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Clytius

(135 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κλυτίος, Κλύτιος; Klytíos, Klýtios). [German version] [1] Giant Giant, who was killed either by Hecate with flaming torches or by Hephaestus with red-hot irons (Apollod. 1,37). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alcmaeon and Arsinoe [I 3] Son of Alcmaeon and  Arsinoe [I 3]; grandson of Amphiaraus (Apollod. 3,87; Paus. 6,17,6). The soothsaying family of the  Clyti(a)dae in Elis can be traced back to C. (Cic. Div. 1,91). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [3] Argonaut Argonaut, son of Eurytus of Oechalia (Apoll. Rhod. 1,86; 2,1043). C. was killed b…

Norax

(44 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νῶραξ/ Nôrax). Son of Hermes and Erytheia, daughter of Geryoneus. According to legend, N. led the Iberians out of Spanish Tartessus to Sardinia, and founded the first town there, which was named Nora [1] after him (Paus. 10,17,5). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Lycabas

(199 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λυκάβας; Lykábas). [German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates, exiled for murder. The pirates promise the boy Dionysus to take him to the island of Naxos, but intend to abduct him. Their leader Acoetes [1] refuses to support the plan because he recognizes a god in the boy, but L. strikes him down. For their heinous deeds, Dionysus transforms the whole crew into dolphins, apart from Acoetes, whom he spares (Ov. Met. 3,623ff.; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] On of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs who sexually assault th…

Ogygus/Ogyges

(158 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Ὤγυγος; Ṓgygos/Ὠγύγης; Ōgýgēs). The name O. is probably pre-Greek, and may derive from the Lydian-Carian migrations; at that time, O. was worshipped as a god. The Boeotian goddesses of oaths, the Praxidikai, were said to be his daughters (Paus. 9,33,5; Suda s.v. Πραξιδίκη; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρεμίλη). Ancient king of Boeotia (the adjective ὠγύγιος/ ōgýgios is used for 'Boeotian' and 'ancient': Suda s.v. Ὠγύγια κακά; Ὠγύγιον); autochthon and king of the Ectenians (Paus. 9,5,1); son of Boeotus (schol. Eur. Phoen. 1113) and husband of Th…

Caphene

(58 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Καφένη; Kaphénē). Carian maiden, who, out of love for the Melian Nymphius betrays her people by divulging their plan to invite the Melians to a feast so as to kill them underhandedly. Instead, the Carians were slain. In return, C. becomes the wife of Nymphius (Plut. Mor. 246d-247a, 207f.; Polyaen. 8,46). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Megapenthes

(223 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μεγαπένθης/ Megapénthēs, ‘very sorrowful’). [German version] [1] Son of King Proetus of Argos Son of King Proetus of Argos (Apollod. 2,29), father of Argeus and grandfather of Anaxagoras (Paus. 2,18,4) or father of Anaxagoras and Iphianira (Diod. Sic. 4,68,4; cf. also Iphianassa [1]). M. exchanged kingdoms with Perseus, so that he ruled over Argos and Perseus over Tiryns. According to Hyginus (Hyg. Fab. 244), he was said to have killed Perseus for the murder of his father. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Menelaus [1] and a slave woman Son of Menelaus [1] and a sla…

Lelante

(51 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Ληλάντη; Lēlántē). Wife of the mythological Molossian king Munichus and mother of Alcander among others. When the god-fearing family is attacked by robbers and their house is set alight, they are transformed into birds by Zeus so they can be saved (Antoninus Liberalis 14). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laogoras

(63 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λαογόρας; Laogóras). Dryopian king who by holding a banquet in the manner of his people in the grove of Apollo offends against the god. L. supports the Lapith prince Coronus in his attack on the Dorian king Aegimius [1]. The latter calls Hercules for help, who then kills L. and Coronus (Apollod. 2,154f.; Diod. Sic. 4,37,3). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Meles

(144 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μέλης/ Mélēs, also Μέλητος/ Melētos). Athenian who, not returning the love of the metic Timagoras, drives him to suicide; after the latter's death, M. follows suit out of remorse: aition for the altar of Anterus, which the metoikoi erected in the city and venerated in memory of Anterus' having avenged Timagoras (Paus. 1,30,1). There is a similar story in Aelianus (fr. 72 Domingo-Forasté = Suda s.v. Μέλητος μ 497): M. and Timagoras are both Athenian citizens of noble family. M., who i…

