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Azteken

(848 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
Der Herrschaftsbereich der mesoamerikan. A. erstreckte sich am Ende des 15. Jh.s vom Pazifischen Ozean bis zum Golf von Mexiko und stellte daher das erste Großreich auf dem amerikan. Kontinent dar, mit dem die span. Konquistadoren 1519 in Berührung kamen (Reiche, außereuropäische; Kulturkontakt). Die in Bilderhandschriften und späteren Aufzeichnungen mündlicher Traditionen erhaltenen Wandersagen der Mexica erzählen von der noch jungen Geschichte dieser Nahuatl sprechenden, von Norden her eingewanderten Volksgruppe. Ihre entbehrungsreichen Wanderun…
Date: 2019-11-19

Indianer

(5,704 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Begriff und methodischer ZugangUnmittelbar vor der Ankunft der Europäer lebten auf dem amerikan. Doppelkontinent schätzungsweise 40 bis 50 Mio. Menschen, die in Bevölkerungsgröße, Sprache [3. 94] und Kultur sowie sozialer, wirtschaftlicher und politischer Organisation außerordentlich divers waren [4]. Das Spektrum reichte von saisonal umherziehenden Jägern und Sammlern mit informeller politischer Führerschaft bis hin zu ansässigen Bauern, die in übergreifende politische Systeme mit urbanen Zentren und Klassenschichtung integrier…
Date: 2019-11-19

American indigenous peoples

(6,755 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Terminology and methodological approach When the first Europeans were about to set foot on the dual landmass of the Americas the continent was home to an estimated number of 40 or 50 million people, who were characterized by an extraordinary diversity of population density, languages [3. 94] and cultures as well of social, economic and political organization [4]. They ranged from seasonally foraging hunters and gatherers led by informally chosen chiefs to sedentary farmers integrated in comprehensive political systems which included urban centers an…
Date: 2019-10-14

Maya

(2,690 words)

Author(s): Kummels, Ingrid | Grünschloß, Andreas
1. Introduction The Maya is the name given to speakers of the largest indigenous language family in Mesoamerica, who now number 8 million, and to the archaeological cultures in their settlement region. They already inhabited this region in pre-Columbian times, in what is now southern Mexico (Yucatán Peninsula and Chiapas), Belize, Guatemala, western Honduras, and El Salvador. It encompasses the karstic northern lowlands of Yucatán, the hot and humid southern Petén Basin, the highlands o…
Date: 2019-10-14

Life

(7,317 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Liess, Kathrin | Zumstein, Jean | Sparn, Walter | Gander, Hans-Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Fundamental Theology and Dogmatics – IV. Philosophy – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Natural Sciences – VII. Ethics I. Religious Studies Religious ideas and rituals focus fundamentally on life in this world and the next (Here and now, and the hereafter), i.e., coping with life and death (I). Through an immense range of variations, certain returning elements are discernible. Because of its numinous origin (Creation), life is usually felt to be “owed,” but because …

Church

(19,399 words)

Author(s): Wenz, Gunther | Davis, Derek | Grünschloß, Andreas | Grappe, Christian | Schäfer, Rolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Religious Studies – III. Early Christianity – IV. Early Church to the Reformation – V. Modern Era – VI. Orthodox Churches – VII. Asia, Africa, Latin America – VIII. Systematic Theology – IX. Ethics – X. Practical Theology – XI. Ecumenical Discussion – XII. Law I. Concept 1. Theology The loan-word, church, which in common parlance can mean both the Christian worship service and the building dedicated to its performance as well as the constituted social configuration of Christian faith in t…

Water

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Throughout the world, water appears as the fundamental and original element of the world and life (cf. Earth, Fire, Wind), and thus plays an important role in religious protologies. In the form of a primordial ocean or subterranean lakes, cosmogonic myths describe it as a created or already preexistent original substance. From an anthropological perspective, other fluids or “humors” can also be distinguished as constitutive of the human being. The vital importance of water, its purifying power, but also its threatening aspects ¶ (floods, tidal waves, massive r…

Endo, Shusako

(193 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1923, Tokyo – Sep 29, 1996, Tokyo), internationally known and much celebrated Japanese author. From his youth, he felt “foreign” in his homeland because of his Catholic faith and desired also in his writing to bridge the cleft, painful for him, between his Christian “garment” and his Japanese “body.” The struggle for an authentic inculturation of the gospel in the Japanese spirit and context finds particular expression in his most famous novel Silence (Jap. Chinmoku, 1966), set in the time of the 17th-century Japanese …

