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Civitas

(630 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Community Civitas is the totality of the cives, just as societas is that of the socii. Its meaning is largely synonymous with   populus , but it was rarely used by the Romans for their own state (instead: populus Romanus) but instead was the official expression for all non-Roman communities, tribes and Greek poleis with republican constitutions. A people of the state is the characteristic of a civis, almost always a defined territory with a certain  autonomy ( suis legibus uti) and mostly an urban centre. Classification was according to the legal basis of the re…

Sigla

(182 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Sigla, earlier notae, is the Latin name for abbreviations. Since the time of the Greeks, S. for names, titles, places etc. have been found on coins, conditioned by the small space available. In Greek inscriptions, on the other hand, S. are, at least in pre-Roman times,  extraordinarily rare. This is in stark  contrast to their extensive use amongst the Etruscans and above all the Romans, where some types of information - such as first names, tribus, former offices and set phrases fo…

Funerary inscriptions

(433 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Funerary inscriptions (FI) (now probably approaching a number of 200,000, cf. [3. 124,1]) emerged in the context of the cult of the dead with the purpose of marking the grave of a specific person so that sacrifices for the dead could be performed at the correct place. Furthermore, they soon took on the function of keeping alive the memory of this person and his achievements. They are located above ground at the burial site, or, in communal graves, on the urn holding the ashes, on the sarcophagus, or on the lid of the loculus (the burial niche). In addition to the inscrip…

Latin law

(922 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
( ius Latii). [German version] I. Before the dissolution of the Latin league Because of their common language and culture, Romans and Latins possessed largely identical legal systems. This fact was given precision in the foedus Cassianum . It included commercium and conubium , the right to the spoils in joint wars as well as the right to settle in other states of the Latin federation and to become citizens (basis of the exilium ). This legal status was also granted to newly founded Latin coloniae . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) II. As a legal status in the Imperium Romanum [German version] A. To th…

Lapis Satricanus

(263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stone inscription, slightly damaged, of the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC, discovered in 1977 at Satricum (Latium) beneath the Temple of Mater Matuta, which was constructed around 500 BC. The inscription, one of the earliest in the Latin language, is readily legible: - - -iei steterai Popliosio Valesiosio/suodales Mamartei (‘dedicated by the companions of Publius Valerius to Mars’). The incomplete beginning is probably to be read as [med h]ei (‘me here’), the object thus addressing the reader (see [1]; less likely Sal]iei, see [2], or Iun]ei, see [3]). The inscriptio…

Lex Salpensana

(95 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Facialcazar near Utrera (province of Seville) in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet with chs. 21-29 was found together with the lex Malacitana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1861. The text is, with some differences, identical to the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1963 ILS 6088 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1984, no. 59 (German translation).

Votive inscriptions

(323 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] VI, which denote an object as a votive offering to a deity (or deities) by one or more persons, are among the oldest inscriptions; they may express gratitude for victory in a battle or for a merchant ship that has returned safely home. VI were often made because of a vow taken in a moment of danger, hence the formula VSLM, votum soluit libens merito ('he has honoured the vow of his own free will and according to custom'). The inscription medium was either a stone pedestal (such as for statues) or the dedicated object itself (for instance, helmets or chest ar…

Origo

(340 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] ('Derivation'). In contrast to the Greek poleis and the independent local communities of pre-Roman Italy, a distinction existed in the Hellenistic kingdoms and thereafter in the Roman Empire between the sense of belonging to the greater political unit and the feeling of membership of the community in which one was born and lived. The former was mostly called politeía in Greek and civitas (B.) in Latin, and for the latter, primarily in Ptolemaic Egypt, the Greek expression ἡ ἰδία <κώμη> ( hē idía <kṓmē>, 'one's own village') was common. In Rome from the Imperial …