Cerebia

(50 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κηρεβία; Kērebía). Wife of Poseidon, mother of  Dictys [1] and  Polydectes, who rules over the Cycladean island of Seriphus (schol. Lycoph. 838). But according to Hesiod (fr. 6 Rzach) and Apollodorus (1,88), Magnes and a Naead are the parents of both of them. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Oeagrus

(86 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Οἴαγρος/ Oíagros). Father of the singer Orpheus (Pind. fr. 128c,11f.; Pl. Symp. 179d; Diod. Sic. 3,65,6; 4,25,2 etc.). The Muse Calliope [1] is usually said to be the mother of Orpheus (Apollod. 1,14; Apoll. Rhod. 1,23ff. with schol.); variants are Polyhymnia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. l.c.) and Cleio. O's homeland was Thracia, where Orpheus has also been localized. The parents of O. were Methone and Pierus (Charax FHG 3 fr. 20) or Charops [2], to whom Dionysus gave Thracia (Diod. 3,65). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Loxias

(117 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λοξίας; Loxías). Epiclesis of the god Apollo (Pind. Pyth. 3,28; Pind. Isthm. 7,49; Hdt. 1,91; 4,163; Aesch. Sept. 618; Soph. OT 853). It is striking that the combination Apollo L. does not occur; the reference to Apollo as a Delphian oracle god, however, is clear (cf. l.c.). If the name L. is derived from loxós ‘bent’, ‘crooked’, then it refers to Apollo's dark and confusing oracles (Lucian. Iupp. trag. 28; Plut. Mor. 511b). According to the schol. to Callimachus, Apollo is named L. because he is said to have been brought up by Lox…

Pelanos

(150 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (πελανός; pelanós), a more or less liquid gruel or dough, which could also contain honey, oil, poppies, milk or wine, was thrown in the fire as a sacrificial offering and burnt or poured out (cf. Aesch. Pers. 203f.; Eur. Ion 226f.; 705-707). According to Theophrastus (in Porph. De abstinentia 2,29) pelanos assumed increasingly refined forms in the course of its historical development. The dough was finally mixed and baked into flat bread, cakes or pancakes. P elanos itself, however, was never eaten. It was particularly common as a sacrificial offering  in…

Lacinius

(129 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λακίνιος, Λακῖνος; Lakínios, Lakînos). Iapygian king who ruled over the land of the Bruttii; eponym of the Lacinium Mountains near Croton. L. took in Croton, who had been banished from Corcyra, and gave him his daughter Laure (or Laurete) in marriage (schol. Lycoph. 1007; schol. Theoc. 4,33b). When Heracles [1] returned from his Geryon adventure, he came into conflict with L. Concerning the cause of this, there are two variant accounts: either L. refused hospitality to Heracles, c…

Cyanippus

(181 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κυάνιππος, ‘Black horse’). [German version] [1] King of Argus King of Argus, son of Aegialeus and of Comaetho, descendant of Bias (Paus. 2,18,4; 30,10). According to Apollodor (1,103), C. is the son of  Adrastus [1] and brother of  Aegialeus [1]. Pausanias confuses his family tree: he speaks about four generations and five rulers but does not include C. among these, as the rulers cannot be called Nēleídai until Talaus (whose mother is a daughter of Neleus). Pausanias includes Diomedes as C.'s guardian as he assumes rule for C. who was a minor [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2…

Celeutor

(76 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κελεύτωρ; Keleútōr). C. and his brothers snatch the rulership from their uncle  Oeneus, king of Aetolia, and lock him up; they make their father  Agrius [1] king, until Diomedes frees his grandfather Oeneus and kills all of Agrius' sons except for two who are able to flee. Since Oeneus is too old, Diomedes hands over the rulership to Oeneus' son-in-law  Andraemon [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2; Hyg. Fab. 175). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Ceteii

(56 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κήτειοι; Kḗteioi). Warriors of  Eurypylus [2] (Hom. Od. 11,521; Str. 13,1,69f.), whose origin is in Mysian Theutrania in western Asia Minor (schol. Hom. loc. cit.). The name C. is interpreted variously: either as ‘the Great ones’ or as derived from the river Ceteius (Hsch. s.v. K.; Str. loc. cit.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laodocus

