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Bostar

(180 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdstart; Βώσταρ; Bṓstar i.a.). [German version] [1] Cartaginian strategos in 1st Punic War Carthaginian strategos in the 1st Punic War; he shared command with  Hasdrubal and Hamilcar in 256 BC against M.  Atilius Regulus, fell prisoner to the Romans at the battle of Adis and died in Rome (Pol. 1,30; Diod. Sic. 24,12) [1.20]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carhaginian sub-commander in 2nd Punic War Carthaginian sub-commander in Spain in the 2nd Punic War; in 217 he fell back from the Romans to Saguntum, where he let himself be duped into r…

Zarzas

(76 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Libyan zrbts? [1. 26490]). Prominent Libyan, leader beside (and with equal authority with?) Mathus and Autaritus in the  Mercenaries' War [2. 108 f.; 112 f.; 3. 31-33], e.g. in the battle on the Bagradas and with Spendius in the pursuit of Hamilcar [3]; [1. 26964; 264]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Huss 2 L. Loreto, La grande insurrezione libica contro Cartagine del 241-237 a.C., 1995 3 W. Huss, Die Libyer Mathos und Zarzas und der Kelte Autaritos als Prägeherren, in: SM 38, 1988, 30-33.

Autaritus

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Αὐτάριτος; Autáritos). Celtic mercenary in  Hamilcar Barca's army in Sicily; leader in Libya from 241 BC of the largest contingent (2,000 Celts) in the Mercenaries' War against Carthage; he escaped the defeat at Bagradas, urged the massacre of  Gescon and other captured Carthaginians and was the negotiator of the surrender at the foot of the Prion, in a hopeless position. As guarantor of the treaty, he was executed in Tunes with  Spendius and  Zarzas following the breaking of the treaty by the insurgents in 238 (Pol. 1,77-86). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliograph…

Thearidas

(226 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θεαρίδας/ Thearídās). [German version] [1] From Megale polis, father of Lycortas From Megale polis, father of Lycortas, who negotiated over his conquered home city with Cleomenes [6] III in 222 BC (Syll.3 626; Plut. Cleomenes 24) [1. 194; 199 f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas From Megale Polis, son of Lycortas, grandson of T. [1], administrator of Messene [2] c. 182 BC (IvOL 46,6). As the elder brother of the statesman and later historian Polybius [2], who was deported by the Romans, after 167 T. seem…

Geskon

(295 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Carthaginian name (*Grskn = ‘protégé of Skn’; Γέσκων, Γίσκων, Γίσγω; Géskōn, Gískōn, Gísgō; Lat. Gisgo, Gisco). [German version] [1] Father of Hannibal [1], exiled after 480 BC Son of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1]; after 480 BC he lived as an exile in Selinus, as did probably also his son Hannibal [1] for a while (Diod. Sic. 13,43,5) [1. 30f.; 2. 40]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander 343-339 BC Carthaginian commander in 343-339 BC in the war against  Timoleon, for which he had been recalled from exile (Diod. Sic. 16,81,3; Poly…

Taurion

(103 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ταυρείων; Taureíōn). Macedonian, phílos (Court titles B.) of Antigonus [3] and Philippus [7] V, when as their governor in the Peloponnese T. was acting on behalf of the Achaei (Pol. 4,6,4; 10,2; 10,6; 19,7 f.; 80,3; 5,92,7; 95,3; 95,5). In 219/8 BC T. was affected by the Apelles [1] affair (Pol. 4,87,1 f.; 4,87,8 f.; 5,27,4) and in 217 was probably one of the peace negotiators at Naupactus [1. 112]; T.'s negative influence on Philippus (Pol. 9,23,9) and his complicity in the death of Aratus [2] (Plut. Aratus 52,2-3) are questionable. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munic…

Rhodopis

(133 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ῥοδῶπις/ Rhodôpis, 'of rosy appearance'). Legendary hetaera in Naucratis (1st half of the 6th cent. BC), Thracian (?), slave of Iadmon of Samos, then taken by the Samian Xanthus to Egypt, where Charax, brother of  Sappho, is supposed to have bought her freedom (Hdt. 2,134,3; 135,1 f.); her identification with Doricha, the object of Charax' fatal love (Sappho fr. 26,11 Diehl; cf. fr. 7 Lobel/Page), is unclear (Hdt. 2,135,5; Str. 17,1,33; contra: Ath. 13,596b-d). R. acquired a fortu…