Conciliabulum

(189 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Conciliabulum (from concilium) in the legal meaning is an assembly place or, more often, just the venue ( locus ubi in concilium convenitur, Fest. p. 33) at which citizens gathered for the proclamation of laws, levying etc. The word describes a settlement with elementary self-government in the territory of one of the tribus rusticae. In the context of the ager Romanus we hear of per fora et conciliabula (Liv. 25,22,4; 39,14,7 etc.), which -- as in the lex Poetelia of 358 -- provides an excellent parallel to the nundinae in the city of Rome. In late Republican laws it…

Provincia

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Meaning of the word The etymological connection of Latin provincia (‘province’) with pro- vincere (‘defeat beforehand’) in Festus (253: “provinciae appellantur quod populus Romanus eas provicit, i.e. ante vicit”) is not plausible and probably based on a popular etymology. Likewise, Isidore’s explanation of provinciae as overseas territory ‘far from’ ( procul) Italy is no more convincing (Isid. Orig. 14,5,19: “procul positas regiones provincias appellaverunt”). The most probable link is with proto-Germanic * fro, ‘lord’ [1. 377 f.]. However, the meaning o…

Monumentum Ancyranum

(573 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Among the documents left behind by Augustus and read out in the Senate after his death in AD 14 was an index rerum a se gestarum (‘Report of Actions’), which was then published on two bronze tablets set up in front of the Mausoleum Augusti (Suet. Aug. 101,4; Cass. Dio 56,33 and R.Gest.div.Aug. prooem.; on the setting up of the tablets and their reconstruction see [8. 6 fig.]). A copy of this text with a Greek translation was attached to the temple of the imperial cult in Ancyra (modern Ankara), the capita…

Tabula Lugdunensis

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze tablet from Lugdunum (modern Lyon) with part of a speech by the emperor Claudius [III 1] in the Senate in which as censor in AD 47/8 he supports the wish of Gaulish nobles to be accepted into the Senate. Comparison of the original text (CIL XIII 1668 = ILS 212) with the version in Tacitus (Ann. 11,23-25) is revealing of the latter's way of working. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography H. Freis, Historische Inschriften zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 21994, no. 34 (German translation)  F. Vittinghoff, Zur Rede des Kaisers Claudius über die Aufnahme von 'Gall…

Socii

(298 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Rome's allies in Italy and, in exceptional cases, also communities and individuals outside Italy were already known as socii in antiquity. The socii in Italy were listed in the formula togatorum, a schedule which laid down the extent of the obligation to provide military contributions, as communities from which Rome was accustomed to require the provision of soldiers for the Roman army (' socii nominis(ve) Latini quibus <sc. Romani> ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent': lex agraria of 111 BC, FIRA 1, no. 8, ll. 21 and 50). The criterion for m…

Lex Ursonensis

(216 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Flavian copy of the municipal law of the Caesarean colonia Iulia Genetiva in Urso, of which four almost complete tablets were found in 1870/71, and an additional 12 fragments were found in and near Osuna (province of Seville) in Southern Spain (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1925. Originally the law probably comprised nine tablets with three or five columns of text each and just over 140 sections ( rubricae), of which 61-82, 91-106 and 123-134 are almost entirely extant and several others are preserved in fragments. The charter of the colony …

Municipium

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Etymologie and Definition It is possible that the Latin term municipes predates that of municipium. In the view of historians such as Varro (Ling. 5,179), the former is derived from munia (or respectively munera) capere, ‘the undertaking of duties’; the explanation ‘the receiving of gifts’ in [7. 26] has to be rejected in the same way as the ancient interpretation by Gellius (16,13,7) that municipium was to be seen as munus honorarium (‘honorary privilege’). Varro referred to obligations by Roman citizens such as military service and payment of taxes which the munici…

Pagus

(449 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Pl. pagi, etymologically related to pangere and pax; 'region with fixed borders'). The Latin pagus refers to the non-urbanized 'district', whose population lived in individual farms and villages ( vici; see vicus ), possibly with one or more oppida ( oppidum ) serving as a refuge; the pagus was the customary form of settlement for many Italian tribes, esp. the Oscan population of the mountainous regions of Central Italy [4] and among the Celts of Upper Italy [2]. The Romans used pagus as the designation for the subdivision of an urban territory. The pagi in the Roman Con…

