organists may play portative and chamber organs, as well as electronic organs, harmoniums, and other keyboard instruments. The building and playing of organs, with their specific styles and historical development, also determine the public image of the organist within and outside the church. Although…

Organist/Organistin

(367 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[English Version] Organist/Organistin, nach allg. Verständnis eine Person, die das Musikinstrument Orgel spielt (vgl. Pianist, Cembalist), im spezielleren Sinn auch eine nicht geschützte Berufsbez. (Kantor und Organist, Kirchenmusikerin [Kirchenmusik: VII.]). Als Instrumente kommen Portativ und Positiv ebenso in Betracht wie E-Orgel, Harmonium und andere Tasteninstrumente. Der Orgelbau und das Orgelspiel mit ihrer jeweils spezifischen Stilistik und hist. Entwicklung bedingen daher auch das Bild vom O. in der kirchl. und außerkirchl. Öffentlichkeit. Obschon ein übe…

Ramin

(85 words)

Author(s): Finke, Christian
[English Version] Ramin, Günther Werner Hans (15.10.1898 Karlsruhe – 27.2.1956 Leipzig), dt. Organist, Cembalist, Chorleiter und Komponist; seit 1910 in Leipzig. Studium bei K. Straube; Thomas- und Gewandhausorganist; leitete 1933–1938 und 1945–1951 den Gewandhauschor und 1935–1943 den Philharmonischen Chor Berlin. Thomaskantor 1940–1956. Vf. Werke für Orgel und Chor; Schriften zur Orgel und zur Bachpflege; praktische Editionen. Christian Finke Bibliography L.v. Koerber, Der Thomanerchor und sein Kantor, 1954 C. Ramin, G.R. Ein Lebensbericht, 1958 K.J. Schmitz (BBK…

Weihnachten

(6,248 words)

Author(s): Heinz, Andreas | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich 1.Entstehung W., dt. Bez. für das Geburtsfest Christi am 25.12., von mhd. wihen (heilige) nachten, womit urspr. die Losnächte um Wintersonnenwende und Jahreswechsel (24.12. – 6.1.) gemeint waren; auch und besser, weil den christl. Festinhalt eindeutig benennend, Christtag/-fest; in der lat. Liturgie natalis, dies nativitatis, nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi; griech. η῾ γεn̆ε´ϑλιος η῾με´ρα, τα` γεn̆ε´ϑλια, η῾ κατα` σα´ρκα γε´n̆n̆ησις του˜ κυρι´ου/hē genéthlios hēméra, tá genéthlia, hē katá sárka génnēsis toú kyríou; …

Christmas

(7,716 words)

Author(s): Roll, Susan K. | Köhle-Hezinger, Christel | Plank, Peter | Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hermelink, Jan | Et al.
[German Version] I. History – II. Christian Liturgy – III. Practical Theology – IV. Art History – V. Music I. History 1. Origins. “Christmas,” the nativity feast or birthday celebration of Christ on Dec 25, comes from Middle English Christmesse, Christ's Mass; cf. Dutch Kerstmis. The German Weihnachten, “holy nights,” refers to the twelve days between Dec 24 and Jan 6. The Lat. natalis, dies nativitatis, or nativitas domini nostri Jesu Christi is reflected in Span. navidad, Ital. natale. Gk ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τὰ γενέθλια, ἡ κατὰ σάρκα γέννησις τοῦ κυρίου/ hēgenéthlios h…

Church Music

(11,524 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward | Totzke, Irenäus | Ruff, Anthony William | Körndle, Franz | Westermeyer, Paul | Et al.
[German Version] I. Sources in Antiquity – II. Early Church – III. Eastern Churches – IV. Western Churches – V. Present – VI. Legal Issues – VII. Church Music Training I. Sources in Antiquity There is one lone musical reference (Gen 4:21) in the earliest OT strata, suggesting a minor role for music in Israel before c. 1200 bce. With the migration into Canaan, Israelite music-making flourished as exemplified by evidence of dirges (2 Sam 1:19–27), war songs (Num 21:14f.), victory songs (Exod 15:1–18, 20), magical incantations …