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Rhus

(31 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Ῥοῦς). Ort in der Nähe von Megara [2] (Paus. 1,41,2; Plut. Theseus 27,8). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. Megara (2), RE 29, 152-205, bes. 163.

Proschion

(94 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Πρόσχιον, Ethnikon Πρόσχειος). Ort in Aitolia, westl. von Pleuron in der Nähe des Acheloos [1] (Thuk. 3,102,5; 106,1). Nach Strab. 10,2,6 hatten Aitoloi Pylene an einen höheren Ort verlegt und in P. (Athen. 9,411a) umbenannt. P. dürfte in der Nähe des h. Etoliko gelegen haben, kann aber nicht sicher lokalisiert werden. Bewohner werden in hell. Inschr. erwähnt: IG IV2 1,95,38; IG IX 12 1,11; 137; IG XI 4, 1075. SEG 41, 528; FdD III 4, 213; 362; BCH 85, 1961, 79. C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-281. Freitag, Klaus (Münster)

Passaron

(78 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Πασσαρών). Rel. Zentrum und Siedlung der epeirotischen Molossoi beim h. Rhopotopi 12 km nordwestl. von Jannina. Dort finden sich neben Resten einer befestigten Siedlung aus dem 5./4. Jh.v.Chr. Fundamente eines Tempels, der mit dem Heiligtum des Zeus Areios identifiziert wird. Quellen: SEG 26, 719; Plut. Pyrrhos 5,1-5; Liv. 45,36,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography S.I. Dakaris, Organisation politique et urbanistique de la ville dans l'Epire antique, in: P. Cabanes (Hrsg.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1987, 71-80.

Pagai

(167 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Bildung (Παγαί, Ethnikon Παγαῖος; att. und lit. Πηγαί bzw. Πηγαῖος). Hafenort in der Megaris am Korinth. Golf, mit den Überresten einer befestigten Hafensiedlung beim h. Alepochori identifiziert. 461 v.Chr. wurde P. von Athenern besetzt (Thuk. 1,103,4), die von dort aus Flottenaktionen unternahmen (Thuk. 1,111,2). Im 30jährigen Frieden mußten die Athener P. an Megara [2] zurückgeben (Thuk. 1,115; vgl. IG I3 1353). Anschließend teilte P. das Schicksal von Megara: Gemeinsam traten Me…

Pylene

(62 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Aitoloi, Aitolia (Πυλήνη). Aitolische Stadt, im Schiffskat. des Homer erwähnt (Hom. Il. 2,639; Stat. Theb. 4,102; Hesych. s. v. Π.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). In vorhell. Zeit wurde P. an einen höheren Ort verlegt und in Proschion umbenannt. Aitoloi, Aitolia (Karte) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-280.

Askra

(115 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Ἄσκρα). Boiot. Ort am nordöstl. Fuß des Helikon im Musental, Heimat des Hesiodos. Die Akropolis befindet sich auf der Anhöhe Pyrgaki (Keressos), an die sich ein in das fruchtbare Tal reichendes 20 ha großes Siedlungsgebiet anschließt (h. Episkopi). Polit. rechnete A. als Kome zum 7 km nordwestl. gelegenen Thespeia, von dem es im 7. oder im 4.Jh. v.Chr. zerstört wurde. A. war bis in das 1.Jh. v.Chr. besiedelt. Paus. 9,29,1-2 erwähnt nur den “Turm von A.”. Die Wiederbesiedlung beginnt im 4.Jh. n.Chr. (Hes. erg. 639-40; Plut. mor. fr. 82; Strab. 9,2,25. IG VII 1883). Freita…

Arne

(196 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη). [English version] [1] boiotischer Ort Boiotischer Ort (Hom. Il. 2,507). Nach Strab. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35 setzte man A. entweder mit Akraiphia gleich oder glaubte, A. sei im Kopaissee versunken. Nach anderen ist A. der alte Name für Chaironeia (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). Wohl nicht identisch mit der in spätmyk. Zeit aufgegebenen Festung Gla [1]. Boiotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J.M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and History, 1990, 64-65  A.W. Gomme, The Ancient Name of Gla, in: E.C. Quiggin (Hrsg…