Tabula Banasitana

(124 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze inscription from Banasa (in Mauretania Tingitana) with copies ( exempla) of three documents and a list of 12 witnesses, probably members of the imperial consilium. It deals with a conferment of citizenship under Marcus Aurelius on 6 July AD 177: at his own request, Iulianus, a princeps of the Zegrensi tribe, and his family are granted Roman citizenship for extraordinary service ( maxima merita), without prejudice to his tribal rights ( salvo iure gentis). The TB is important evidence of the conditions for conferring citizenship at the end of the …

Coloniae

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition A colonia was a settlement of citizens (with the addition of a greater or lesser proportion of non-citizens) for the military and political securing of Roman rule, later for providing for veterans and occasionally the Roman proletariat, almost always in a conquered city, the citizens of which would also be involved in the colony in some way (cf. the definition in Serv. Aen. 1,12). Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Founding and constitution Coloniae are founded on the basis of the people's law by public officials, mainly IIIviri coloniae deduc…

Vici magistri

(456 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
(Singular vici magister). Elected leaders of vici (Vicus) in the city of Rome and in Italian cities. [German version] I. Rome VM are recorded as early as the Republic; their identification with the magistri collegiorum mentioned in Asconius (p. 6 Clark) cannot be doubted ( pace [2]). Their duties were the cult of the Lares Compitales (Lares [1] C) and organizing the Compitalia on 1 January. In the late Republic they were involved in the political activities of the collegia [1] and for a number of years were banned, until Clodius [I 4] permitted them again. They presumably…

Lapis niger

(186 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Block of black marble found at Rome in 1899 during excavations in the Forum Romanum in front of the Curia Iulia. It is probably the niger lapis in comitio from Fest. 184 L. The upper section of the stone is damaged; on five sides it bears a fragmentary inscription, difficult to read and dating from the (early?) 6th cent. BC (probably the lex sacra of the Volcanal, the surrounding sacred precinct), which mentions a ‘king’ ( recei), his ‘herald’ ( calator) and iouxmenta (draught animals? carts?). This may be the inscription which Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. …

Pomerium

(595 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The pomerium was the line, important in religious law, which at Rome and its colonies ( coloniae ) divided the urbs from the ager, i.e. the city in the strictest sense from its surrounding territories. Even in antiquity, the meaning of the word was obscure. According to point of view, it was etymologically explained as the line 'behind' ( post or pone murum) or 'in front of' ( promoerium) the city wall (Varro Ling. 5,143 and Gell. NA 13,14,1 versus Fest. 295), but neither etymology is likely to be tenable The establishment of the pomerium constituted the climax of a city f…

Foedus Gabinum

(148 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Alleged treaty from the time of king Tarquinius Superbus (end 6th cent. BC), which was still extant in the Augustan period on a shield covered in cowhide in the temple of Semo Sancus; documented in Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,58,4 and on coins of two Antistii (family from Gabii, C.  Antistius [II 7] Vetus and C. Antistius Reginus) from the Augustan period: FOEDUS P.R. CUM GABINIS (RIC2 1, 68 no. 363 and 73 no. 411). Main content was an isopoliteia between Rome and Gabii. According to Varro (Ling. 5,33) the ager Gabinus represented an exceptional feature of augural law between the age…

Foedus

(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Vicesima

(488 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (derived from Lat. viginti, 'twenty'; literally, 'the twentieth part'). In Rome, V. was the term referring to five-per-cent taxes [IV]; esp. important were the V . manumissionum or libertatis (manumission tax) and the V. hereditatium (inheritance tax). According to the annalistic tradition (Liv. 7,16,7; on this [3]), the V. manumissionum or libertatis was already decided upon in 357 BC by the Roman army through a vote according to tribus near Sutrium and was afterwards approved by the Senate. Probably from the beginning, it was…

