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Reuter, Hermann

(335 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 31, 1817, Hildesheim – Sep 17, 1889, Kreiensen). In 1837 Reuter began studying Protestant theology in Göttingen; in 1838 he moved to Berlin, where he combined theology with history and philosophy. Close friendly exchange of ideas with Rudolf v. Ihering (later a renowned jurist) and attentiveness to the political historicism of the universal historians confirmed him in a “historical method” that admitted no difference between so-called secular historians and church historians.…

Inner Emigration

(317 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origin of the term is disputed. Some point to L. Uhland's Auswanderung in die Ver-¶ gangenheit [Emigration into the past] (1848), some to the author Frank Thiess (1890–1977), who claimed the term, which quickly became prominent after 1933, as his own. Inner emigration and its synonyms such as “emigration inward” or “spiritual exile” refer to the non-political habitus of artists and authors such as J. Klepper, R. Schneider, and W. Bergengruen under the conditions of the National Socialist dict…

Marheineke, Philipp Konrad

(440 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 1, 1780, Hildesheim – May 31, 1846, Berlin), theologian and church historian. After studying Protestant theology and philosophy in Göttingen with G.J. Planck, C.F. v. Ammon, K.F. Stäudlin, and J.G. Eichhorn, Marheineke received his Dr.Phil. in 1803 from Erlangen. In 1804 he was appointed lecturer on the Protestant faculty at Erlangen and in 1805 associate professor of church history and university preacher. From 1807 to 1811 he was professor of New Testament, practical theolo…

Frank, Franz Hermann Reinhold

(362 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (von) (Mar 25, 1827, Altenburg – Feb 7, 1894, Erlangen). From a rationalist pastor's family, Frank studied philosophy and Protestant theology (the latter primarily with G.C.A.v. Harleß) in Leipzig in 1845–51. After earning a double doctorate in 1850/51 and after an experience of religious revival, he taught secondary school (Gymnasium) and began researching the theology of the Formula of Concord ( Die Theologie der Concordienformel, 4 vols., 1858–65), offering a critique of “modern theology” in Lutheran terms. After his appointment in Erlangen…

Religion Conferences

(839 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] are more or less regularly organized international conferences attended by theologians, leaders, officials, and believers from different religions. The prototype of all religion conferences is the World’s Parliament of Religions hosted in 1893 in conjunction with the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. At this conference, university theologians and church leaders from all Christian denominations, as well as Reform Jewish (Reform Judaism) rabbis, theosophists (Theosophy), Hind…


(1,329 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. The neologism “civilization,” probably coined around 1700 by French legal scholars with the Latin semantic field of civis (citizen), civilitas, and civiliter in mind, originally referred to the transformation of a criminal procedure into a civil procedure. Initially in French, English, and Spanish, but later also in other European languages including German, “civilization” soon acquired broad meaning in the history of philosophy. Civilization now stood both for the lifest…

Robertson, Frederick William

(256 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1816, London – Aug 15, 1853, Brighton), Anglican theologian and social reformer. Robertson is considered one of the great, epoch-making preachers of the 19th century. After being ordained priest in Oxford, the stark confrontation with the catastrophic consequences of rapid capitalist industrialization in the poverty-stricken areas of Winchester and Cheltenham made such an impression on his sensibility that he suffered several nervous breakdowns. He was a Germanophile trans…

Lamparter, Eduard

(218 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1860, Geislingen, Württemberg – Feb 24, 1945, Stuttgart), pastor in Stuttgart, president of the Evangelische Arbeitervereine of Württemberg, from 1913 Landtag deputy and from 1919 a delegate to the Landeskirchenversammlung (meeting of regional churches) drafting a constitution for the regional church. In the 1920s, Lamparter became active in the Verein zur Abwehr des Antisemitismus. In 1928 a collection of his essays was published under the title Evangelische Kirche und Judentum. He demanded legal and social equality for Jews, emphasized the…

Schmitt, Carl

(588 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1888, Plettenburg – Apr 7, 1985, Plettenburg), Roman Catholic jurisprudent and political theorist. Firmly rooted in the traditional Catholic milieu, Schmitt must be considered one of the most brilliant German intellectuals of the 20th century. Despite his partisan advocacy of the “German revolution” of the National Socialists – in part emotional and positional, in part opportunistic, Schmitt, a radical anti-Semite, exercised a strong influence even after his dismissal in …

