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Litany

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward | Bretschneider, Wolfgang
[German Version] I. Liturgy – II. Music I. Liturgy Litanies (from λετανεία/ letaneía, “public supplication”) are common among many worship traditions. A singer performs invocations or prayer request, to which the congregation each time responds with an identical request (e.g. Kyrie). Litanic patterns appear in the Old Testament (e.g. Ps. 136). Extra-biblical Jewish litanies include the selihot, based on Exod 34:6f., originally composed for days of fasting. While evidence for ¶ insistent prayer exists as early as Polycarp ( Pol. 12.3), clear evidence for litanies in Chris…

Passiontide

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward B.
[German Version] Since the 9th century (Amalarius of Metz, De Ordine Antiphonaril, ch. 43), Passiontide, narrowly defined, designates a period from the fifth Sunday in Lent to Holy Saturday (Fasting). Today in Protestant practice, Passiontide is synonymous with the 40-day period ( Quadragesima) which Catholics call the “penitential season” or “Lent.” In the Missal (1970) Passion Sunday is Palm Sunday. In Protestant liturgy the passion theme is dominant throughout Lent; historically, the character of Passiontide as preparation for Easter with fasti…

Pentecost

(602 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward B.
[German Version] is derived from the Greek word πεντηκοστή/ pentēkostḗ for “fiftieth” (meaning: the 50th day), and is employed in the Septuagint for the Jewish feast of Weeks (Shavu’ot; Feasts and festivals: II; III; Tob 2:1), 50 days after the feast of Unleavened Bread. Originally an agricultural celebration of grain harvest ending, it became the second of three Jewish pilgrim feasts (between Unleavened Bread and Booths). Eventually it was associated with the giving of the Law to Moses on Sinai. In the New Testament, Pentecost is the day the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit…

Church Music

(11,524 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward | Totzke, Irenäus | Ruff, Anthony William | Körndle, Franz | Westermeyer, Paul | Et al.
[German Version] I. Sources in Antiquity – II. Early Church – III. Eastern Churches – IV. Western Churches – V. Present – VI. Legal Issues – VII. Church Music Training I. Sources in Antiquity There is one lone musical reference (Gen 4:21) in the earliest OT strata, suggesting a minor role for music in Israel before c. 1200 bce. With the migration into Canaan, Israelite music-making flourished as exemplified by evidence of dirges (2 Sam 1:19–27), war songs (Num 21:14f.), victory songs (Exod 15:1–18, 20), magical incantations …

Ordo/Ordines

(414 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward B.
[German Version] The term ordo was borrowed from Roman law and civil administration and acquired various ecclesial, liturgical meanings within Christianity. Already in Tertullian ( De exhortatione castitatis, 7) ordo refers to clergy, distinguishing them from laity ( plebs). In subsequent centuries ordo is used for denoting different categories of the ordained (e.g. ordo episcoporum). Later ordo is employed to designate various Christian rituals, ritual segments or ritual arrangements. The term thus appears through canon 4 of the Council of Braga (56…

Quasten, Johannes

(203 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward B.
[German Version] (May 3, 1900, Homberg (Niederrhein) – Mar 10, 1987, Freiburg im Breisgau), began his studies in Catholic theology at the University of Münster in 1921 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1926. After studying with F.J. Dölger, he received his doctorate in 1927 with a dissertation on singing in the cults of pagan antiquity and early Christianity ( LQF 25, 1930; 21973). He gained his Habilitation in 1931 under Adolf Rücker and in 1938 was appointed professor of Early Church history, patrology, and Christian archaeology at the Catholic University …

Peter and Paul, Feasts of

(311 words)

Author(s): Foley, Edward B.
[German Version] Of the innumerable Christian feasts celebrating the apostles Peter and Paul, central are: 1. The Conversion of St. Paul (Jan 25), a Gallican feast listed in Jerome’s martyrology (mid-5th cent.). There is no solid evidence why this feast is set on this date; some speculate it was an octave feast of the Chair of St. Peter, which certain Gallican churches celebrated on Jan 18. The feast is widely celebrated north of the Alps; it did not penetrate Rome until the 10th or 11th century. 2. The Chair of St. Peter (Feb 22, Jan 18): a Roman feast, noted in Depositio Martyrum (354) and fix…