Latin League

(159 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A federation of towns ( populi) in Latium Vetus that was organized around the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris on mons Albanus , but in part also around that of Diana of Aricia. The rights of members were regulated in the foedus Cassianum . The federation came increasingly under Roman control, first during the time of the Tarquinian kings and then in the 4th cent. BC. In 338 the majority of its members was annexed and the remainder became the prisci Latini. Latini, Latium (with map) Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, 1995, 293ff. H. Gals…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

SPQR

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stands for s(enatus) p(opulus)q(ue) R(omanus) and was the usual title of the Roman state as embodied in its two governing bodies, the 'Senate and People of Rome' (i.e. not, as in Greece, the people alone, e.g. hoi Athēnaîoi), from the 1st cent. BC. Before this, the populus was in first place (first evidence in the decree of Aemilius [I 32] Paullus for Lascuta, early 2nd cent. BC: ILS 15; cf. Pol. 21,10,8). From the time of Augustus, SPQR appears on inscriptions as the author of consecrations (e.g. of buildings and monuments), later also as the recipient of dedications. …

Tabula Hebana

(219 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The five bronze fragments, belonging together, of the TH (from Heba in Etruria) can - just like the Tabula Siarensis found in Siarum (in the province of Seville) in 1980 and other fragments from Todi and Rome - be related to a dossier containing a senatus consultum and a law, based on it, of the consuls of AD 20 ( lex Valeria Aurelia) with decrees for the honouring of Germanicus [2], who had died in AD 19. The dossier provides insight into the functioning of the comitia centuriata during the Imperial period and into the mobilisation of public loyalty for the imperi…

Aesculetum

(52 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Grove of oaks ( aesculus) in Rome, to whose branches the coronae civicae were bound. It lay in the western Campus Martius, opposite the island in the Tiber, by the Lungotevere Cenci. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography S. Panciera, Ancora tra epigrafia e topografia, in: L'Urbs. Espace Urbain et Histoire, 1987, 62-73.

Praedium

(215 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Derived from the Latin praes, 'bondsman', who acted as guarantor with his property for another in the leasing of public duties (and from time out of mind probably also in civil law: cf. Lex XII tab. 1,4). Praedium is used almost synonymously with fundus (Large estates); where more closely defined, a praedium is usually denoted by the place in whose territory it lay, a fundus by the name of the original owner (e.g. praedium Nomentanum, fundus Sextilianus). Praedium includes the estate in the literal sense as well as the buildings on it. Depending on the location or owner,…

Foedus

(348 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Feierlicher Friedens- und Freundschaftsvertrag zwischen Rom und einem anderen Staat, der unter den Schutz der Götter gestellt ist. Im Gegensatz zum Waffenstillstand ( indutiae) ist das f. auf Dauer angelegt ( pia et aeterna pax). Ergebnis des f. ist eine societas oder amicitia , die Partner Roms sind foederati , socii oder amici (die Termini sind nicht streng getrennt). Geschlossen wurden die foedera ursprünglich wohl von den fetiales in Form einer sponsio (Liv. 1,24), später ist deren Rolle auf die Überwachung der rel. Formen beschränkt. Das f. schließt nun meist…

Aesculetum

(49 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Hain von Eichen ( aesculus) in Rom, aus deren Zweigen die coronae civicae gebunden wurden. Er lag im westl. Marsfeld, auf der Höhe der Tiberinsel, beim Lungotevere Cenci. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography S. Panciera, Ancora tra epigrafia e topografia, in: L'Urbs. Espace Urbain et Histoire, 1987, 62-73.