(334 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαόδοκος, Λαοδόκος, Λεώδοκος; Laódokos, Laodókos, Leṓdokos, ‘Who receives the People’). [German version] [1] Son of Apollo and Phthia Son of Apollo and Phthia, offers hospitality to Aetolus, who fled to them in the country of the Curetes; Aetolus slays L. along with his brothers Dorus and Polypoetes and renames the country ‘Aetolia’ (Apollod. 1,57). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Participant in the campaign of the Argonauts Son of Bias [1] and Pero; native of Argos; together with his brothers Talaus and Arius he takes part in the campaign of the…

Macedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μακεδών; Makedṓn). Tribal hero and eponym of the Macedonians. There are several genealogies: [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Thyia Son of Zeus and Thyia (the daughter of Deucalion), brother of Magnes [1] (Hes. fr. 7). His wife is Oreithyia, his sons are, among others, Europus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐρωπός), Pierus, Amathus: also eponyms for Macedonian cities (schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Aeolus Son of Aeolus, the son of Hellen and brother of Dorus and Xuthus; thus M. links his people with the Hellenic genealogies (S…

Laelaps

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαῖλαψ/ Laîlaps, ‘hurricane’). [German version] [1] Dog of Cephalus The dog of Cephalus, inescapable because of its swiftness. L. is turned to stone during the chase (Ov. Met. 7,771ff.; Hyg. Fab. 189; Serv. Aen. 6,445). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Dog of Actaeon Dog of Actaeon that, together with the rest of a pack of hounds, attacks and kills his master who has been transformed into a stag by Artemis (Ov. Met. 3,211; Hyg. Fab. 181). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laias

(112 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαίας, Λαΐας; Laías, Laïas). [German version] [1] Son of the Aegid Hyraeus Son of the Aegid Hyraeus. Together with his brothers, L. erected heroic sanctuaries in Sparta to Cadmus and Aegeus, among others, because the Aegids trace themselves to the Theban dynasty (Paus. 3,15,8; Hdt. 4,147). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Oxylus Son of Oxylus, king of Elis, and Pieria. After the death of his older brother Aetolus, L. takes over the kingdom from his father; L.'s children, however, do not receive the royal title (Paus. 5,4,4f.). A…

Lacedaemon

(132 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λακεδαίμων; Lakedaímōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Taygete Son of Zeus and Taygete (Apollod. 3,116), name-giver of the Taygetus, mountain range; L. inherits the rule from the childless Eurotas (Paus. 3,1,1f.), gives his name to the region, and founds the city of Sparta, which he names after his spouse Sparte. One of their sons, Amyclas, founds the city of Amyclae [1] (Eust. AD Hom. Il. 295,14f.). One of their daughters, Eurydice, marries Acrisius, king of Argus, and becomes mother of Danae…

Melisseus

(109 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μελισσεύς; Melisseús). Mythical king of Crete, father of the nymphs Adrastea and Ide [2] (Apollod. 1,5; Hyg. Fab. 182) or Amalthea [1] and Melissa [1] (Didymus In Lact. inst. 1,22,19 f.). After Rhe(i)a gives birth to Zeus in a cave of Mt Dicte on Crete, she hands them the baby and they raise him on goat's milk and honey. The names of M. and Melissa are derived from Greek méli (honey). According to Didymus (l.c.), M. was the first to sacrifice to the gods and to introduce rites and religious festivals. He appointed his daughter Melissa the first priestess of Mater Magna. Frey, Ale…

Mygdon

(131 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μύγδων; Mýgdōn). [German version] [1] King of the Bebrycians King of the Bebrycians, brother of Amycus [1]; killed by Heracles when he attacked Heracles' host, Lycus [5]. After M.'s death, Heracles gives Lycus a large part of the land of the Bebrycians, which is renamed Herakleia (Apollod. 2,100). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Ruler of the Phrygians Along with Otreus, M. rules over the Phrygians at the Sangarius river. These Phrygians are also called Mygdonians, after M. (Paus. 10,27,1; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,786f.). Priamus aids them in…