Lasthenes

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λασθένης; Lasthénēs). [German version] [1] Cavalry commander of the Chalcidians, 4th cent. BC L. of Olynthus, hípparchos (‘cavalry commander’) of the Chalcidians; in 348 BC L. with Euthycrates [1] betrayed his home town to Philip II (Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,66; 19,265; Diod. Sic. 16,53,2). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Cretan mercenary leader, 2nd cent. BC Cretan mercenary leader, from 147 BC onwards influential adviser at the court of Demetrius [8] II ( syngenḗs, patḗr; Court titles B.3.); possibly stratēgós of Coele Syria (Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,86; 126f.; 1 M…

Himilco

(674 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(*[ʾ]hmlkt = ‘brother of Mlkt’, Ἰμίλκων; Imílkōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander, relative of Hannibal, strategos Carthaginian commander, son of a Hanno, great-grandson of the Magonid  Hamilcar [1] and a relation of  Hannibal [1], whom he accompanied to Sicily in 407 BC as (fleet?) strategos and after whose death H. took over the supreme command (Diod. Sic. 13,80; Iust. 19,2,7). H. besieged, conquered and destroyed  Acragas in 406/405, then  Gela and  Camarina, but soon after, in 405, failed in his siege of  Syracuse because…

Mercenaries' War

(420 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern term (‘Libyan War’, for instance in Pol. 1,13,3; Diod. 26,23) for the uprising of the mercenaries employed by Carthage in the 1st Punic War (241/0-238 BC). It plunged Carthage into a serious crisis as the revolt of the mercenaries from various ethnic origins who still had to be paid despite the emptiness of the state coffers also provoked rebellion among the Libyans under the leadership of Mathus. The general Hanno [6] who had already fought against rebels in the Carthagini…

Megaleas

(93 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλέας; Megaléas). A Macedonian, appointed by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will as head of the chancery ( epì toû grammateíou) of Philippus V in 222 BC (Pol. 4,87,8). Together with Apelles [1] and Leontius [2] M. opposed the anti-Aetolian western policy of the young king and in the year 218 physically attacked Aratus [2], for which he was condemned by court martial. Released on Leontius's bail, M. fled to Thebes, where he took his life before being extradited (Pol. 5,2,8; 15f.; 25,1f.; 26-28) [1. 170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 Errington.

Sophoni(s)ba

(187 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σοφονί(σ)βα/ Sophoní(s)ba, Punic * Spnbl = 'Baal has pronounced judgment', other Greek forms of the name: Diod. Sic. 27,7; Zon. 9,12 f.). Daughter of Hasdrubal [5], married c. 205 BC to Syphax, from whom she vehemently demanded a pro-Carthaginian policy (cf. Pol. 14,1,4; 14,7,4-7; Liv. 29,23). S. is supposed to have previously been betrothed to Massinissa (Diod. Sic. 27,7, [1. 200, note 1195; 2]), who married her after his victory over Syphax in 203 in the conquered city of Cirta and forced her to take p…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their participation in the assassination of Aristodemus [6] ( c. 253) and in the overthrow of Nicocles [4] of Sicyon in league with Aratus [2] (Pol. 10,22,2f.; …

Tisippus

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τείσιππος/ Teísippos, Τίσιππος/ Tísippos) from Trichonium. Stratēgós of the Aetolian League (Aetoli) in 163/2 (?) and possibly also in 156/5 BC (IG IX2 1,1,101-103; [1. 435 f.]), who during the third of the Macedonian Wars had manifested himself together with Lyciscus [3] as an unscrupulous extremely pro-Roman politician: in 168 at the massacre in Arsinoe [III 2] of 550 Aetolians, in 167 as an envoy of congratulation to L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in Amphipolis (Pol. 30,11,5; 30,13,4; Liv. 45,28,6-8; [2. 192 f.; 3. 89-91]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Biblio…