Lex Ursonensis

(181 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Flavische Kopie des Stadtgesetzes der caesarischen colonia Iulia Genetiva in Urso, von der vier fast komplette Taf. 1870/71 und weitere 12 Frg. 1925 in und bei Osuna (Prov. Sevilla) in Südspanien gefunden wurden (h. im Arch. Nationalmuseum Madrid). Urspr. umfaßte das Gesetz wohl neun Taf. mit je drei bzw. fünf Textkolumnen und knapp über 140 Abschnitten ( rubricae), von denen 61-82, 91-106 und 123-134 fast ganz, einige weitere in Frg. erh. sind. Das Koloniegesetz wurde (vielleicht nach Caesars Tod von M. Antonius, vgl. §104) als Einzelgesetz vor die …

Pomerium

(536 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] P. heißt die sakralrechtlich wichtige Linie, die in Rom und seinen Kolonien ( coloniae ) die urbs von dem ager, d. h. die Stadt im engeren Sinn von dem umgebenden Territorium der Stadt trennte. Die Bed. des Wortes war schon in der Ant. nicht klar: Es wurde je nach Standpunkt etym. als Linie “hinter” ( post bzw. pone murum) oder “vor” ( promoerium) der Stadtmauer erklärt (Varro ling. 5,143 und Gell. 13,14,1 gegen Fest. 295), doch ist wohl keine dieser Etym. haltbar. Die Festlegung des p. bildete den Höhepunkt einer Stadtgründung “nach etruskischem Ritus” ( ritu Etrusco). Die…

Lex de imperio Vespasiani

(348 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Eine Bronzetafel im Kapitolin. Museum in Rom enthält das Ende der lex de imperio Vespasiani, des sog. Bestallungsgesetzes für Vespasianus, mit dem der Senat E. 69 n.Chr. - nach dem Tod des Vitellius - dem Vespasian cuncta principibus solita (‘alles, was für die Principes üblich ist’, Tac. hist. 4,3,3) beschloß und das Anf. 70 den Comitien vorlag [1. 104f.]. Die Inschr. (aus dem Lateran?), die damals wegen ihrer klass. Majuskeln niemand lesen konnte, diente 1347 Cola di Rienzo zur Begründung seiner Theorie von der Souveränität des röm. V…

Latinisches Recht

(817 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
( ius Latii). [English version] I. Vor der Auflösung des Latinischen Städtebunds Aufgrund gemeinsamer Sprache und Kultur besaßen Römer und Latiner ein weitgehend identisches Recht, das im foedus Cassianum präzisiert wurde. Es umfaßte commercium und conubium , das Anrecht auf Beute in gemeinsamen Kriegen und das Recht, in andere Staaten des Latinerbundes überzusiedeln und dort Bürger zu werden (Grundlage des exilium ). Diesen Rechtsstatus erhielten auch die gemeinsam neu gegründeten latin. coloniae . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) II. Als Rechtsstatus im Imperium Romanum …

Lex Salpensana

(84 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Stadtgesetz aus der Zeit Domitians (E. 1. Jh.n.Chr.) für das latin. municipium Flavium Salpensanum, heute Facialcazar bei Utrera (Prov. Sevilla) in Südspanien, von dem eine Br.-Tafel mit den Kap. 21-29 im J. 1861 zusammen mit der lex Malacitana gefunden wurde (h. im Arch. Nationalmuseum Madrid). Der Text ist mit einigen Abweichungen identisch mit dem der entsprechenden Kap. in der lex Irnitana . Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1963  ILS 6088  H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1984, Nr. 59.

Lapis niger

(168 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] 1899 in Rom bei den Grabungen auf dem forum Romanum vor der curia Iulia gefundener Block aus schwarzem Marmor, der wohl mit dem niger lapis in comitio bei Fest. 184 L. identisch ist. Der oben abgeschlagene Stein trägt auf den fünf Seiten eine frg. und schwer zu lesende Inschr. vom (Anf.?) des 6. Jh.v.Chr. (wohl die lex sacra des Volcanals, des umgebenden heiligen Bezirkes), in der von einem “König” ( recei), seinem “Herold” ( calator) und von iouxmenta (Zugtieren? Wagen?) die Rede ist. Möglicherweise ist es die Inschr., von der Dionysios von Halikarnasso…

