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Sophoni(s)ba

(187 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σοφονί(σ)βα/ Sophoní(s)ba, Punic * Spnbl = 'Baal has pronounced judgment', other Greek forms of the name: Diod. Sic. 27,7; Zon. 9,12 f.). Daughter of Hasdrubal [5], married c. 205 BC to Syphax, from whom she vehemently demanded a pro-Carthaginian policy (cf. Pol. 14,1,4; 14,7,4-7; Liv. 29,23). S. is supposed to have previously been betrothed to Massinissa (Diod. Sic. 27,7, [1. 200, note 1195; 2]), who married her after his victory over Syphax in 203 in the conquered city of Cirta and forced her to take p…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their participation in the assassination of Aristodemus [6] ( c. 253) and in the overthrow of Nicocles [4] of Sicyon in league with Aratus [2] (Pol. 10,22,2f.; …

Theophiliscus

(44 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεοφιλίσκος; Theophilískos). Rhodean admiral, who won a victory for a Rhodean-Pergamene alliance against Philippus [7] V at Chios in 201 BC, in which he was mortally wounded (Pol. 16,2-9; [1. 118-120]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984.

Lyciscus

(327 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυκίσκος; Lykískos). [German version] [1] Governor of Epirus, late 4th cent. BC Appointed governor of Epirus by Cassander in 316 BC after the Epirotes had banished their king Aeacides [2] and joined Cassander there. After the synoecism of the eastern Acarnanians, he was ordered to protect them against the Aetolians. Aeacides returned and caused Epirus to rebel against Cassander, whose brother Philipus vanquished and killed him. When Alcetas [3] continued Aeacides' policy, L. defeated him after ferociou…

Lycortas

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λυκόρτας; Lykórtas) of Megalopolis, son of Thearidas (Syll.3 626), father of the historian Polybius, leading statesman of the Achaeans in c. 190-168 BC: in 192 hípparchos (Liv. 35,29,1), in 184 and 182 stratēgós, who in 182 brought Messenia and Sparta back into the league (Pol. 2,40,2-6; 22,9f.; 12,8; 23,16f.) [1. 124]. Like Philopoemen, L. was an exponent of limited resistance to Rome's imposition of its will, and he defended Achaean autonomy in Rome (in 189), before Roman envoys in Greece (in 185/4) and befo…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Pantauchus

(207 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πάνταυχος; Pántauchos). [German version] [1] Macedonian military commander (early 3rd cent. BC) A Macedonian (from Beroea?) [1. 423], commander and probably 'friend of the king' ( phílos) of Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. In 289 BC, P. was defeated in a courageous single combat with Pyrrhus during a battle in Aetolia (Plut. Pyrrhus 7,4-9; Plut. Demetrius 41,3) [2. 224f]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Friend of Perseus [2] Son of Balacrus of Beroea, probably the grandson of P. [1] [1. 423], high-ranking 'king's friend' of Perseus [2] [3. 115…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut. Pel. 13; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 240; cf. Xen. Hell. 5,4,13; Diod. Sic. 15,27). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Megalopolis, end of the 3rd cent. BC L. from Megalopolis ( Megale Polis); in 223/2 BC L. wanted to l…

Lydiadas

(204 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυδιάδας; Lydiádas). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megalopolis, 3rd cent. BC Son of Eudamus from Caphyae (?, cf. Syll.3 504) [1. 401] or from Megalopolis; as tyrant of the latter, L. joined the city in 235 BC to the Achaean League ( Achaeans with map) (Pol. 2,44,5; Plut. Aratus 30; [1. 158; 3. 71f.; 87]), he served as its stratēgós in 234/3, 232/1 and again in 230/229. L.'s rivalry with Aratus [2] escalated when Argus joined the League under Aristomachus [4]; in the war against Cleomenes [6] III of Sparta, which L. pursued vigourously, he died in the …

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander of Hannibal, end of 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian, son of a Himilkon, as Hannibal's [4] commander in his absence he led the siege of Saguntum in 219 BC (Liv. 21,12,1-3); identical…

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Thoas

(739 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θόας/ Thóas). [German version] [1] Mythical ruler of Lemnos Mythical ruler of Lemnos (Hom. Il. 14,230; 23,745), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, brother of Oenopion and Staphylus [1] (Apollod. Epit. 1,9). Through his daughter Hypsipyle (Ov. Ep. 6,114), T. is connected with the legend of the Argonauts, because she saved him from the murder of the men by the Lemnian women (Apollod. 1,114 f.); nevertheless, he was killed later (ibid. 3,65) or, according to another version, escaped to Oinoie (= Sicinos) or Chio…