Neikos

(111 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νεῖκος; Neîkos). Personification of hate and strife in Hesiod's creation mythology (Hes. Theog. 229). The goddess Eris, the daughter of Nyx, gives birth to the forces of evil: N., Pseudeis ( pseudeís, lies) and Logoi ( lógoi, wicked talk). In Timon [1. fr. 21], he is named as the brother and servant of Eris. In Empedocles' [1] theory of the origins of the world, N. is the principle of repulsion and separation, the antithesis of Philotes ( philótēs, love). N.  causes the cosmos and the current world to be created from the sphairos where all the forces were mixed together. Frey, …

Panchaea

(84 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (παγχαΐα/ panchaía sc. χώρα/ chṓra, ‘a very splendid land’). P. is the main island in a fictional archipelago first mentioned by Euhemerus and located in the Indian Ocean: “Sailing from happy Arabia out into the Ocean”, one arrives “in a still more blessed land”, the “very splendid land” (Diod. Sic. 5,41,3; 6,1,4). P. is  seen as the ideal of a country both for its natural qualities and for its political and economic conditions (Euhemerus FGrH 63 F 2). Utopia Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Cragaleus

(126 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κραγαλεύς). Son of  Dryops in the land of Dryope. C., who is wise and just, is chosen by  Apollo,  Artemis, and  Hercules to act as arbitrator in their dispute about the Epirote city  Ambracia. Apollo demands the city for himself because his son rules the land of Dryope. Artemis demands it because she had liberated the city from a tyrant, and Hercules because he defeated the Celts, the Thesproteans and the Epiroteans. C. awards the city to Hercules and in return is changed into a…

Cillas

(72 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κίλλας; Kíllas, also Kíllos, Κίλλος). C., who according to the Troezenian legend is called Sphaerus, is the charioteer of  Pelops (Paus. 5,10,7; schol. Eur. Or. 990). On the way to a chariot race with Oenomaus, Cillas falls into the sea at Lesbos and drowns. Pelops erects a memorial to him, a temple of Apollo Killaios and founds the town of Cilla (Theopompus 339 FHG 1). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Peithagoras

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Πειθαγόρας; Peithagóras). Soothsayer of Amphipolis (inspecting the entrails of sacrificed animals), brother of Apollodorus, one of the hetaíroi of Alexander [4] the Great; in 323 BC P. foretold the impending death of Hephaestion [1] (Arr. Anab. 7,18; App. Civ. 2,152) and later also that of Alexander (Arr. l.c.; App. l.c.). Alexander received this news from P.'s brother and praised both of them (Arr. l.c.). P. was obviously Aristobulus' [7] direct source (Arr. Anab. 7,18,5). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Calydnus

(64 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλυδνος; Kálydnos). Son of  Uranus, architect and first king of Thebes ( Thebae) which he fortifies with a wall. The city is therefore also called Kálydna or Kalýdnou týrsis, ‘fortress of C.’ (Steph. Byz. in schol. Lycophron 1209). The incorrect translation of C. as ‘good singer’ was linked with the building of the wall around Thebes through music. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Cytissorus

(90 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κυτί(σ)σωρος; Kytí(s)sōros). C.'s parents are  Phrixus and Chalciope [2], a daughter of  Aeetes; grandson of  Athamas, king of the Minyae (Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,388; Apollod. 1,83), whom he rescues from being sacrificed when he returns from Aeetes to his homeland, Thessalian Achaea. Athamas was to have been sacrificed to  Zeus Laphystios as an act of atonement. C. having rescued his grandfather, the curse remains on his descendants (Hdt. 7,197). In Sophocles (schol. Aristoph. Nub. 257) it is Heracles who rescues Athamas. Frey, Alexandra …

Marmax

(45 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μάρμαξ; Mármax). Suitor of Hippodamia [1], and the first to be killed by Oenomaus (Hes. fr. 259a). His horses Parthenia and Eripha are buried together with M. M. was also called Mermnes (schol. Pind. O. 1,127b) or Mermnon. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Lamache

(41 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λαμάχη; Lamáchē). Lemnian woman who conceives Leucophanes with the Argonaut Euphemus. From Leucophanes is descended Battus [1], who founds the city of Cyrene (schol. Pind. Pyth. 455b; [1]). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) Bibliography 1 L. Malten, Kyrene, 1911, 192.