Foedus Gabinum

(136 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Angeblicher Vertrag aus der Zeit des Königs Tarquinius Superbus (Ende 6. Jh. v.Chr.), der noch in augusteischer Zeit auf einem mit Rindshaut bespannten Schild im Tempel des Semo Sancus erhalten war; belegt bei Dion. Hal. ant. 4,58,4 und auf Münzen zweier Antistii (Familie aus Gabii, C. Antistius [II 7] Vetus und C. Antistius Reginus) aus augusteischer Zeit: FOEDUS P.R. CUM GABINIS (RIC2 1, 68 Nr. 363 und 73 Nr. 411). Hauptinhalt war eine Isopolitie zwischen Rom und Gabii. Nach Varro (ling. 5,33) stellte der ager Gabinus eine auguralrechtliche Besonderheit zwisch…

Conciliabulum

(183 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] C. (von concilium) im rechtlichen Sinn ist ein Versammlungsplatz oder, häufiger, -ort ( locus ubi in concilium convenitur, Fest. p. 33), an dem die Bürger zur Bekanntgabe von Gesetzen, zur Aushebung usw. zusammenkamen. Das Wort bezeichnet eine Siedlung mit rudimentärer Selbstverwaltung auf dem Gebiet einer der tribus rusticae. Für den ager Romanus ist häufig von per fora et conciliabula die Rede (Liv. 25,22,4; 39,14,7 usw.), was - wie auch die lex Poetelia von 358 - die Parallele zu den stadtröm. nundinae gut zeigt. In spätrepublikanischen Gesetzen begegnet …

Grabinschriften

(360 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Die G. (inzw. wohl an 200000, vgl. [3. 124,1]) kamen auf im Zusammenhang des Totenkultes, um das Grab einer bestimmten Person identifizierbar zu machen und die Totenopfer an der richtigen Stelle vollführen zu können. Daneben übernahmen sie bald die Funktion, die Erinnerung an diese Person und ihre Leistungen wachzuhalten. Sie finden sich über der Erde am Ort der Bestattung oder, bei Gemeinschaftsgräbern, auf der Aschenurne, dem Sarkophag oder dem Deckel des loculus (der Bestattungsnische). Neben der Inschrift tragen sie häufig Dekoration allgemeine…

Lex Malacitana

(101 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Stadtgesetz aus der Zeit Domitians (E. 1. Jh.n.Chr.) für das latinische municipium Flavium Malacitanum, heute Málaga in Südspanien, von dem eine Br.-Tafel mit den Kap. 51-69 im J. 1861 zusammen mit der lex Salpensana gefunden wurde (h. im Arch. Nationalmuseum Madrid). Der Text der Kap. 59-69 ist mit einigen Abweichungen identisch mit dem der entsprechenden Kap. in der lex Irnitana ; dies dürfte auch für den Rest des Gesetzes gelten. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1964  ILS 6089  H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1984, Nr. 60  Th. Spitzl, L…

Monumentum Ancyranum

(514 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Unter den von Augustus hinterlassenen Dokumenten, die nach seinem Tod 14 n.Chr. im Senat verlesen wurden, befand sich auch ein index rerum a se gestarum (‘Tatenbericht’), der dann auf zwei vor dem Mausoleum Augusti aufgestellten Bronzetafeln veröffentlicht wurde (Suet. Aug. 101,4; Cass. Dio 56,33 und R.Gest.div.Aug. prooem.; zur Aufstellung der Tafeln und Rekonstruktion s. [8. 6 Abb.]). Eine Kopie dieses Textes wurde mit griech. Übers. an dem Tempel für den Kaiserkult in Ankyra (h. Ankara) angebracht, d…

Pagus

(413 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] (Pl. pagi, etym. verwandt mit pangere und pax; “Gebiet mit festen Grenzen”). Lat. p. heißt der nichturbanisierte “Gau”, dessen Bevölkerung in Einzelhöfen und Dörfern ( vici; s. vicus ) wohnt, evtl. mit einem oder mehreren oppida ( oppidum ) als Fluchtburg; der p. war übliche Siedlungsform bei vielen Stämmen It.s, v.a. bei der oskischen Bevölkerung in den Bergregionen Mittelitaliens [4] und bei den Kelten Oberitaliens [2]. Von den Römern wurde p. als Bezeichnung für die Unterteilung eines städt. Territoriums verwendet. Zumindest die p. im röm. Staatsverband bes…