Kreusis

(115 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Boiotia, Boiotoi | Linear B (Κρεῦσις). Boiot. Hafenort an der Küste des Korinthischen Golfs in der Bucht von Livadostro, zu Thespiai gehörig (Strab. 9,2,25; Liv. 36,21,5; Paus. 9,32,1). In Küstennähe sind Reste einer Festung mit Anbindung an eine Kaianlage erh. Bedeutung kam K. als Hafen in den spartan.-theban. Konflikten vor 371 v.Chr. zu (Xen. hell. 4,5,10; 5,4,16f.; 6,4,3f.; Xen. Ag. 2,18). Im 2. und 1. Jh.v.Chr. diente K. für Rom als wichtiger Anlegeplatz (Liv. 36,21,5; 42,56,5). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Biblio…

Nisaia

(300 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[English version] [1] Hafenort von Megara am Saronischen Golf (Νίσαια). Hafenort von Megara [2] am Saronischen Golf in der Nähe des h. Páchi [1. 259]. Östl. vor N. lag in der Ant. die h. landfeste Insel Minoa [2. 56-62], durch eine Brücke mit dem Festland verbunden (Thuk. 3,51,3). Megara und seine Bürger werden in dem ant. Quellenmaterial oft als “nisaiisch” bezeichnet [3. 156]. Im 6. Jh.v.Chr. gehörte N. zeitweise zu Athen (Hdt. 1,59; Plut. Solon 12,3). 461 v.Chr. konnten die Athener N. erneut besetzen (Thuk. 1,103,4) und das Stadtzentrum von Megara mit…

Pelodes limen

(65 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Πηλώδης λιμήν), h. Liqeni i Butrintit. See in der Umgebung von Buthroton (h. Butrint). Der fischreiche P.l. steht über einen schmalen Wasserarm mit dem Ionios Kolpos in Verbindung. Belegstellen: Strab. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography R. Hodges u.a., Late-Antique and Byzantine Butrint: Interim Report on the Port and its Hinterland (1994-95), in: Journal of Roman Archaeology 10, 1997, 207-234.

Parauaioi

(93 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Παραυαῖοι). Epeirotischer Stamm im oberen Tal des Aoos, im 5. Jh.v.Chr. noch von Königen regiert (Thuk. 2,80,6; zur Lokalisierung Arr. an. 1,7,5). Unter Philippos [4] II. zu Makedonia gehörig, wurden die P. (möglicherweise gleichzusetzen mit den Παρῶροι/ Parṓroi, SGDI 1350,2; 1355,4; SEG 23, 471; oder den Παρωραῖροι/ Parōraíroi, Strab. 7,7,6; 7,7,8; 8,3,18) wohl 294 v.Chr. an Pyrrhos I. von Epeiros abgetreten. Weitere Belege: Plut. Pyrrhos 6,2; Ptol. 3,12,38; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π. und s.v. Χαονία. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire de…

Orchomenos

(1,490 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] [1] Stadt in NW-Boiotia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Ägäische Koine | Boiotia, Boiotoi | Linear B | Mykenische Kultur und Archäologie | Naturkatastrophen | Orakel | Perserkriege (Ὀρχομενός; boiotisch Ἐρχομενός, LSAG 95, Nr. 17). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) [English version] A. Geographie Stadt in NW-Boiotia (Hom. Il. 2,511) am Berg Akontion, am NW-Rand der Kopais in der Nähe des mod. Skripou, h. wieder O. Zum Polisgebiet gehörte ein ausgedehntes Hinterland, v.a. die Kephisos-Ebene [1]. Schon …