Nycteus

(155 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νυκτεύς/ Nukteús). Son of Hyrieus and the nymph Clonia, and hence, through his father, the grandson of Poseidon (Apollod. 3,111). Alternatively, Hyginus says he is the son of Poseidon and Celaeno [1] (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,21). N. and his brother Lycus [6] fled from Hyria to Thebes after killing Phlegyas. In Thebes, N. was king and guardian of his grandson Labdacus, whom Polydorus fathered with N.'s daughter Nycteis (Paus. 2,6,2). When N.'s second daughter, Antiope [1], was impregnated by Zeus and fled to Sicyon and married its king, Epopeus, N. commi…

Oxylus

(215 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Ὄξυλος; Óxylos). [German version] [1] Son of Ares and Protogenia Son of Ares and Protogenia (Apollod. 1,59). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Aetolian, King of Elis Aetolian, King of Elis. The Heraclidae who according to an oracular utterance were searching for a three-eyed ( trióphthalmos) leader, found him in O. who encountered them while he was riding on a horse (mule) and, because he had lost an eye through being shot with an arrow, was actually three-eyed (together with the animal). He was on the return journey from a yea…

Lycopeus

(71 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λυκωπεύς; Lykōpeús). Son of the Aetolian hero Agrius [1] who, together with his brothers, dethrones his uncle Oeneus in Calydon in favour of his father. As a result, L., together with his brothers - with the exception of two of them -, is killed by Diomedes [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2) or by Tydeus (Diod. Sic. 4,65,2), and Agrius is dethroned (Hyg. Fab. 242). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Cocalus

(119 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κώκαλος; Kṓkalos; Lat. Cocalus). Mythical king, who took over control of Sicily after the destruction of the  Cyclopes (Just. Epit. 4,2,2). He allowed  Daedalus [1], who was fleeing from the Cretan king  Minos, into the city  Camicus (in Paus. 7,4,6 Inykos), as also Minos who was pursuing him; the latter, however, he then had killed in a shower of hot water (schol. Hom. Il. 2,145; Apollod. [see authors/works] 1,14f.) that his daughters poured down on him through the bathroom ceili…

Nessus

(212 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νέσσος/ Néssos, Νέσος/ Nésos). Centaur, son of Ixion and Nephele [2] (= Nubes), who, after the war of the Lapiths (Lapithae) and the centaurs, flees to the river Euenus (= Lycormas), where he works as a ferryman (Apollod. 2,86). When Heracles [1] and his wife Deianira want to cross the river, N. helps Deianira, carrying her across the water, while Heracles walks or swims (Ov. Met. 9,101ff.) to the other side. In the middle of the river, N. wants to rape Deianira. Heracles shoots N. …

Marpessa

(180 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μάρπησσα; Márpēssa, ‘the robbed one’). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus [3]. She is kidnapped by Idas, who escapes the persecuting Evenus with the help of his father Poseidon. M.'s father plunges into the river, which is named after him. M. is then taken from Idas by Apollo, and a fight ensues between him and the god, during the course of which Idas disarms the god of his bow (Hom. Il. 9,555ff.). Zeus settles the dispute by leaving the ch…

Carpus

(196 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Κάρπος; Kárpos). [German version] [1] Son of Zephyrus and a certain Hore Handsome youth, son of Zephyrus and of a certain Hore ( Horae). He organizes a swimming race with  Calamus, his best friend, but drowns in the event. In mourning, his friend kills himself and is turned into reeds. C. is turned into a crop of the field (Nonnus, Dion. 11,385-481). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] C. of Antioch Mathematician A mathematician, who lived presumably in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. Information on him is given in four fragments by Pappus (8,3), Proclus (in Euc…

Maeander

(201 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Μαίανδρος; Maíandros). [German version] [1] God of the homonymous river God of the homonymous river M. [2] that flows into the sea in the Bay of Miletus; son of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 339); furthermore, father of Samia and Cyane, who bears Miletus the twins Byblis and Caunus [1] (Ov. Met. 9,450ff.). The sons of M. are, among others, Calamus [1] (Nonnus, Dion. 11,464ff.) and Marsyas [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] River in south-western Asia Minor Longest river in south-western Asia Minor (modern Menderes), has its origin near Celaenae and after …