Deinocrates

(705 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Δεινοκράτης; Deinokrátēs). [German version] [1] Of Syracuse. Took part in the battle against Agathocles [2] shortly after 316 BC Of Syracuse. Spared as a friend of  Agathocles [2] at the latter's seizure of power in 316 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,8,6), he soon became the leader of the exiles and of all opponents of Agathocles, took many towns in Sicily and fought with the Carthaginians against the tyrant (19,103f.). In 309 he marched with Hamilcar against Syracuse (20,29,5), and after the death of Hamilcar he was elected strategos by the exiles and the rest of the Greeks (20,31,2); when …

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' entourage that they had him murdered with the acquiescence of Flamininus and help from  Alexamenus (Pol. 18,43; Liv. 33,27,8-28,3) [1. 54-57]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bib…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent of Rome (Pol. 20,9,2; Liv. 35,48,10-13; Plut. Titus 23,6) [1. 116] he changed to the Macedonian side in 169 during the 3rd Macedonian War, attempted to win  Strat…

Aristodemus

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος; Aristódēmos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, one of the three Heraclids who led the Dorians into the Peloponnese. According to the widely known version of the myth (Pl. Leg. 3,692 bk.; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6), A. died before reaching the Peloponnese, leaving twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, who then received Laconia and became the founding fathers of both the royal houses of Sparta. According to Spartan tradition, A. himself led the Spar…

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Medon

(479 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Μέδων/ Médōn). [German version] [1] Son of Oileus and Rhene Illegitimate son of Oileus and Rhene, who led Philoctetes' men to Troy after the latter had to be left on Lemnos (Hom. Il. 2,726ff.). He had killed a member of his stepmother Eriopis' family and thus had to leave his home and flee to Phylace (Thessaly; ibid. 13,695ff.). He is killed by Aeneas (ibid. 15,332). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) Bibliography W. Kullmann, Die Quellen der Ilias (Hermes ES 14), 1960, 113; 122f.; 162f. F. Prinz, Gründungsmythen und Sagenchronologie (Zetemata 72), 1979, 59f. [German version] [2] Herold in the palace…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut. Mor. 250f-253f; Just. Epit. 26,1,4-10) [1. 403-404, 713]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Ion

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἴων; Íōn). [German version] [1] Hero of the Ionians Eponymous hero of the Ionians ( Iones). Several traditions of his ancestry emphasizing Athens' political primacy are extant. The earliest and most influential versions present I. as the son of  Xuthus and Creusa, thus as the grandson of  Hellen, progenitor of the Hellenes, and of the Athenian king  Erechtheus (Str. 8,383; Paus. 7,1,2). I.'s brother is Achaeus [1], progenitor of the Achaeans, his paternal uncles are  Aeolus [1] and  Dorus. With his wife…

Polyaratus

(210 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πολυάρατος/ Polyáratos). [German version] [1] Rich Athenian official c. 400 BC Rich ([Demosth.] Or. 40,24) Athenian from Cholargus (IG I3 375,21), first mentioned in 410/409 BC ( ibid., l. 20 f.) as próhedros of the hellēnotamías (Hellenotamiai) Anaetius of Sphettus; then in 405/4 as grammateús (Grammateis) of the boulḗ (IG I3 126,5). P.' wife was a daughter of Menexenus and a sister of Dicaeogenes [1]; her estate was disputed by Dicaeogenes' adoptive son and P., then by P.' son Menexenus, probably the eldest (Isaeus 5; 389 BC). Until the 320s…

Agesilochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos) (also: Hagesilochos; Hegesilochus). Rhodian, son of Hagesias,   prytanis 171 BC (Pol. 27,3,3; Liv. 42,45,3-4). 169 envoy to Rome (Pol. 28,2; 16,5.8) and 168 to Perseus and  Aemilius Paullus (Pol. 29,10,4; Liv. 44,35,4-6). A. represented the Rhodian Rome politics of the ‘tertia’ pars [1. 185-190]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Eurycleides

(176 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλείδης; Eurykleídēs). Son of Micion from Cephisia; the most significant Athenian statesman of the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC: treasurer of the war-chest 244/3 BC (?), strategos of hoplites c. 245/240 (?), eponymous archon 240/239 (?) (IG II/III2 I 2 1300; II 1 1705; Syll.3 491; 497) [1. 118-127]; in 229 BC E. together with his brother  Micion in cooperation with  Diogenes [1] became the liberator of Athens from Macedonian rule, and subsequently the mentor of a strict policy of neutrality, distanced from  Aratus [2] an…