Plataiai

(386 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Boiotia, Boiotoi | Getreidehandel, Getreideimport | Makedonia, Makedones | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Pompeius (Πλάταιαι, Πλαταιαί, lat. Plataeae; Ethnikon Πλαταιεύς). Stadt in Süd-Boiotia am Nordausläufer des Kithairon, in der Nähe des Asopos. Die Siedlung war von helladischer bis in byz. Zeit besiedelt [1]. Die h. noch erkennbare Stadtmauer stammt aus unterschiedlichen Zeiten. Wohl unter Philippos [4] II. wurde ein ca. 3 km langer Mauerring …

Megara

(2,316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athen) | Ziegler, Konrat † (Göttingen)
[English version] [1] Tochter des Kreon (Μεγάρα, Μεγάρη). Tochter des Kreon [1] von Theben, Gattin des Herakles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), der sie zum Dank für die Befreiung Thebens vom Tribut an Erginos zur Frau bekommen hat, und Mutter von Herakleidai. Während die Thebaner nach Paus. 9,11,2 vom Kindermord des wahnsinnigen Herakles (sein Wahnsinn schon Kypria p. 40,28f. PEG) ‘nicht anders als Stesichoros (= 230 PMGF) und Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG)’ erzählten, überliefert Pherekydes (FGrH 3 F 14), daß He…

Pleuron

(288 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Aitoloi, Aitolia | Bildung | Theater (Πλευρῶν). Stadt in der sw-aitolischen Aiolis [2] (Ethnikon Πλευρώνιος und Πλευρωνεύς, die Landschaft hieß Πλευρωνία, Strab. 10,2,5). Im homer. Schiffskatalog als aitolische Stadt verzeichnet (Hom. Il. 2,639), hatte sich P. im 6./5. Jh.v.Chr. von den Aitoloi gelöst (Thuk. 3,102,5) und wurde E. des 5. Jh. Mitglied des Achaiischen Bundes (Achaioi, Achaia, mit Karte). Im 4. Jh. wurde P. gemeinsam…

Helikon

(334 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(Ἑλικών). [English version] [1] Gebirge in Mittelgriechenland Gebirge in Mittelgriechenland, trennt das Kopais-Becken und das obere Kephissos-Tal vom Golf von Korinth (vgl. Strab. 9,2,25; Paus. 9,28,1-31,7). Der westl. Teil des H. gehörte zu Phokis, der östl. zu Boiotia. Höchste Erhebung ist der Gipfel des Palaiovouno (1748 m). Nur wenige Pässe führen über den quellen- und waldreichen H., der wegen seiner Kräuter gerühmt wurde. Der H. verfügt über große Flächen, die in der Ant. für die Landwirtschaft u…

Keressos

(112 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] (Κερησσός). Festung in Boiotia bei Thespiai. Lokalisierung umstritten [1]. Der Trad. nach haben sich die Bürger von Thespiai zweimal nach K. zurückgezogen: im 6. Jh.v.Chr. vor der Schlacht bei K. im thessal.-boiot. Krieg [2] und 371 v.Chr. im Krieg zw. den abtrünnigen Bürgern von Thespiai und den Boiotoi [3]. Belegstellen: Plut. Camillus 19,138a; Plut. mor. 866f; Paus. 9,14,1-4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 R.J. Buck, The Site of Ceressus, in: Teiresias, Suppl. 1, 1972, 31-40 2 M. Sordi, La battaglia di Ceresso e la secessione di Tespie, in: J. Fossey (H…

Oiniadai

(446 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[English version] [1] Akarnanische (Akarnanes) Stadt Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Aitoloi, Aitolia | Akarnanes, Akarnania | Bildung | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Theater (Οἰνιάδαι, vereinzelt Οἰνειάδαι). Akarnanische (Akarnanes) Stadt im Mündungsgebiet des Acheloos [1] (Thuk. 2,102,2f.; Strab. 10,2,21). Die Stadtanlage beim h. Katochi befindet sich auf einer 3 km langen, 2 km breiten Anhöhe. Erh. sind Reste der 6 km langen Stadtmauer mit Tor- und Turmanlagen, die ein Hafenkastell mit Schiffshäusern, ein…