Paulus, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob

(552 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1761, Leonberg – Aug 10, 1851, Heidelberg). After the early death of Paulus’s mother, his father was the major influence on his religious education. In 1771 the father was dismissed from his position as deacon by the Stuttgart Consistory on account of his mystical separatism. While still a seminary student in Tübingen, from 1781 Paulus developed basic elements of a critical rational exegesis, rejecting the supranaturalism (Rationalism) of his teacher G.C. Storr. He was hig…

Strauß, David Friedrich

(580 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] ( Jan 27, 1808, Ludwigsburg –Feb 8, 1874, Ludwigsburg), Protestant theologian and writer. The son of a struggling merchant, Strauß attended the Latin school in Ludwigsburg and in 1821 entered the minor seminary in Blaubeuren. There he met F.C. Baur, whose teaching left a deep impression on him. With his friends C. Märklin, F.T. Vischer, and Wilhelm Zimmerman (later a prominent liberal historian of the German Peasants’ War), he began his theological studies in 1825 at the Tübingen …

Hundeshagen, Karl Bernhard

(336 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1810, Friedewald, Hessia – Jun 2, 1872, Bonn). Although as a student of theology Hundeshagen was expelled from the university in Giessen in 1828 for participating in certain fraternity activities, he was still able to attain his Habilitation there in 1831, after which he became a professor of theology specializing in exegesis and church history. In 1834 he received an appointment in Bern (becoming a full professor in 1845), then in 1847 in Heidelberg, and in 1867 in Bonn, also serving as the editor of the ThSt…

Troeltsch, Ernst

(2,707 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1865, Haunstetten near Augsburg – Feb 1, 1923, Berlin-Charlottenburg) is considered one of the leading theological diagnosticians of crises in the German classical modernity of the period around 1900. The author of a wide-ranging oeuvre, he pushed back the boundaries of systematic theology and transformed it into a cultural science (Cultural studies) of Christianity that was to demonstrate the compatibility of Christian faith with the modern standards of scientific ration…

Overbeck, Franz Camille

(893 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1837, St. Petersburg – Jun 26, 1905, Basel), son of a German Protestant merchant and a Roman Catholic mother from a French family, after his initial schooling Overbeck studied in St. Petersburg, Paris, and Dresden; beginning in 1856, he studied Protestant theology at Leipzig, Göttingen, and Berlin, receiving his habilitation at Jena in 1864. In 1870 he accepted a call to Basel as associate professor of New Testament and early church history. The multilingual intellectual …


(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term patriotism first appeared in the 16th century, as a borrowing from Neo-Latin (derived from patria) and French ( patriotisme); in the classic discussions of political virtues, it stands for the close moral bond uniting the citizens with their homeland, to which they owe devotion, selflessness, loyalty, and love. The popularity of the term in the 18th century, especially in the moral weeklies, was closely connected with the invocation of public spirit, civic virtue, and national morality: beyo…

Wellhausen, Julius

(876 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 17, 1844, Hameln – Jan 7, 1918, Göttingen), the son of a conservative Lutheran pastor, studied Protestant theology at Göttingen, where he was strongly influenced by H. Ewald, who taught him Syriac and Arabic as well as biblical exegesis. In 1870 he received his Göttingen licentiate and habilitation in Old Testament; in 1872 he was appointed full professor at Greifswald. On the grounds that the “ecclesiastical and academic viewpoints” are fundamentally different and a professo…

International Association for Liberal Christianity and Religious Freedom

(158 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] In the wake of the initiatives set in motion by the Boston Unitarian Charles William Wendte, the international organization of religious liberals was founded on May 25, 1900 as the International Council of Unitarian and other Liberal Religious Thinkers and Workers on the occasion of the celebrations accompanying the 75th anniversary of the American Unitarian Association and the British and Foreign Unitarian Association. From 1910 to 1937, the Council or, from 1932, the “Internatio…

Dictionaries/Encyclopedias, Theological

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. The exposition of Christian theological knowledge in lexicons, encyclopedias, and similar reference works has not yet been the subject of scholarly study by academic theology. Nevertheless, by focussing on this literary genre, which has been central to the theologies of all denominations since 1770, profound transformations of the academic e…

Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm

(402 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1802, Fröndenberg near Unna – May 28, 1869, Berlin), Protestant theologian and church politician. After intensive private tutoring from his father, a Reformed pastor, Hengstenberg studied oriental and classical philology in Bonn. Thanks to his mildly rationalist upbringing, he became enthusiastic about fraternities. He experienced an awakening in 1823/1824 in the neo-Pietist circles of the Basel Mission. Hengstenberg obtained his Habilitation in oriental studies in Berlin in 1824, but because of his close contacts with leading propo…

