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Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the fam…

Demaratus

(514 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Et al.
(Δημάρατος; Dēmáratos). [German version] [1] Corinthian aristocrat 7th cent. BC Corinthian aristocrat, member of the  Bacchiadae family. D. made his fortune as a merchant around the middle of the 7th cent. BC, mainly through trade with Etruria. When he had to leave Corinth during the rule of  Cypselus he settled in Tarquinii with his followers and married an Etruscan aristocrat. According to ancient tradition the marriage produced two sons, one of whom became the first Etruscan king of Rome,  Tarquinius Priscus. While the Etruscan trade and D.'s emigration are probably historical, the traditional account of the sons should at least be treated with caution; it is possible that Greek authors attempted to construct an early connection between Etruscan a…

Dasius

(188 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
Messapic name in Lat. form (Schulze, 39, 44; ThlL Onom. s.v. D.). Respected bearers of that name in Apulia (in particular from Arpi and Sala) were still anti-Roman during the Second Punic War. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) …

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.

Telemnastus

(70 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τηλέμναστος; Tēlémnastos) from Gortyn. Cretan mercenary leader, who supported Philopoemen against Nabis in 192 BC (IG IV2 244,3 f.; Pol. 33,16,1; 33,16,6). In the third Macedonian War T. was the ambassador of Perseus [2] taking his request to Antiochus [6] IV for diplomatic or military aid in the spring of 168 BC (Pol. 29,4,8-10; Liv. 44,24,1-7; cf. [1. 167 f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974.

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only…

Bomilcar

(191 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdmlqrt?; Βορμίλκας; Bormílkas i.a.). [German version] [1] Carthaginian strategos, 310-308 BC Carthaginian strategos 310-308 BC, nephew of  Hamilcar; shared the supreme command with Hanno against  Agathocles, the first occasion that the command had been shared (Diod. Sic. 20,10; 12); executed after an attempted coup (?) (Diod. Sic. 20,44; Just. Epit. 22,7 [1. 16-18]).…

Mathos

(178 words)

Xenocleides

(307 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ξενοκλείδης/ Xenokleídēs). [German version] [1] Corinthian naval commander, 5th cent. BC Corinthian. One of five naval commanders sent by Corinth against Corcyra in 433 BC (Thuc. 1,46,2). The fleet achieved a partial victory near the Sybota islands (Thuc. 1,47-54; Diod. 12,33,3 f.). On the return voyage X. captured Anactorium on the Gulf of Ambracia and occupied the town with Corinthian settlers (Thuc. 1,55,1). In 426/5 BC X. led 300 hoplites in defence of Ambracia (Thuc. 3,114,4). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. B. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth, 1984, 318 K.-W. Wel…

Moericus

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] In 212 BC, Iberian commander of the Carthaginians in Syracusae, which was being besieged by M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus. It fell by reason of M.' treachery at the section of wall he was guarding in the assault on the Achradina, allowing the Romans to also conquer the island part of the city, Orthygia (= Nassus) with the royal stronghold (Liv. 25,30). M. did have to take part in Marcellus's ovatio in gold chains, but was then rewarded with Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily (Liv. 26,21,10; 12). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) …

Polycratia

(60 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πολυκράτεια/ Polykráteia). P. from Argos, first wife of Philippus [7] V, who had abducted her from her marriage to Aratus [3] (Liv. 27,31,8; 32,21,24; Plut. Aratus 49,2). They had a son Perseus [2], whose name speaks of his Argive descent (see Perseus [1]) [1. 3949]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) …

Megaleas

(93 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλέας; Megaléas). A Macedonian, appointed by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will as head of the chancery ( epì toû grammateíou) of Philippus V in 222 BC (Pol. 4,87,8). Together with Apelles [1] and Leontius [2] M. opposed the anti-Aetolian western policy of the young king and in the…

Sophoni(s)ba

(187 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σοφονί(σ)βα/ Sophoní(s)ba, Punic * Spnbl = 'Baal has pronounced judgment', other Greek forms of the name: Diod. Sic. 27,7; Zon. 9,12 f.). Daughter of Hasdrubal [5], married c. 205 BC to Syphax, from whom she vehemently demanded a pro-Carthaginian policy (cf. Pol. 14,1,4; 14,7,4-7; Liv. 29,23).…