Nestor

(1,290 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
(Νέστωρ; Néstōr). [German version] [1] Son of Nesleus Important figure in Greek mythology, particularly in the legend of the Trojan War. N. represents the aging warrior who has lost some of his former physical strength but due to his wealth of experience fulfills an important function in the group of leaders and in the Greek army. N. is the son of Neleus (thus his fixed epithet Neleid [Νηλεΐδης; Nēleΐdēs]) and of Chloris [4]. He has two brothers by the names of Chromius and Periclymenus, who are of no mythological significance, and a sister Pero who appears to h…

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Scerdilaedas

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σκερδίλαιδας; Skerdílaidas). Chieftain of the Labeates of Illyria, brother-in-law of Agron [3], chieftain of the Sardiaei [1. 45 f.]. In 229 BC S. supported Teuta against the city of Phoenice in Epirus (Pol. 2,5,6-6,7), consolidated his rule over southern Illyrian tribes after the first Illyrian War (229/8) and continued his raids south of the border with Lissus (Pol. 4,16,6), especially in 220 as an ally of the Aetolians, before he changed sides to join Philippus [7] V (Pol. 4,29…

Aratus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence)
(Ἄρατος; Áratos). [German version] [1] Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta Legendary figure in the early history of Sparta. According to Just. Epit. 3,4,8, in the first Messenian War A. sent the younger soldiers back to their homes, where they had intercourse with all the women and thus ensured the growth of the Spartan population. The so-called  Partheniae conceived in this way, later founded Tarentum under  Phalanthas, the son of A. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sikyonian leader of the Achaean League (245-213 Bc) Sicyonian, 271-213 BC, between 245 an…

Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (Periegetes), P., in his Description of the Earth (γῆς περίοδος/ gês períodos, Harpocr. 152,2), probably discussed the entire Mediterranean region, not only the coasts, as in a periplous

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Apelles

(821 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀπελλῆς; Apellês). [German version] [1] Macedonian Politician, died 218 BC Macedonian, influential confidant of  Antigonus [3] Doson, from 222 BC guardian of  Philippus V. In 219/8, as ‘ traditionalist’, he criticized the Adriatic policy of the king and his pro-Achaean leanings under the influence of  Aratus, against whom he intrigued together with  Leontius and  Megaleas (Pol. 4,76; 82-87). In 218 their plot against Philip V was discovered and A. was executed in Corinth (Pol. 5,2,8; 16; 26-28; Plut. Arat. 48) [1. 167-170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Mace…

Hanno

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] King (suffete) ‘King’ (suffete) of Carthage, probably in the early 5th cent. BC, only known for his sea expedition along the western coast of Africa intended to create and secure Carthaginian colonies. It led from the ‘Columns of Hercules’ (Straight of Gibraltar) to the island of Kerne (near modern Mauretania?), and ─ for the purpose of discovering passages ─ further to the Bay of Notou Keras (‘Horn of the Southern Wind’, modern Cameroon?). References to H.'s voyage begin to appear in the 3rd cent. BC (Aristot. Mir. 833a 11), esp. in Mela (3,90; 93)…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman…

Pyrrhias

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πυρρίας/ Pyrrhías). Aetolian, league strategos in 218/7 BC (Pol. 5,30,2-4; Liv. 27,30,1: 210/9), fought the Achaeans in the so-called Social War (Social Wars [2]) in the western Peloponnese, but was unsuccessful at Cyparissia in 217 (Pol. 5,30,2-4; 92,2-6; 94,2). In 209, in the 1st of the Macedonian Wars [A], despite material help from his co-strategos, king Attalus [4] I of Pergamum, he was defeated by Philippus [7] V at Lamia (Liv. 27,30,1-3). At the beginning of the 2nd Macedon…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Nicodamus

(35 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Νικόδαμος/ Nikódamos). Aetolian, whose brave attack on the Romans besieging Ambracia in 189 BC failed because Nicander [2], contrary to expectations, failed to arrive with reinforcements (Liv. 38,5,6-10; 38,6,5-7). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Hippias

(937 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Ἱππίας/ Hippías, Ion. Ἱππίης/ Hippíēs). [German version] [1] Eldest son of Peisistratus, his father's heir in 528/7 BC Eldest son of  Peisistratus from his first marriage to an Athenian woman. Together with his brothers  Hipparchus [1] and Thessalus he assumed his father's inheritance in 528/7 BC and continued his father's moderate politics (Thuc. 6,54-55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1), e.g. as archon in 526/7. However, when Hipparchus was murdered at the Panathenaea of 514 BC, H. disarmed the population, ordered t…
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