Theoxenus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεόξενος; Theóxenos). Achaean from Leontium, father of Callicrates [11]. In 197 BC , as stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaei) he defeated a Macedonian army at Alabanda in support of the Rhodeans (Liv. 33,18,5 f.). His corresponding votive gift in Delos is recorded there in the lists of inventories for the years 194-179 [1. 1356; 2. 1374]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, vol. 2, 1987 2 J. Deininger, Der politische Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Menalcidas

(135 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεναλκίδας/ Menalkídas). Spartan, of radically pro-Roman disposition. He had been taken into custody in 168 BC at Alexandria for property offences, but was pardoned because he was a favourite of C. Popillius Laenas (Pol. 30,16,2). In 151/0, as strategos of the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map), during the corruption case concerning the Achaean commitment to Oropus, he betrayed Callicrates [11], bribed Diaeus and, condemned to death in the escalating Achaean-Spartan conflict, fle…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut. Mor. 250f-253f; Just. Epit. 26,1,4-10) [1. 403-404, 713]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Agesilochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos) (also: Hagesilochos; Hegesilochus). Rhodian, son of Hagesias,   prytanis 171 BC (Pol. 27,3,3; Liv. 42,45,3-4). 169 envoy to Rome (Pol. 28,2; 16,5.8) and 168 to Perseus and  Aemilius Paullus (Pol. 29,10,4; Liv. 44,35,4-6). A. represented the Rhodian Rome politics of the ‘tertia’ pars [1. 185-190]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Eurycleides

(176 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλείδης; Eurykleídēs). Son of Micion from Cephisia; the most significant Athenian statesman of the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC: treasurer of the war-chest 244/3 BC (?), strategos of hoplites c. 245/240 (?), eponymous archon 240/239 (?) (IG II/III2 I 2 1300; II 1 1705; Syll.3 491; 497) [1. 118-127]; in 229 BC E. together with his brother  Micion in cooperation with  Diogenes [1] became the liberator of Athens from Macedonian rule, and subsequently the mentor of a strict policy of neutrality, distanced from  Aratus [2] an…

Scerdilaedas

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σκερδίλαιδας; Skerdílaidas). Chieftain of the Labeates of Illyria, brother-in-law of Agron [3], chieftain of the Sardiaei [1. 45 f.]. In 229 BC S. supported Teuta against the city of Phoenice in Epirus (Pol. 2,5,6-6,7), consolidated his rule over southern Illyrian tribes after the first Illyrian War (229/8) and continued his raids south of the border with Lissus (Pol. 4,16,6), especially in 220 as an ally of the Aetolians, before he changed sides to join Philippus [7] V (Pol. 4,29…

Hannibal

(1,492 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Ḥnbl = ‘grace of Bl’; Ἀννίβας; Anníbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general end of 5th cent. BC Successful Carthaginian commander, son of  Gescon [1], the Magonid. Having grown up in exile in Selinunt among other places, he established the Punic ‘province’ in western Sicily (‘epicracy’) through military campaigns in 410/9 and 406/5 BC. The politics of Carthaginian intervention which H. inaugurated were initially occasioned by a call for help from Segesta but the true cause lies in Syracuse's hegemonic …

Cycliadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κυκλιάδας; Kykliádas). Strategos of the Achaean League in 209 and 200 BC, as an exponent of the Macedon-friendly faction, he supported  Philippus V in 209 against Elis (Liv. 27,31,10), but adroitly rejected his offer of help against  Nabis in 200 (Liv. 31,25,3; 9f.; [1. 165-168]). Banished after the change toward Rome (Liv. 32,19,2; [2. 40f.]), C. was at the disposal of the king as an envoy to T.  Quinctius Flamininus in Nicaea (198) (Pol. 18,1,2; Liv. 32,32,10) and after the defeat of Cynoscephalae (197) (Pol. 18,34,4). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 …

Teuta

(355 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τεύτα/ Teúta, also Teutana, cf. Flor. Epit. 1,21; Illyrian title: 'queen' [1. 93]). From 232/1 BC ruler, as the widow of Agron [3] and regent for her step-son Pinnes, of a confederation of Illyrian tribes (Cass. Dio fr. 49,3; [2. 41, 68]). T.'s pirate-like attacks on the coasts of Epirus, Acarnania and even the western Peloponnesus unsettled the Greek cities there as well as Italic merchants in the Adriatic. In 231/0 T. (with the help of Scerdilaedas) raided Phoenice, Corcyra [1] an…

Theophiliscus

(44 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεοφιλίσκος; Theophilískos). Rhodean admiral, who won a victory for a Rhodean-Pergamene alliance against Philippus [7] V at Chios in 201 BC, in which he was mortally wounded (Pol. 16,2-9; [1. 118-120]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984.

