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Cledonius

(75 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian, compiled a commentary on the grammar of  Donatus at Constantinople in the 5th cent. He has been preserved in a very disorderly state, which in part reveals how the text, which originated in marginalia and scholastic notes on Donatus, was compiled in a later period. Gatti, Paolo (Trento) Bibliography Editions: GL 5, 9-79. Bibliography: G. Goetz, s.v. C., RE 4, 10 Schanz/Hosius 4,2, 207f. V. de Angelis, s.v. C., EV 1, 818f.

Grillius

(229 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian and rhetor, probably from the 5th cent. AD. Extant by him is part of a commentary on Cicero's De inventione which is preceded by an argumentum artis rhetoricae, a synopsis of the Rhetorica ad Herennium. Priscian (Inst. gramm. 2,35,27; 36,1f.) mentions (probably our) G. as the author of a (nonextant) work Ad Vergilium de accentibus, which must be considered a grammar dedicated to a certain Virgilius, rather than a study of Virgilian verses. Included in numerous medieval catalogues, G. was used frequently by, among other…

Consentius

(176 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Name of a 5th-cent. Lat. grammarian, perhaps from Narbo (Narbonne), which he refers to in his Ars ( GL 346,5; 348,35). He was either identical with or related to  Sidonius Apollinaris, curator palatii under Avitus (455-456). Of the latter C. we know that, like his father the poet and philosopher, he certainly came from Narbo; that he wrote both Latin and Greek verse; and that thanks to his outstanding knowledge of Greek he was despatched as ambassador to Constantinople (related esp. in Sid. Apoll. Carm. 23; Epist. 8,4; 9,15). The grammarian C. wrote two treatises De nomine …

Agroecius

(211 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian (on his erroneous identification with  Agrestius cf. [4. 13 f.]). As Bishop of Sens, he dedicated an Ars de orthographia to Bishop  Eucherius of Lyon ( c. AD 434 to c. 450); therefore he is classified chronologically in the middle of the 5th cent. Strictly speaking, it is not a proper orthographical treatise, but rather a listing of 138 differentiae, that have apparently been strung together without any didactic, logical or content-based criteria. The treatment of differentiae in orthographical works is, however, traditional. It goes back…

Eutychius Proculus

(104 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian of the 2nd cent. AD from Sicca Veneria in Africa. Teacher of  Marcus Aurelius (cf. SHA Aur. 2,3. 5), who elevated him to the proconsular career. His works are lost. It is unlikely that E. is identical with the (probably fictitious) grammarian Proculus, to whom SHA trig.tyr. 22,14 attributes an (even more probably fictitious) treatise with the title of De peregrinis regionibus. Gatti, Paolo (Trento) Bibliography A. Kappelmacher, s.v. E. 1, RE 6, 1534f. Schanz/Hosius 3,174 A. R. Birley, Some Teachers of M. Aurelius, in: Bonner Historia-Augus…

Cominianus

(96 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Lat. grammarian of the 1st half of the 4th cent. AD in Constantinople. He was the teacher of  Charisius, who relied extensively on him in his Ars grammatica. C.'s lost work, which served as a Latin textbook for Greeks [1. 123], was influenced by  Plotius Sacerdos. It may also have been used in the form of revised versions, by later authors, as e.g.  Dositheus, Anonymus Bobiensis and  Beda. Texts circulating under the name of ‘Cominianus’ during the Middle Ages should, however, be associated with his student Charisius. Gatti, Paolo (Trento) Bibliography 1 HLL § 523.1.

Eugraphius

(96 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian and author of a Terence comm. that is also included with various Terence MSS. He may have lived in the 6th cent. AD: he used the Terence comm. of  Donatus [3]. The Commentum of E. mainly consists of notes of a rhetorical type, sometimes only of paraphrasing. In the Middle Ages E.'s name appears to have been unknown but there are traces of his comm. in the glossaries and scholia to Terence. Gatti, Paolo (Trento) Bibliography Edition: P. Wessner, 1908 (repr. 1963). Bibliography: Id., E., RE 6, 990-991 Schanz/Hosius 4,2, 240-242 HLL § 706.

Evanthius

(122 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian, who worked in Constantinople during the 1st half of the 4th cent. AD. Extant of his works are a treatise entitled De fabula or De comoedia (regarding the title see Rufin. Gramm. 6,554,4), which is contained in the preface to  Donatus' [3] commentary on Terence. The first three chapters of this preface are undoubtedly by E., whereas there is considerable uncertainty regarding the fourth. It is almost certain, however, that E. also commented on Terence's individual comedies, and that these c…

Martyrius

(201 words)

Author(s): Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] Latin grammarian, assumed to have lived before Cassiodorus, probably in the first half of the 6th cent. AD. M. was the son of a certain Adamantius, whom he owed his education and who is thus named in the MSS Adamanti(i) sive Martyrii and in Cassiodorus Adamantius Martyrius. In a manuscript subscriptio the designation Sardianus grammaticus appears, perhaps named after Sardes (Lydia). He is the author of a treatise De B muta et V vocali in 4 parts, documented in 5 MSS from the humanistic period, which go back to two lost codices (one from Bobbio, the oth…

Nisus

(317 words)