Eutresis

(92 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Boiotia, Boiotoi | Mykenische Kultur und Archäologie (Εὔτρησις). Boiot. Ort in der Nähe des h. Leuktra. Der Stadthügel, in moderner Zeit Arkophodi gen., lag an der Straße von Thespiai nach Plataiai. Die Siedlung war schon in frühhell. Zeit bed. und fand auch im homer. Schiffskatalog (Il. 2,502) Erwähnung. Später trotz eines angeblich berühmten Apollon-Orakels nur noch unselbständiger Ort im Gebiet von Thespiai. Belegstellen: Hell. Oxyrh. 19,3,387; 20,3,438; Strab. 9,2,28; Steph. Byz. s.v. E. Frei…

Ascra

(127 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ἄσκρα; Áskra). Boeotian village at the north-eastern foot of Mount Helicon in the valley of the Muses, home of  Hesiodus. The acropolis was located on the hill of Pyrgaki ( Ceressus), adjacent to it a settlement area of about 20 ha., extending into the fertile valley (modern Episkopi). Politically, A. was a   kome of Thespia (about 7 km to the north-west), by which it was destroyed in the 7th or 4th cent. BC. A. was inhabited into the 1st cent. BC. Paus. 9,29,1-2 only mentions the ‘tower of A.’. Resettlement com…

Therma, Thermae

(40 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Θέρμα, Θέρμαι/ Thérma, Thérmai). Town in Corinthia with hot springs (Xen. Hell. 4,5,3; 4,5,8), probably identical to modern Loutraki, near which there are still such springs today. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography J. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 156 f., 366.

Ceressus

(116 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Κερησσός; Kerēssós). Fortress in Boeotia near Thespiae, its localization disputed [1]. According to tradition, the citizens of Thespiae retreated twice to C.: in the 6th cent. BC prior to the battle of C. in the Thessalian-Boeotian war [2], and again in 371 BC in the war between the secessionist citizens of Thespiae and the Boeotians [3]. Source references: Plut. Camillus 19,138a; Plut. Mor. 866f; Paus. 9,14,1-4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 R. J. Buck, The Site of Ceressus, in: Teiresias, Suppl. 1, 1972, 31-40 2 M. Sordi, La battaglia di Ceresso e…

Taphiassus

(116 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφιασσός; Taphiassós). Mountain and headland on the northern coast of the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of), opposite Patrae, presumably in the border area between Aetolia and (western) Locris near Chalcis [2]. The smell of sulphur springs on the southeastern slopes of the mountain is supposed to be from the graves of Nessus and other Centaurs (Str. 9,4,8; Paus. 10,38,2). Mount T. can probably be identified with the 1041 m high Mount Klokova. The distinctive headland on the Gulf…

Tenea

(134 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τενέα; Tenéa). Town in southern Corinthia on a route into Argolis (cf. Xen. Hell. 4,4,19), probably to the south of modern Chiliomodion (ancient remains with a necropolis). Inhabitants of T. are supposed to have taken part in the founding of Syracusae. On the destruction of Corinth in 146 BC (Mummius [I 3]) the already autonomous town was spared because of its relations with Rome and is recorded in the 2nd cent. AD as independent [1. no. 228]. Apollo was the main god worshipped in…

Genos

(327 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (γένος; génos, pl. γένη/ génē). The term has been used commonly in archaic Greece with the meaning ‘of aristocratic origin’, in addition in the sense of house, family, generation, species etc. [1]. In the research Attic génē were for a long time regarded as exclusive noble clans whose former dominance was still demonstrated in the later privileges (supervision of admission to the phratria and exclusive holding of positions as priests). According to the investigation by [2] and [3], the génē are today regarded as local village communities which arose in archa…

Parnassus

(581 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Παρνασσός/ Parnassós, Παρνησ(σ)ός/ Parnēs(s)ós, Lat. Parnassus; regarding the name [1]). Extensive central massif with many peaks in central Greece. The highest peak, modern Lykeri, reaches a height of 2457 m. In the north-east and north, the massif falls away steeply to the plain of Cephis(s)us. In the west a pass between Graviá Amphissa divides P. from the Korax mountain range. In the south-east, a hollow stretches between Helikon and P., and foothills in the south stretch to the Gu…