Lycortas

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λυκόρτας; Lykórtas) of Megalopolis, son of Thearidas (Syll.3 626), father of the historian Polybius, leading statesman of the Achaeans in c. 190-168 BC: in 192 hípparchos (Liv. 35,29,1), in 184 and 182 stratēgós, who in 182 brought Messenia and Sparta back into the league (Pol. 2,40,2-6; 22,9f.; 12,8; 23,16f.) [1. 124]. Like Philopoemen, L. was an exponent of limited resistance to Rome's imposition of its will, and he defended Achaean autonomy in Rome (in 189), before Roman envoys in Greece (in 185/4) and befo…

Pantauchus

(207 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πάνταυχος; Pántauchos). [German version] [1] Macedonian military commander (early 3rd cent. BC) A Macedonian (from Beroea?) [1. 423], commander and probably 'friend of the king' ( phílos) of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. In 289 BC, P. was defeated in a courageous single combat with Pyrrhus during a battle in Aetolia (Plut. Pyrrhus 7,4-9; Plut. Demetrius 41,3) [2. 224f]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Friend of Perseus [2] Son of Balacrus of Beroea, probably the grandson of P. [1] [1. 423], high-ranking 'king's friend' of Perseus [2] [3. 115…

Lydiadas

(204 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυδιάδας; Lydiádas). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megalopolis, 3rd cent. BC Son of Eudamus from Caphyae (?, cf. Syll.3 504) [1. 401] or from Megalopolis; as tyrant of the latter, L. joined the city in 235 BC to the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map) (Pol. 2,44,5; Plut. Aratus 30; [1. 158; 3. 71f.; 87]), he served as its stratēgós in 234/3, 232/1 and again in 230/229. L.'s rivalry with Aratus [2] escalated when Argus joined the League under Aristomachus [4]; in the war against Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta, which L. pursued vigourously, he died in the …

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander of Hannibal, end of 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian, son of a Himilkon, as Hannibal's [4] commander in his absence he led the siege of Saguntum in 219 BC (Liv. 21,12,1-3); identical…

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' entourage that they had him murdered with the acquiescence of Flamininus and help from  Alexamenus (Pol. 18,43; Liv. 33,27,8-28,3) [1. 54-57]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bib…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent of Rome (Pol. 20,9,2; Liv. 35,48,10-13; Plut. Titus 23,6) [1. 116] he changed to the Macedonian side in 169 during the 3rd Macedonian War, attempted to win  Strat…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Spendius

(95 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σπένδιος/ Spéndios). Campanian slave who defected to Carthage in the 1st Punic War. In 241 BC, he and Mathos led the insurgent army in the so-called Mercenaries' War. He was known for his strength and courage (Pol. 1,69,4-7) more than for his revolutionary thinking (cf. [1. 95, 107 f.]). After his initial military successes, he was defeated several times, had his army pursue Hamilcar [3], surrendered near Prion and was executed in 238 at Tynes/Tunis (Pol. 1,86,4; [2. 259 f., 263-265]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 L. Loreto, La grande insurrez…

Nicodamus

(35 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Νικόδαμος/ Nikódamos). Aetolian, whose brave attack on the Romans besieging Ambracia in 189 BC failed because Nicander [2], contrary to expectations, failed to arrive with reinforcements (Liv. 38,5,6-10; 38,6,5-7). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Aristaenus