Author(s): Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
[German version] I. Mythology (Νῖσος/ Nîsos, Lat. Nisus). [German version] [I 1] King of Megara Son of Pandion, king of Megara [2]. According to an oracle, his purple lock of hair guaranteed the continuation of his rule. When Minos besieged Megara, Scylla, daughter of Nisus, stole the lock out of calculation or for love (since the Hellenistic period: Parthenius fr. 20; Ov. Met. 8,6-151; Pseudo-Verg. Ciris). After his transformation into a sea eagle, N. pursued his daughter, who had been transformed into a bird ( ciris, Greek keiris). Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel) Bibliography F. Bömer, P. Ov…

Eutyches

(362 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Εὐτύχης; Eutýchēs). [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD, signed as ‘son of  Dioscorides of Aegeae’ the rock crystal with a bust of Athena (Berlin, SM), in the style of the Athena of Velletri. Athena of  Velitrae;  Intaglio;  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 31770, 331 pl. 92,3 AGD II, Berlin 169 pl. 80 and 81 no. 456. [German version] [2] Lat. grammarian of the 4th cent. AD (Eutyc(h)ius, MSS), Latin grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, a pupil of  Priscianus and author of an Ars de verbo, probably identical with…

Dositheus

(947 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Δωσίθεος; Dōsítheos). [German version] [1] Jewish apostate Son of Drimylos, Jewish apostate. He is supposed to have saved the life of Ptolemy IV Philopator before the battle at Raphia (217 BC)(3 Macc. 1,3). Around 240 BC he was one of the two leaders of the royal secretariat and accompanied Ptolemy III in 225-24 on a trip in Egypt; he held the highest priestly office in Hellenistic Egypt around 222 as the priest of Alexander [4] the Great and the deified Ptolemies. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum…

Curtius

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Porod, Robert (Graz) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
Roman surname (Schulze 78; ThlL, Onom. 2,765-770). The fictive early republican relatives of Curtius[I 1-3] are said to be the explanation for the name Lacus Curtius [1. 75ff.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., M. Hero of Roman legend Hero of Roman legend. When a crevice opened on the forum in 362 BC and an oracle announced that it would not close up until Rome's greatest possessions were sacrificed to guarantee the eternity of Rome, Curtius interpreted this as a sign of military bravery and jumped in full armour with h…

Donatus

(1,803 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns (Erlangen/Nürnberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[1] D. of Carthage, Donatists [German version] A. Definition Donatism is a derogatory term for an ethically radical Christian movement that attached itself to traditional elements in the African Church in Roman North Africa in the 4th-7th cents. AD. It led to a schism in the African Church during disputes over the consequences of the Diocletian persecutions of Christians, i.e. the question of how to deal with lay persons and clerics who had given in to the governmental authorities and in some way had become lapsi, e.g. had surrendered Holy Scriptures ( traditores). A separate Donatist …

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Arruntius

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Lat. gentile name (Etruscan arntni ?) also as Arentius in inscriptions, derived from the Etruscan name Arruns ([1]; ThLL 2,647). The gens appeared in Rome in the 1st cent. BC, attained the consulate under Augustus and was then probably accepted into the patriciate at that time (see Stat. Silv. 1.2.71 concerning the poet Arruntius [II 12] Stella). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Father and son, died 43 BC In 43 BC, father and son were proscribed outlaws by the Triumvirate and killed (App. B Civ. 4,86). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., L. (middle of 1st cent. BC) In…

Diomedes

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Διομήδης; Diomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Cultic hero of the city of Argos Hero of the city of Argos in the Trojan War, as opposed to Agamemnon of Mycenae, the lord of north-eastern Argolis (Hom. Il. 2,559-568; cf. Il. 23,471f. [1; 2]). Son of Tydeus and Deipyle, the daughter of Adrastus. In his aristeia before Troy (Il. 5 and 6), he killed Pandarus, wounded Aphrodite when she tried to save Aeneas (Il. 5, 290-351), and later also wounded Ares (Il. 5, 825-863). As a friend of the family, he exchanged weapons with Glaucus the Lycian (on the side o…

Palladius

(1,607 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Παλλάδιος; Palládios). [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, 4th cent. Greek rhetor of the first half of the 4th cent. AD (Suda s.v. P. gives his prime as under Constantinus [1] I) from Methone (probably the Messenian one). According to the Suda, in addition to declamations he wrote in all three rhetorical genres ( genera dicendi

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Philemon

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φιλήμων; Philḗmōn). [German version] [1] Husband of Baukis Husband of Baucis. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Writer of the Attic New Comedy, c. 300 BC Son of Damon of Syracuse [1. test. 1, 11], became (before 307/6 BC; cf. [1. test. 15]) an Athenian citizen [1. test. 2-12. 15]. Important writer of Attic New Comedy with his stage debut several years before Menander [4] (before 328: [1. test. 2]); it is uncertain whether this somewhat earlier chronology or the different nature of his plays led to P. once being call…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Marcius

(5,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Old Roman nomen gentile, derived from the prename Marcus. Tradition knows of a patrician branch with the (mythical) king Ancus M. [I 3] and Cn. M. Coriolanus as its most important members. The younger members of the family (from the 3rd cent.) were plebeian without a link to the patrician Marcii being evident. Important families included the Rutili, later also the Censorini, Tremuli, Reges a…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…
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