Myrmidon

(122 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μυρμιδών/ Myrmidṓn, ‘ant’). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Myrmidones Eponymous progenitor of the Homeric people of the Myrmidones (Hellanikos FHG 1 F 17); son of Eurymedusa, fathered by Zeus in the guise of an ant (Eratosth. In Serv. Aen. 2,7; Clem. Al. Protreptikos 34). With his wife Pisidice, daughter of Aeolus, M. fathered Antiphus and Actor (Apollod. 1,52) as well as the gluttonous Erysichthon (Hellanikos l.c.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Military official under Ptolemy I, 315 BC Athenian, sent in 315 BC by Ptolemy I along with 10,000 soldier…

Cypselus

(271 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden)
(Κύψελος; Kýpselos). [German version] [1] Son of Aepytus [2] Son of  Aepytus [2], ruler of Arcadia at the time when the Heraclids attempted to invade the Peloponnese once more. He gave his daughter Mesope in marriage to  Cresphontes, Heraclid and king of Messenia, and was thus spared the invasion (Paus. 4,3,6; 8,5,6). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Corinth, probably 657-627 BC Tyrant of Corinth (probably 657-627 BC), son of Eëtion. He followed the  Bacchiadae, a group of ruling aristocrats, and established the first  tyrannis in Greec…

Libys

(110 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates who, together with them abducts Dionysius who is disguised as a drunken boy. As a punishment all pirates are transformed into dolphins by the wine god, except the helmsman Acoetes ( Acoetes [1]) who wants to keep them from the outrage (Ov. Met. 3,605-691; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Brother of Lysander, Spartan nauarch 403 BC Brother of Lysander, as Spartan nauarch he blockaded Piraeus in 403 BC in order to combat the revolt of Thrasybulus and his suppo…

Mentor

(446 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέντωρ; Méntōr). [German version] [1] Father of Imbrios of Pedaion Father of Imbrius of Pedaeum (Hom. Il. 13,171). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alkimos, companion of Odysseus M. of Ithaca, son of Alcimus (Hom. Od. 22,235), companion of Odysseus, who on his departure to Troy hands over to M. the supervision of his household (ibid. 2,225ff.). In the People's Assembly M. firmly opposes the behaviour of the suitors (ibid. 2,224ff.). The goddess Athena often takes on his form in order to help Telemachus wi…

Pheidippus

(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Leucosia

(238 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Λευκωσία; Leukōsía). [German version] [3] Island on the Lucanian coast (Mela 2,7,121; Plin. HN 3,83: Leucothea) on the Punta della Licosa, modern Isola Piana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, s.v. L., EV 3, 1987, 196f. BTCGI 9, 1991, 5; 14, 1996, 505f. [German version] [1] One of the three post-Homeric Sirens One of the three post-Homeric Sirens, who no longer - as with Homer - appear in a group but as individuals: L. reaches south-west Italy through colonization. Consequently her suicide (she plunges into the sea) is local…

Mimas

(231 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Μίμας). [German version] [1] Titan Giant, killed either by Zeus' thunderbolt in the fight to rule Olympus (Eur. Ion 212ff.), or by Ares' lance, after M. had torn the island of Lemnos out of the sea and hurled it at the god (Apoll. Rhod. 3,1227 with scholia). The field of battle was Phlegra on the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene; the struggle of M. and the Giants against other gods such as Pallas Athena and Hera was equally fruitless (schol. Apoll. Rhod. loc. cit.; Hor. Carm. …

Oechalia

(347 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰχαλία; Oichalía). [German version] [1] Mythical place in Homer, Catalogue of the Pylians Mythical place in Homer, in the Catalogue of the Pylians (Hom. Il. 2,594ff.). According to the narrative context, O. must be located in north western Messenia. It was from O. that the Thracian singer Thamyris came to Dorium, where the Muses robbed him of his gift of song. Homer's interpreters equate O. with Andania (Str. 8,3,6; 8,4,5; Plin. HN 4,15; Paus. 4,2,2f.). Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 82a) assumed that O. was 'somewh…

Pegasus

(517 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Πήγασος/ Pḗgasos, Lat. Pegasus). [German version] [1] A magical winged horse A magical winged horse, associated with the Corinthian hero Bellerophon. When Perseus [1] cuts off the head of Medusa, P. and Chrysaor [4] spring from her carcass (Hes. Theog. 280f.). P.'s father is Poseidon (Hes. Theog. 276). According to Hesiod, Poseidon sends P. to Bellerophon (Hes. fr. 43a,82ff. M.-W.), while according to others the latter receives from Athena a golden bridle that possesses the necessary magical power - only …
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