(106 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Megalopolis, exponent of the extremely pro-Roman party in the Achaean Confederation and opponent of  Philopoemen (Pol. 24,11-13; Plut. Phlp. 17,4-5 [1. 109-115]; strategos of the federation in 198/7, 195 and 186/5 BC; initiated in 198 in Sicyon the decisive changeover to the Romans (Pol. 18,13,8-10; Liv. 32,19,5-23,3) [1. 40-45] and persuaded in 197 the Boeotians to form an alliance with the Romans (Liv. 33,2,4). A. agitated in 195 against the Aetolians and Nabis (Liv. 34,34,24), in 186 against th…

Indibilis

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀνδοβάλης; Andobálēs). Tribal prince of the  Ilergetes; he and his brother  Mandonius were omnis Hispaniae principes (Liv. 27,17,3); As an ally of the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, I. was captured by the Romans in 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,6f.), and in 211 was involved in the victory of  Hasdrubal [3] and  Mago over P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio (Liv. 25,34,6-9) [1. 319]. After reprisals on the part of  Hasdrubal [5] and courted by P.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio, he went over to the Romans (Pol. 9,11;…

Balari

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαλαροί; Balaroí). Rapacious mountain people in Sardinia (Str. 5,225; Plin. HN 3,85). The B. were supposedly descendants of Iberian and Libyan mercenaries, who had deserted from Carthaginian service (Paus. 10,17,9); participated in the rebellion of the neighbouring  Ilienses against the Romans in 178 BC and defeated the consul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Liv. 41,6,12) in 177.   Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the family of  Aratus [2] (tyrant of Sicyon 264-252 BC); having come to power due to the murder of the tyrant Cleinias, he was killed by Deinias and the otherwise unknown dialectician Aristoteles (Plut. Arat. 2,2; 3,4; Paus. 2,8,2) [1. 394]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.

Telemnastus

(70 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τηλέμναστος; Tēlémnastos) from Gortyn. Cretan mercenary leader, who supported Philopoemen against Nabis in 192 BC (IG IV2 244,3 f.; Pol. 33,16,1; 33,16,6). In the third Macedonian War T. was the ambassador of Perseus [2] taking his request to Antiochus [6] IV for diplomatic or military aid in the spring of 168 BC (Pol. 29,4,8-10; Liv. 44,24,1-7; cf. [1. 167 f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974.

Bomilcar

(191 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdmlqrt?; Βορμίλκας; Bormílkas i.a.). [German version] [1] Carthaginian strategos, 310-308 BC Carthaginian strategos 310-308 BC, nephew of  Hamilcar; shared the supreme command with Hanno against  Agathocles, the first occasion that the command had been shared (Diod. Sic. 20,10; 12); executed after an attempted coup (?) (Diod. Sic. 20,44; Just. Epit. 22,7 [1. 16-18]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian emissary to Athens, 330/300 BC Carthaginian emissary to Athens c. 330/300 BC (IG II/III2 1, 1418), probably identical with B. [1] [2. 194123]. Gü…

Mathos

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μάθως/ Máthōs). Libyan, Carthaginian officer in the First Punic War in Sicily, 241-238/7 BC. With Spendius leader of the 70,000(?) insurgents in the Mercenaries' War, which M. propagandised among the Libyans and Numidians as a freedom fight against Carthage. M. besieged and conquered Hippo [5], besieged Carthage and for a long time defended himself in his operational base at Tunes until, after vicissitudinous battles, the joined forces of Hamilcar [3] and Hanno [6] were finally ab…

Moericus

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] In 212 BC, Iberian commander of the Carthaginians in Syracusae, which was being besieged by M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus. It fell by reason of M.' treachery at the section of wall he was guarding in the assault on the Achradina, allowing the Romans to also conquer the island part of the city, Orthygia (= Nassus) with the royal stronghold (Liv. 25,30). M. did have to take part in Marcellus's ovatio in gold chains, but was then rewarded with Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily (Liv. 26,21,10; 12). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Seibert, Hannibal, 1993, 315…

Polycratia

(60 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πολυκράτεια/ Polykráteia). P. from Argos, first wife of Philippus [7] V, who had abducted her from her marriage to Aratus [3] (Liv. 27,31,8; 32,21,24; Plut. Aratus 49,2). They had a son Perseus [2], whose name speaks of his Argive descent (see Perseus [1]) [1. 3949]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967.

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman…
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