Sengelmann, Heinrich Matthias

(215 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (May 25, 1821, Hamburg – Feb 2, 1899, Alsterdorf, Hamburg). Sengelmann, brought up in an atmosphere of evangelistic Pietism, was a student and friend of F.A.G. Tholuck. As pastor in Moorfleet since 1846, in 1850 he opened a Christian Arbeitsschule (“activity school”) in his parsonage to help young people who had received no education because school attendance was not compulsory, ¶ preparing them for a vocation through instruction and practical training. The great demand led to the expansion of the school to Sankt Nikolai in Hamburg in 1853.…

Iwand, Hans Joachim

(303 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jul 11, 1899, Schreibendorf, Silesia [Pisary, Poland] – May 2, 1960, Bonn), systematic theologian and politically involved churchman. After studying theology at Breslau and Halle, he was appointed superintendent of studies at the Lutherheim in Königsberg. He received his doctorate in 1924 and gained his Habilitation in 1927. In 1934 he became instructor in New Testament at the Herder Institute in Riga. Deprived of his venia legendi for membership in the Confessing Church, he served from 1935 to 1937 as director of illegal seminaries in Bloestau…

Martensen, Hans Lassen

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Aug 12, 1808, Flensburg – Feb 3, 1884, Copenhagen), Danish theologian and churchman. Influenced by the works of N.F.S. Grundtvig as ¶ a young student, he later turned to German Idealism. During a study tour in 1834, he made contact with such figures as P.K. Marheineke, F.W.J. Schelling, F.X. v. Baader, and N. Lenau. After receiving his doctorate in 1836, in 1840 he was appointed professor of systematic theology int Copenhagen. The politically divisive clergyman was appointed court chaplain in 1845 and…

Zahn-Harnack, Agnes von

(201 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1884, Gießen – May 22, 1950, Berlin), daughter of A. v. Harnack; journalist and campaigner for women’s rights. After teacher training and earning her Dr.phil. (1912), from 1914 to 1918 she tested a career in social planning concretely in the civil service. After joining the German Democratic Party in 1919, she earned a reputation as a high-profile, culturally sensitive internationally-minded organizer of the bourgeois women’s movement; from 1931 to 1933 she chaired the Fe…

Cultural Studies

(795 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The term cultural studies (Ger. Kulturwissenschaft) appeared as early as the late 18th century. It gained programmatic content, however, only around 1900 in the controversies concerning the independence of the humanities in relation to the natural sciences and concerning the normative integration of modern capitalist mass societies shaped by multiple crises. Since the “linguistic turn” and the “culturalist turn” in the 1980s, it has served the trans-d…

Kahnis, Karl Friedrich August

(160 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Dec 22, 1814, Greiz, Vogtland – Jun 20, 1888, Leipzig). Kahnis became associate professor in Breslau (Warcław) in 1844 and professor of dogmatics in Leipzig in 1850. He emerged as a proponent of a moderate Lutheran confessionalism which is evident from his major work Die lutherische Dogmatik historisch-genetisch dargestellt [Lutheran dogmatics presented historically and genetically] (3 vols., 1861–1868; 2 vols., 21874/1875). His theology emphasizes Scripture and confession. In opposition to K.I. Nitzsch, he was critical of union (Unions, …


(521 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] was originally an imperial legal term for the forced or desired emigration of Christian citizens to another jurisdiction primarily for religious reasons. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg guaranteed Catholic subjects of Protestant rulers the right to depart with no tax obligation or departure fee ( emigrationis census). The degree to which a ruler could force citizens of other Christian confessions to emigrate remained contested. Detailed regulations for the ius emigrandi for adherents of the religious parties privileged under …

Trillhaas, Wolfgang

(316 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 31, 1903, Nürnberg – Apr 24, 1995, Göttingen). From 1922 to 1926, Trillhaas studied philosophy and Protestant theology in Munich, Erlangen, and Göttingen. His Lutheranism was strongly influenced by P. Althaus, W. Elert, E. Hirsch, and the phenomenologist Alexander Pfänder. In 1931 he wrote a dissertation in philosophy on F. Nietzsche. In 1932 he received his Lic. theol. and in 1933 his habilitation with a thesis entitled Schleiermachers Predigt und das homiletische Problem; republished in 1975, it contributed to the renaissance of F.D.E. Schleierm…