Res publica

(891 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] (wörtlich: “öffentliche Sache”) ist (im Gegensatz zu res privata, der “privaten Sache”) die Summe der Besitzungen, Rechte und Interessen des röm. Staates, wobei “Staat” nicht als ein von der Bürgerschaft ablösbarer, abstrakter Begriff verstanden wird, sondern die konkrete Gesamtheit der Bürger meint: r.p. est res populi (Cic. rep. 1,25,39; “ r.p. ist Sache des Volkes”, populus ). R.p. ist demnach nicht mit den mod. Inhalten von “Staat” oder von “Verfassung” identisch, sondern beschreibt urprünglich den Gegensatz einerseits zur Herrschaft des Königs ( rex

Quadragesima

(349 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] (sc. pars). Die q. (τεσσαρακοστή/ tessarakostḗ, “ein Vierzigstel”) ist eine Abgabe in Höhe von 2 1/2 % des deklarierten Wertes von Handelswaren; sie wurde an der röm. Reichsgrenze oder an Zollgrenzen im Reichsinneren erhoben. V. a. sind hiermit die Ein- und Ausfuhrzölle in den Zollbezirken Asia, Gallia und Hispania gemeint, doch kann q. schon relativ früh den Zoll schlechthin bezeichnen (Quint. decl. 359). Während in Asia der Zollbezirk wohl nur diese eine Prov. umfaßte (ILS 1330; q. portuum Asiae: ILS 1862), reichte der gallische bis zum Rhein und an die Alpen ( q. Ga…

Octoviri

(189 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Ein Collegium von acht Munizipalbeamten ( municipium ) in Städten des östl. Mittelitalien: Amiternum, Nursia, Trebula Mutuesca, Interamnia Praetuttianorum und Plestia. Seit der ausgehenden Republik, als die o. erstmals inschr. belegt sind, zerfiel das Amt meist in einzelne Collegien, so in Trebula Mutuesca in je zwei VIIIviri duovirali potestate, VIIIviri aedilicia potestate, VIIIviri aerarii und VIIIviri fanorum (CIL IX 4883, 4891, 4896). Deutlich ist die recht künstliche Übertragung des in Rom nun üblichen Sechs-Beamten-Schemas (s. duoviri , aediles , qua…

Leidener Klammersystem

(118 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[English version] Übereinkunft von 1931 über den Gebrauch textkritischer Zeichen bei der Publikation von griech. und lat. Texten, Papyri, Inschr. usw. Die wichtigsten unter ihnen sind eckige Klammern [ ] zur Kennzeichnung der Ergänzung früher erh. Buchstaben, runde Klammern ( ) zur Auflösung ant. Abkürzungen, Schweifklammern   zur Beseitigung vom Schreiber irrtümlich gesetzter Buchstaben und Doppelklammern [[ ]] zur Kennzeichnung schon in der Ant. getilgter Zeichen. Punkte unter Buchstaben ạ ḅ b…

Municipal law

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the field of  legal texts in cuneiform, the political structure of the Mesopotamian confederation, that at times comprised small territorial states and at times large states stretching over the whole of southern Mesopotamia, created regional peculiarities that are demonstrated above all in the form of documents as well as in substantive law. The essential parameters of the legal system were defined by the structure of the society (Social structure), economy and f…

Ingenuus

(400 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than Gallienus in 260 AD Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than  Gallienus in AD 260 by the Moesian legions after  Valerianus was captured by the Persians and the Sarmatians threatened to invade (S HA Tyr. Trig. 9,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Zon. 12,24, p. 143 D). Gallienus' cavalry leader  Aureolus defeated him at Mursa near Sirmium. I. lost his life while fleeing (Zon. loc. cit..; Aur. Vict. Caes. 32,2; Eutr. 9,8,1; Oros. 7,22,10; Chron. min. 1, 521,45 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Boch…
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