Missio Dei

(325 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] Missio Dei, “mission of God,” was introduced into the discussion by K. Hartenstein; the term advanced after the missions conference in Willingen (1952, Mission Conferences, German) and soon became a central concept in the theology of mission. In spite of many different emphases, it implies a new Trinitarian foundation for the understanding of missions (cf. opera and missiones in the context of the “economic Trinity”). For, in distinction to ecclesiocentric mission concepts, the Triune God is to be understood as the real “subject” of mis…

Scientology, Church of

(664 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. In a series of organizations that followed each other in hectic succession, Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (Mar 13, 1911 – Jan 24, 1986) sought to capitalize on the unexpected boom of autonomous Dianetics groups that followed upon his self-help bestseller Dianetics, published in 1950, and preceded the Church of Scientology ¶ (as it began calling itself in 1954, initially in California; later Church of Scientology International). The name reflects Hubbard’s expansion of Dianetics “therapy” to a comprehensive philosophy of salvation with the programmatic label Sciento…

Original State

(3,622 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Arneth, Martin | Dietz, Walter R.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies Myths of an original state are usually associated with cosmogonic and anthropogonic (Anthropogony) myths concerning the origins of the world, life, animals, and human beings, for the original state refers to a primal age (Protology) before all time, falling between creation and history. Many religious traditions describe a harmonious, even paradisal eon when humans or (sometimes theriomorphic) protohumans were “still” in d…

Myth and Mythology

(12,158 words)

Author(s): Segal, Robert Alan | Kamel, Susan | Müller, Hans-Peter | Graf, Fritz | Cancik, Hubert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Fundamental Theology. – V. Missiology I. Religious Studies 1. The Concept and Its History Myth may be defined by either content or function. Defined by content, myth is a belief about something significant, such as the world or society. Defined by function, myth accomplishes something significant, such as explaining the world or supporting society. Most theories of myth are concerned with the function of myth, but many are also concerned with either the origin or the subject matter of myth. Myt…

Great Commission, The

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Frankemölle, Hubert | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. I. New Testament – II. Missiology I. New Testament Matt. 28:16–20 is often called the Great Commission. The text is a manifesto summarizing the entire Gospel. The speaker in the narrative is “Jesus” (“Ye/Ya saves”: 1:21), “Immanuel” (“El/God is with us”: 1:23; cf. also 2:15; 11:27; 17:5; 28:18). The theocentric Christology in Matthew implies a universal understanding, including Israel. Just as El or YHWH is believed in as the God of Israel and the nations, so is the God whose epiphany is in the histori…

Exorcism

(1,855 words)

Author(s): Figge, Horst H. | Kollmann, Bernd | Streib, Heinz | Mitchell, Nathan D. | Grünschloß, Andreas
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. New Testament – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgy – V. Missiology I. Comparative Religion Exorcism, latinized from the Greek ἐξορκίζεῖν/ exorkízein, literally “to conjure out,” consists of procedures aimed at removing psychic, social, or material disruptions that are attributed to the presence of undesirable spirits. Exorcism is accordingly practiced worldwide and …

Faith

(25,125 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Schulz, Heiko | Kaiser, Otto | Hooker, Morna D. | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Systematic Theology – V. Practical Theology – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam I. Terminology 1. Religious Studies a. As an emic linguistic term, “faith” is found not only in the context of the Christian West (cf. fides, foi, Glaube, etc.), but also in other religious traditions. The Sanskrit term śraddhā (cf. Pāli saddhā; Avestan zrazdā-) seems to represent an Indo-European etymological pendant to Lat. credo, as demonstrated by the possible reconstruction of Indo-Germanic * k'red-dhē-, “set one's heart o…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion years ago. Humans are members of the order Primates. Between five and seven million years ago, the hominid clade diverged from the line of apes, with which we still share 98.4% of our DNA. While fossils of the first humans ( Homo habilis and erectus) can be dated to two million years ago and archaic Homo sapiens appeared so…

Stranger/Otherness

(2,942 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Bultmann, Christoph | Feldmeier, Reinhard | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Grözinger, Albrecht
[German Version] I. Religious Studies From the outset, religions are involved in processes of exchange with their (religious) environment. This structural relationship to the surrounding world finds expression in internal…