Ismenus

(125 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (also Hismenos; Ἰσμηνός; Ismēnós, Ἱσμηνός; Ismēnós). Boeotian river with its source in  Thebes [1] near the Cadmeia. Outside the city it joined the  Dirce and flowed into the  Hylice. In poetry the I. is frequently mentioned. Apollo Ismenius was worshipped in the Ismenium south-east of the Cadmeia above the I. The river god I. gradually became part of the oracle cult of Apollo. A Geometrical temple in the Ismenium was destroyed by fire c. 700 BC and a second temple was erected in the 6th cent. In the 4th cent. a peripteros remained unfinished. Evidence in: Pind. Pyth.…

Eutresis

(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Εὔτρησις; Eútrēsis). Boeotian settlement near the modern Leuctra. The settlement mound, Arkophodi by its modern name, was on the road from Thespiae to Plataea. The settlement was already of importance in the early Greek period and was also mentioned in Homer's catalogue of ships (Il. 2,502). Later, despite its allegedly famous Apollo oracle, it became no more than a dependent settlemen…

Pylene

(67 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia (Πυλήνη/ Pylḗnē). Aetolian city, mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639; Stat. Theb. 4,102;  Hsch. s. v. Π.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). In the pre-Hellenistic period, P. was relocated to a higher site and renamed Proschium. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 278-280.

Arne

(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…

Plataeae

(456 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Boeotia, Boeotians (Πλάταιαι/ Plátaiai, Πλαταιαί/ Plataiaí, Lat. Plataeae; ethnic Πλαταιεύς/ Plataieús). City in southern Boeotia, in the northern foothills of Mount Cithaeron, near the Asopus. The site was inhabited from the Helladic into the Byzantine Period [1]. The city walls, still recognizable today, were built at various times. A ring wall c. 3 km in length was probably erected in the reign of Philip II (Phi…

Pleuron

(348 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πλευρῶν; Pleurôn). City in south-western Aetolian Aeolis [2] (ethnic names Πλευρώνιος/ Pleurṓnios and Πλευρωνεύς/ Pleurōneús, the area was called Πλευρωνία/ Pleurōnía, Str. 10,2,5). Listed as an Aetolian city in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639), P. had broken away from the Aetoloi in the 6th/5th cent. BC (Thuc. 3,102,5) and at the end of the 5th cent. became a member of the Achaean League (…

Thermus

(304 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Hellenistic states | Athenian League (Second) (Θέρμος, Θέρμον/ Thérmos, -on). Religious centre from the Archaic period onwards of Aetolian tribes to the north east of Lake Trichonis/modern Limni Trichonida (Aetolians, with map), 'League sanctuary' of the koinón from the 4th cent. BC, in which annual festivals with markets and the League's main assembly took place (Pol. 5,7,8; Liv. 31,32,3; Ethnicon Θέρμιος, IG IX 12 1, Z. 102; cf. Pol. 5,6,6; Str. 10,3,2) [1]. Apollo Thermios, A…

Leuctra

(150 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεῦκτρα; Leûktra). Town (τόπος, Str. 9,2,39, cf. Plut. Mor. 773b) and plain (τὰ Λεῦκτρα) in Boeotia in the area of Thespiae. The exact localization near Leuktra (formerly Parapoúgia) is uncertain. L. became famous through the battle of 371 BC, in which the Boeotians under the leadership of Epaminondas defeated Sparta [3. 49-59]. Remains of a tropaion [1] from the 3rd cent. BC are preserved (rebuilt today…

Pagae

(195 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Παγαί/ Pagaí, ethnic name Παγαῖος/ Pagaîos; Att. and lit. Πηγαί/ Pēgaí or Πηγαῖος/ Pēgaîos). Port city in Megaris on the Corinthian Gulf, identified with the remains of a fortified harbour settlement near what is today Alepochori. In 461 BC P. was occupied by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,103,4) who undertook marine operations from that location (Thuc. 1,111,2). During the 30-year peace the Athenians were forced to return P. to Megara [2] (Thuc. 1,115; cf. IG I3 1353). The fortunes of P. we…

