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Guido of Arezzo

(134 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] (c. 991/992 – after 1033) was, after Boethius of Late Antiquity, the most renowned music educator and theoretician of the Middle Ages. He was educated at the Benedictine Abbey of Pomposa (near Ravenna). Around 1025 he moved to Arezzo, where Bishop Theodaldus became his patron. In 1028 Guido was called to Rome by Pope John XI to demonstrate his version of the newly devised staff notation. His other important contributions were the devising of a hexachordal solfège system for learni…

Musica figuralis

(93 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] Musica figuralis, a term introduced in 16th-century German treatises distinguishing mensurally notated (often polyphonic) music ( musica figuralis) from equally-measured monophonic chant ( musica choralis). Treatises covered mensuration (the measurement of the length of the tone) only after treating pitch and its notation. The term musica figurata, also translated as “figural music,” distinguishes the complex rhythmic textures of the early Netherlands school (e.g. J. Ockeghem) from the simpler rhythmic textures ( musica reservata) of later composers (…

Burgess, William Pennington

(121 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] (1790–1860), English Methodist minister and writer. Burgess was ordained before 1815 and became minister to the church of St. George in the East, London, by 1842. His main contribution is the companion to the Methodist Hymnal. He did not deal systematically with each hymn, but grouped hymns together thematically, raising their theological and …

Gabrieli

(304 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] 1. Andrea (c. 1533, probably in Venice – 1585, Venice), was a prolific and talented composer. His professional appointments included organist at San Geremia in Cannaregio (1557) and from 1566 to 585 organist at San Marco. He wrote ceremonial music for the state and religious occasions in Venice; his music (including numerous motets and sacred concerti) was collected and published after his death by his nephew and most famous pupil Giovanni (2.). Bibliography Bibl.: see 2 below. 2. Giovanni (c. 1553/1556, Venice – 1612, Venice), a prolific and influential com…

Gloria in excelsis

(508 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The earliest attestations (4th-cent., Eastern) to a liturgical use of the Gloria assign it to the morning office or the end of the night office. This use persisted in the Eastern churches and also influenced some Western traditions. For example, the Milanese rite (Ambrosian Liturgy) includes a Gloria text with anti-Arian (and therefore probably 7th cent.) interpolations for the Morning Office. The Antiphonary of Bangor includes a translation of an Alexandrian version of the Gloria assigned to Vespers and Matins. It is not kn…

Concentus

(128 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William
[German Version] (Lat.: “a singing together; concord, agreement”) was an equivalent term in classical Roman usage to the Greek loan words symphonía and harmonía, meaning sounding together, or being in (musical) agreement. In the 16th century the term acquired a technical meaning at least in the treatise Musice active micrologus by Andreas Ornithoparcus (Leipzig 1517). In this treatise concentus refers to chants with a pronounced melodic content, for example hymns, sequences, antiphons, responsories, introits, tropes etc. Ornithoparcus …

Introit

(386 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The introit was the first song of the mass, sung during the entrance of the celebrant. It is first attested by the Ordo Romanus Primus and must therefore have been introduced before the end of the 7th century. It comprised an antiphon and a complete psalm when it accompanied a papal procession from the secretarium (sacristy near the entrance). The introit acquired its “Gregorian” form after 750 in France (approx. 150 authentic songs). It still lends its name to Sundays ( Laetare, Quasimodo Geniti et al.). II. Music The text and music appe…

Intonation

(81 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] (Lat. intonatio, Ital. intonazione). 1. Setting the pitch by the celebrant and/or cantor, for instance, for the Gloria or Credo. 2. Introductory notes for liturgical recitatives, for example, psalm notes. 3. Maintaining the pitch in song or other music. 4. An improvised or composed introductory piece to liturgical song by the organ or other instruments. 5. Tonal fine tuning in organ-building. William T. Flynn Bibliography M. Reimann, MGG 1 VI, 1957, 1365–1370 B. Sydow-Saak, “Intonatio-Intonation/intonare-intonieren,” HMT III, 1984.

Kyrie

(308 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The invocation “Lord have mercy” is frequent and widespread in the Christian liturgies. It often belongs to the litany (as described by the pilgrim Egeria in the context of 4th-century candelabra ceremonies in Jerusalem) and is known in this form both in the East and in the West (e.g. Benedict, Rule of Saint, chs. 9, 12, 18). It may have been in use as a response in the litany as early as the 5th century; some acclamations were sung by the congregation. By the 8th century ( Ordo Romanus Primus ) it had become a schola …

Church Modes

(120 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] are a system for classifying plainchant (Singing: III) according to its final pitch (“finalis”), which is identical to the tonic note (D, E, F or G), its range (authentic or plagal), and its melodic type (figuration). The system, developed by the Franks in the 8th century, was possibly modeled after the Byzantine octoechoi. Classification aided memorization, ensured a smooth connection between antiphons and psalmody, and formed a link with Late Antique music theory. With many adaptations, the system remained an…

Kyriale

(108 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] is the liturgical book or section of a book that contains chants for the ordinary of the Mass. Until the 16th century, such material could be found primarily in the appendices to graduals, or in collections of tropes or sequences (Liturgical books). During the 13th century, the chants of the ordinary were brought together, largely without their tropes, in individual cycles that marked the liturgical rank of the feast days. In the modern Roman kyriale (1905–1974), there are 18 such cycles and a few chants ad libitum. William T. Flynn Bibliography Graduale Romanum, 1974 Kyri…

Liturgical Chant Books

(423 words)

Author(s): Flynn, William T.
[German Version] The Roman breviary ( Breviarium Ecclesiae Romanae) and missal ( Missale Romanum) consolidate what was originally a wide variety of liturgical books designed for the use of specific participants in the liturgy. This article lists the books that were used by singers in both the mass and the ¶ daily office (Liturgy of the hours). Chant texts (later texts and melodies) were often first collected on short scrolls ( rotuli) and in small books ( libelli), which usually contained the chants (Chant and song) for a specific (often new) feast. These documents were …

Haydn

(586 words)

Author(s): Saliers, Don E. | Flynn, William
[German Version] 1. Franz Joseph (Mar 31, 1732, Rohrau, Austria – May 31, 1809, Vienna) was an Austrian composer of great importance for the history of music, who strongly influenced the mellow classical style and the form of the symphony, the string quartet, and the piano sonata. In addition, he composed 14 masses (IV), six oratorios and secular songs, church songs, chamber music, as well as various instrumental works. He received his musical education from the age of six, attending the choir school…

Creed

(932 words)

Author(s): Marthaler, Berard L. | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy The Creed (Confession [of faith]) has always had a prominent part in the liturgy. It had its beginnings in the liturgy in the three-part interrogations that asked those to be baptized: “Do you believe in God the Father… Do you believe in Jesus Christ… Do you believe in the Holy Spirit…?” By the end of the 2nd century, the declaratory form that is common today had begun to develop. By the 4th century it was customary i…

Doxology

(1,658 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Vollenweider, Samuel | Wainwright, Geoffrey | Flynn, William
[German Version] I. Form Criticism – II. Theology – III. Liturgy – IV. Music I. Form Criticism 1. Old Testament Derived from the expression δόξαν λέγειν ( dóxan légein; cf. Ps 28:9 LXX), in the OT doxology denotes the liturgical act of paying homage to the deity, which in turn has its roots in the ceremonial of the royal court. Words and gestures express veneration, glorification, and exaltation of the addressee together …