Megalophanes

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μεγαλοφάνης/ Megalophánēs; properly: Demophanes, Δημοφάνης/ Dēmophánēs [1. 228-233]), from Megalopolis. A pupil of Arcesilaus [5] like his friend Ecdemus. Together they established a liberal constitution in Cyrene in c. 250 BC [2. 431] and later became Philopoemen's teachers. M.'s and Ecdemus' reputation for remorseless enmity towards tyranny was not merely academic: it resulted from their participatio…

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (Periegetes), P., in his Description of the Earth (γῆς περίοδος/ gês períodos, Harpocr. 152,2), probably discussed the entire Mediterranean region, not only the coasts, as in a periplous

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Apelles

(821 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀπελλῆς; Apellês). [German version] [1] Macedonian Politician, died 218 BC Macedonian, influential confidant of  Antigonus [3] Doson, from 222 BC guardian of  Philippus V. In 219/8, as ‘ traditionalist’, he criticized the Adriatic policy of the king and his pro-Achaean leanings under the influence of  Aratus, against whom he intrigued together with  Leontius and  Megaleas (Pol. 4,76; 82-87). In 218 their plot against Philip V was discovered and A. was executed in Corinth (Pol. 5,2,8; 16; 26-28; Plut. Arat. 48) [1. 167-170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Mace…

Hanno

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] King (suffete) ‘King’ (suffete) of Carthage, probably in the early 5th cent. BC, only known for his sea expedition along the western coast of Africa intended to create and secure Carthaginian colonies. It led from the ‘Columns of Hercules’ (Straight of Gibraltar) to the island of Kerne (near modern Mauretania?), and ─ for the purpose of discovering passages ─ further to the Bay of Notou Keras (‘Horn of the Southern Wind’, modern Cameroon?). References to H.'s voyage begin to appear in the 3rd cent. BC (Aristot. Mir. 833a 11), esp. in Mela (3,90; 93)…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman…

Pyrrhias

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πυρρίας/ Pyrrhías). Aetolian, league strategos in 218/7 BC (Pol. 5,30,2-4; Liv. 27,30,1: 210/9), fought the Achaeans in the so-called Social War (Social Wars [2]) in the western Peloponnese, but was unsuccessful at Cyparissia in 217 (Pol. 5,30,2-4; 92,2-6; 94,2). In 209, in the 1st of the Macedonian Wars [A], despite material help from his co-strategos, king Attalus [4] I of Pergamum, he was defeated by Philippus [7] V at Lamia (Liv. 27,30,1-3). At the beginning of the 2nd Macedon…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Pausistratus

(177 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίστρατος; Pausístratos). P. from Rhodes, admiral energetically active in the second of the Macedonian Wars and in the Syrian War on the side of Rome. His and allied land troops fought the Macedonian general Deinocrates in Caria in 197 BC (Liv. 33,18,1-21). In 191/190 he was active off the Ionian coast, where in 190 his fleet suffered a ruinous defeat at Panormus in Samia at the hands of Polyxenidas and he was killed himself (Liv. 36,45,5f.; 37,9,5; 37,10,2-11,11; 37,12,8; App. Syr. 23,112-24,120: Pausímachos) [1. 153f.; 2. 196]. A strategem of P.'s during …

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Syracusae

(4,720 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Συράκουσαι/ Syrákousai, Lat. Syracusae). Syracuse, town on Sicily's southeast coast, modern Siracusa. [German version] I. Topography Colony of Corinth (Colonization), founded in 734/3 BC. The place name is said to have derived from the swamp area of Lysimeleia, also called Συράκω/ Syrákō (cf. Scymn. 280-282), which existed until the 20th cent. and was located west of the slim promontory, which, together with the island Ortygia facing it, constituted the original bridgehead settlement (inhabited from the early Paleolithic). The factor …

Xenarchus

(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Lattabus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Echedemus

(72 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἐχέδημος; Echédēmos). Prominent Athenian from Cydathenaeum [1. 189-193], tried in vain in 190 BC to mediate between the Aetolians and the Romans, i.a. with P. Cornelius Scipio (Pol. 21,4-5; Liv. 37,6; 7) [2. 277-288], and in 185/4 contributed decisively to the reorganization of the Delphian  amphictyony [3. 213]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 C. Habicht, Studien zur Gesch. Athens in hell. Zeit, 1982 2 P. Pantos, E., the Second Attic Phoibos, in: Hesperia 58, 1989 3 Habicht.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…

Volux

(68 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Bocchus [1]. In 106 BC in the Romans' war with his brother-in-law Iugurtha, he took L.Cornelius [I 90] Sulla to Bocchus, who thereby indicated his change of sides. The dramatic description of this risky mission in Sallustius [II 3] (Sall. Iug. 101,5; 105-107), which shows V. as an unreliable cowardly 'barbarian', can probably be traced to Sulla's memoirs. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Maharbal