Sybota

(136 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Σύβοτα/ Sýbota). [German version] [1] Island group Island group off the coast of Epirus opposite the southern tip of Corcyra [1]. In 433 BC a sea battle took place there between Corcyra and Corinth ([1]; Thuc. 1,47,1; 50,3; Str. 2,5,20; 7,7,5). In AD 551 the islands were plundered by the Ostrogoths (Procop. Goth. 4,22,30). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. S. Morrison et al., The Athenian Trireme, 22000, 62-69. [German version] [2] Harbour Harbour on the coast of Epirus opposite the S. [1] island group, modern Limani Murzo. In the 5th cent. BC, S. was …

Tripodiscus

(111 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τριποδίσκος; Tripodískos). One of five villages which developed into Megara [2]; the founder of T. was considered to be Coroebus [1] (Paus. 1,43,8 with an explanation of the  place name;  cf. Callim. Fr. 31; Plut. Mor.  295b; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). T. is to be found in the foothills of the Gerania and on a strategically important route to  Delphi (Thuc. 4,70,1 f.), about 7 km to the northwest of Megara. In T., Apollo was worshipped, and in his honour a festival was probably instituted in Megara. The comedy writer Susarion (Susarion, fr. 2) was from T. Freitag, Klaus (Münst…

Thespia

(442 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Θέσπεια/ Théspeia, Hom. Il. 2,498, Hdt. 8,50,2; also Θεσπιαί/ Thespiaí, Xen. Hell. 5,4,10, IG VII 1862; Lat. Thespiae). City in South Boeotia. South of present-day T. (formerly Erimocastrum) [1], remnants of the polyandreîon (mass grave) with those who fell in 424 BC at Delium [1] are extant [2]. The city area (survey: [3]) comprised Siphae and Creusis on the Gulf of Corinth, the plain of Leucta in th…

Siphae

(189 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Σῖφαι; Sîphai). Boeotian port on the Gulf of Corinth (Boeotia, with map). In the 5th cent. BC, S. was a port (επίνειον/ epíneion) dependent on Thespia (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.; 77,1; 89,1 f.; SEG 24, 361), from the Hellenistic period onwards it was an autonomous member of the Boeotian League with close relations with Aegosthena (IG VII 207). In the Roman period S. was called Τίφα/ Típha; the inhabitants thought of themselves as particularly skilful sailors (Paus. 9,32,4). The helmsman of the Argo…

Sarabaitae

(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…

Paravaei

(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Παραυαῖοι; Parauaȋ oi). An Epirote tribe of the upper valley of the Aous, still ruled by kings in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,80,6; on their location: Arr. Anab. 1,7,5). Belonging to Macedonia under Philip (Philippus [4]) II, the P. (who may be identifiable with the Παρῶροι/ Parôroi, SGDI 1350,2; 1355,4; SEG 23, 471; or the Παρωραῖροι/ Parōraȋroi, Str. 7,7,6; 7,7,8; 8,3,18) were ceded to Pyrrhus I of Epirus, probably in 294 BC. Further evidence: Plut. Pyrrhus 6,2; Ptol. 3,12,38; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π. and s.v. Χαονία. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire…

Ethnos

(555 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (ἔθνος; éthnos, pl. ἔθνη/ éthnē) has multiple meanings in Greek and refers to different types of groups, e.g., warrior bands (Hom. Il. 3,32) or large ethnic groups (Hdt. 1,101). From the classical period, ethnos was often juxtaposed to the term   pólis (cf. Hdt. 5,2; 8,108; regarding Aristotle's [6] discussion of éthnē: [1; 2]). For some time research considered the polis (‘city state’) as the highest developmental phase of the state in Hellas, while éthnos (‘tribe’) supposedly constituted an earlier and more primitive form [3]. The current view is more…

Passaron

(82 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πασσαρών; Passarṓn). Religious centre and settlement of the Epirote Molossi near the modern Rhopotopi 12 km northwest of Jannina. Alongside remains of a fortified settlement from the 5th/4th cent. BC, foundations of a temple are extant, identified as the sanctuary of Zeus Areios. Sources: SEG 26, 719; Plut. Pyrrhus 5,1-5; Liv. 45,36,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography S.I. Dakaris, Organisation politique et urbanistique de la ville dans l'Epire antique, in: P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1987, 71-80.