Sealing

(283 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas

Life Cycle

(2,663 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Wagner-Rau, Ulrike | Preul, Reiner | Goldberg, Sylvie Anne | Michaels, Axel
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology – III. Ethics (Phases of Maturation) – IV. Judaism – V. Hinduism I. Religious Studies In almost all cultures and religions, a person apparently experiences his life not only as a straight line, but more as cyclically sequenced, more-or-less discontinuous phases with varied social status and role claims. The transition between these phases usually takes place as a controlled “growing process,” not only accompanied by so-called rites of passage, but in f…

Versiegelung

(242 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] Versiegelung, religionsgeschichtlich. Dokumente und Eigentumssachen werden durch Siegel geschützt. Die V. soll vor unberechtigter Aneignung oder Einsicht bewahren, sie sichert Authentizität sowie Autorität des Siegelnden (Absenders, Besitzers) mit symbolischer Macht. Die profan-rechtliche Bedeutung begründet die häufig bezeugten rel. Bezugnahmen auf V. So können z.B. Tätowierungen (Tatauierung) oder Amulette ihre Träger der numinosen Macht- und Schutzsphäre einer Gottheit überstel…

Scientology Church

(539 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] . I. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (13.3.1911–24.1.1986) suchte in mehreren, sich hektisch ablösenden Organisationen dem unerwarteten Boom autonomer Dianetikgruppen Herr zu werden, die seinem 1950 veröff. Selbsthilfe-Bestseller »Dianetics« folgten. Diese gingen der »Church of Scientology« (CS, Selbstbez. seit 1954, zuerst in Kalifornien; später mit Zusatz »international«, CSI) voraus. Der Name spiegelt Hubbards Erweiterung der Dianetik-»Therapie« zu einer umfassenden weltanschaulichen …

Urstand

(3,118 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Arneth, Martin | Dietz, Walter R.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Die Mythen vom U. knüpfen meist an kosmogonische und anthropogonische (Anthropogonie) Mythen an (Ursprung von Welt, Leben, Tier und Mensch), denn der U. bez. eine Ur-Zeit (Protologie) vor aller Zeit und steht damit zw. Schöpfung und Geschichte. In vielen rel. Traditionen wird ein harmonischer, geradezu paradiesischer Äon beschrieben, als die Menschen bzw. die (u.U. theriomorphen) Protomenschen mit den Gottheiten »noch« in direktem Kontakt standen und viele ihrer Fähigkeiten besaßen; neben anderen menschlichen Begrenzungen wird v.a. der Tod als Folge von Urereignissen dargestellt (z.B. Tod von Göttern, Eingriffe von »Trickstern« oder Urverfehlungen seitens der Urmenschen). Urstandsmythen unterscheiden sich beträchtlich: Die Urzeit kann in mehrere Abschnitte aufgeteilt sein, in denen Kulturbringer/Kulturheroen neue Kenntnisse und Fertigkeiten brachten, oder die Urstandsmythen gehen mit aufeinander folgenden Schöpfungsepochen oder Schöpfungsversuchen unterschiedlichen Perfektionsgrades einher, wie z.B. in indianischen Ursprungs- und Aufstiegsmythen. Auch herausragende Epochen der Gesch. können derart zum »goldenen Zeitalter« (Weltperioden) aufgewertet werden, daß sie Funktionen von Urstandsdiskursen übernehmen. Die Ära des U. ist eine bes., »paradigmatische« Zeit: Die damaligen Geschehnisse, Krisen und ihre (Nicht-)Bewältigung bzw. Folgen formen nachhaltige Muster und Bilder, deren Bedeutungsreservoir in Ritus und Kultus narrativ und performativ vergegenwärtigt wird: Bei der Initiation (Rites de passage), zur Orientierung in der Welt, im Blick auf konkrete Handlungsoptionen, sowie zur Reintegration des Daseins. Der »Bruch« zw. Urzeit und gewöhnlicher Zeit korrespondiert mit einer sehnsuchtsvollen Orientierung am U. und seinen Heilsparadigmen. In Urstandsmythen rekonstruiert sich der Mensch »von hinten her«, denn der Ist-Zustand des Daseins in der Welt wird durch Ereignisse im…

Wasser

(940 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas
[English Version] Wasser, religionsgeschichtlich. I. W. erscheint weltweit als fundamentales und urspr. Element der Welt und des Lebens (vgl. Erde, Feuer, Wind) und spielt daher in rel. Protologien eine wichtige Rolle. In Gestalt eines Urmeeres oder unterirdischer Seen wird es in kosmogonischen Mythen als eine geschaffene oder bereits vor aller Zeit existente Ursubstanz angesprochen. Anthropologisch können weitere, den Menschen konstituierende »Säfte« unterschieden werden. Die lebenswichtige Bedeutu…
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