(278 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(* Mhrbl = ‘servant of Bl’; Greek Μαάρβας/ Maárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander (?) Carthaginian commander of dubious historicity, who is supposed to have outsmarted rebellious Libyans by means of doped wine and defeated them (Frontin. Str. 2,5,12; cf. Polyaenus, Strat. 5,10,1; [1. 193f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian commander of Hannibal, end of 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian, son of a Himilkon, as Hannibal's [4] commander in his absence he led the siege of Saguntum in 219 BC (Liv. 21,12,1-3); identical…

Genthius

(254 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Γένθιος; Génthios). King of the  Labeates c. 181-168 BC, allegedly a drunkard and fratricide (Pol. 29,13; Liv. 44,30,2-5); he also supposedly encouraged the activities of the (previously defeated) Illyrian pirates (Liv. 40,42,1-5). G. distanced himself from the pro-Rome policies of his predecessor and father  Pleuratus, and refused to enter into an alliance with Rome on the eve of the Third Macedonian War (Liv. 42,37,1f.; 45,8); in 170, he had to accept the requisitioning of 54 lembi ( Navigation) by M. Lucretius in Dyrrhachium (Liv. 42,48,8). Even thou…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Thoas

(739 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Θόας/ Thóas). [German version] [1] Mythical ruler of Lemnos Mythical ruler of Lemnos (Hom. Il. 14,230; 23,745), son of Dionysus and Ariadne, brother of Oenopion and Staphylus [1] (Apollod. Epit. 1,9). Through his daughter Hypsipyle (Ov. Ep. 6,114), T. is connected with the legend of the Argonauts, because she saved him from the murder of the men by the Lemnian women (Apollod. 1,114 f.); nevertheless, he was killed later (ibid. 3,65) or, according to another version, escaped to Oinoie (= Sicinos) or Chio…

Deinocrates

(705 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Δεινοκράτης; Deinokrátēs). [German version] [1] Of Syracuse. Took part in the battle against Agathocles [2] shortly after 316 BC Of Syracuse. Spared as a friend of  Agathocles [2] at the latter's seizure of power in 316 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,8,6), he soon became the leader of the exiles and of all opponents of Agathocles, took many towns in Sicily and fought with the Carthaginians against the tyrant (19,103f.). In 309 he marched with Hamilcar against Syracuse (20,29,5), and after the death of Hamilcar he was elected strategos by the exiles and the rest of the Greeks (20,31,2); when …

Brachylles

(96 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βραχύλλης; Brachýllēs). From Thebes, son of  Neon, firm supporter of the pro-Macedonian party in Boeotia; in 222 BC royal commissioner of  Antigonus Doson in Sparta, ally and confidant of Philip V in the 2nd Macedonian War (Pol. 18,1,2; 20,5,12) [1. 50-51]; when released from captivity by  Flamininus, B. was elected  boeotarch in 197/6, and that so unsettled the pro-Romans in  Zeuxippus' entourage that they had him murdered with the acquiescence of Flamininus and help from  Alexamenus (Pol. 18,43; Liv. 33,27,8-28,3) [1. 54-57]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bib…

Archedamus

(119 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Aetolian, commander of the Aetolian Federation 191/0, 188/7, 182/1 and 175/4 BC (IG IV 12 1 p. LI) [1. 993, 132, 151]; as leader of the Aetolian unit in the 2nd Macedonian War, played a significant role with  Flamininus in the victory of Cynoscephalae (Pol. 21,5; cf. Liv. 32,4,2) [1. 59-60]. As at times moderate, at times radical opponent of Rome (Pol. 20,9,2; Liv. 35,48,10-13; Plut. Titus 23,6) [1. 116] he changed to the Macedonian side in 169 during the 3rd Macedonian War, attempted to win  Strat…

Aristodemus

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόδημος; Aristódēmos). [German version] [1] Great-grandson of Heracles Great-grandson of Hercules, one of the three Heraclids who led the Dorians into the Peloponnese. According to the widely known version of the myth (Pl. Leg. 3,692 bk.; Apollod. 2,173; Paus. 3,1,6), A. died before reaching the Peloponnese, leaving twin sons, Eurysthenes and Procles, who then received Laconia and became the founding fathers of both the royal houses of Sparta. According to Spartan tradition, A. himself led the Spar…

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…
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