Thisbe

(272 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Θίσβη/ Thísbē, Θίσβαι/ Thísbai). [German version] [1] City in southwestern Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians City in southwestern Boeotia (on the name see [1]), about 4 km from the coast at the foot of Mount Helicon [1]; remains of the settlement with a circular wall [2] survive at modern T. (formerly Kakosi; [3]). On the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) there were several ports dependent on T. [4]. An embankment led from T. through the plain to the coast (P…

Phytaeum

(98 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Φύταιον/ Phýtaion). City in Aetolia on the south of Lake  Trichonium (ethnic name Φυταιεύς/ Phytaieús, cf.  IG IX 12 1,24,6f.; probably also Φυρταῖος/ Phyrtaîos, SGDI 1949,16), identified with the ancient remains at modern Palaiochori, to the south of Kapsorachi. According to inscriptions, citizens of P. frequently provided officials for the Aetolian League (cf. [1. col. IV 46]; IMagn. 28,14); mentioned in literature only in Pol. 5,7,7 and 11,7,5 and Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 BCH 45, 1921. S. Bomme…

Ophieis, Ophioneis

(112 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ὀφιεῖς/ Ophieîs, Ὀφιονεῖς/ Ophioneîs). One of the three Aetolian sub-tribes living in the highlands of Aetolia in the 5th cent. BC. It disintegrated into smaller associations, among whom the Bomieis and the Callieis are known (Thuc. 3,96,3; 3,100). In 426 BC, the O. were attacked by the Athenians (Thuc. 3,84,4-98,5). After the formation of the Aetolian League in the 4th cent., they formed a member state of the koinon (Str. 10,2,5; 10,3,6; SGDI 1978,3; 1862,2; IG IX 12, 1, 32; 46). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Funke, Polisgenese und Urbanisierung in Ait…

Taphiae

(160 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφίων νῆσοι/ Taphíōn nêsoi). Group of islands between Leucas and the Acarnanian coast, the main island of which can probably be identified with modern Meganisi, in ancient sources called Táphos, Taphioûs or Taphioûssa. Carnus [2] (probably modern Kalamos) was considered one of the T. (Scyl. 34; Str. 10,2,14; 20; 24; Plin. HN 4,53; 36,150; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τάφος). In the 'Odyssey', the Taphii are considered seafarers and dreaded pirates (Hom. Od. 1,105; 181; 14,452; 15,427; 16,426). The island group is suppose…

Haliartus

(209 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἁλίαρτος, Ἀρίαρτος, Ἁρίαρτος; Halíartos, Aríartos, Haríartos [1. 483]). Boeotian city on the southern edge of Lake Copais, 20 km west of Thebes. The acropolis with archaic Athena sanctuary is located on the hill Kastri Mazíou, which was settled from the Middle Helladic to the Roman period and was adjoined by the fortified lower city. In the 6th cent. BC, H. ─ mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,503) ─ struck coins with the …

Oeniadae

(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…

Chorsiae

(84 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Χορσίαι, Χορσία; Chorsíai, Chorsía). Isolated Boeotian town on the Gulf of Corinth, above the bay of Hagios Sarandi. At first a dependency of Thespiae; independent in the 4th cent. BC. Phocians occupied C. in 347/346 BC, using it as a base for incursions into Boeotia. In 346 BC Philip II gave C. back to the Boeotians, after levelling its walls (sources: Dem. Or. 19,141; Scyl. 38; Diod. Sic. 16,58,1; Plin. HN 4,8; StV 3,565; SEG 22,410). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 187-196.
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