Lagarde, Paul Anton de

(574 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (to 1854: P.A. Bötticher; Nov 2, 1827, Berlin – Dec 22, 1891, Göttingen), Near ¶ Eastern scholar and cultural philosopher. Lagarde may be considered a classic representative of modern intellectual religiosity (Religiousness among intellectuals); thanks to his great sensitivity to the antagonism between social modernization and purposive-rational conduct of life, he sought through religio-historical research to instigate a national religious renewal of German culture. An unhappy childhood resulted in a labile psychological constitution and a pr…


(325 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Der für die begriffsgesch. Forschung dt. Historiker zentrale Begriff wurde spontan von Reinhard Koselleck bei der Planung des vom »Arbeitskreis für moderne Sozialgesch.« verantworteten Lexikons »Gesch. Grundbegriffe. Hist. Lexikon zur polit.-sozialen Sprache in Deutschland« (Bde.1–8/2, 1972–1997) geprägt. Dabei mögen Assoziationen an das u.a. von H. Freyer und C. Schmitt entwickelte Konzept der sog. Achsenzeiten mitgespielt haben. Der 1923 geborene Koselleck, führender Theoreti…


(239 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Piper, Otto Alfred (29.11.1891 Lichte, Thüringen – 13.2.1982 Princeton, USA). Die von franz. Hugenotten abstammende Mutter vermittelte P. prägende Frankreichkontakte. Der Vordenker der Jugendbewegung vertrat die generationstypische Kritik an Kapitalismus und Individualismus. Bei freiwilligem Fronteinsatz schwer traumatisiert, engagierte sich der 1920 in Göttingen promovierte Sozialist für Pazifismus und Ökumene. Die von Religiösen Sozialisten und luth. Volksnomos-Theologen vertret…


(219 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Tittmann, Johann August Heinrich (1.8.1773 Langensalza – 30.12.1831 Leipzig). Der Sohn des späteren Dresdener Oberkonsistorialrats Karl Christian T. studierte Philos. und ev. Theol. in Wittenberg und Leipzig, wo er als a.o. Prof. zunächst in der Philos. Fakultät (1796), dann in der Theol. Fakultät (1800) lehrte und 1805 zum o. Prof. der Theol. ernannt wurde. T. übernahm eine Vielzahl kirchl. Ämter (u.a. 1815 Domherr in Meißen), prägte das kirchennahe Vereinswesen Leipzigs (u.a. Vors…

Sacrality, Transfer of

(294 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The origins of the concept of transfert de sacralité are obscure. The earliest known occurrence is in the works of the historian Mona Ozouf, who since 1976 has studied the symbolic worlds, rituals, and “implicit theologies” (Assmann) in the festivals celebrated by the French Revolution. Syncretistic combination of pagan, Christian, and Masonic symbols and ceremonies, she believes, created a post-Christian politico-religious cult in which the revolutionary nation staged and constituted its…

Pfleiderer, Otto

(290 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1839, Stetten im Remstal – Jul 18, 1908, Groß Lichterfelde near Berlin). As the last ¶ representative of F.C. Baur’s Tübingen school, Pfleiderer developed models of the history of primitive Christianity which stressed Jesus’ Jewish identity, and declared Paul the decisive founder of the Christian religion, thanks to his critique of the “orientalisms” in Jesus’ preaching, and his determined “Hellenization.” Using the historical methods of the comparative study of religion, Pfleiderer set out…

History of Ideas

(1,364 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I The origins and the formation of the composite term “history of ideas” have hardly been investigated. Early attestations point to the late 18th century. In the centers of the Enlightenment, scholars wrote “history of ideas,” employing teleological interpretation models, in order to legitimize the emergence of the new middle-class consciousness as a progress in the awareness of freedom. The literary history of classic reflection disciplines such as philosophy and theology became c…

Krug, Wilhelm Traugott

(171 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Jun 22, 1770, Radis – Jan 12, 1842, Leipzig), Protestant philosopher and successor to I. Kant at Königsberg University. Strongly influenced by Kant's philosophy as a student of theology and philosophy in Wittenberg, Jena, and Göttingen, Krug became philosophy lecturer in Wittenberg and associate of the philosophical faculty in 1794; then associate professor in Frankfurt an der Oder in 1801, full professor in Königsberg in 1805, and in Leipzig in 1809. He argued in favor of a so-c…

Wagner, Falk

(368 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1939, Vienna – Nov 18, 1998, Vienna) was brought up in a middle-class family. After studying Protestant theology, primarily with H.W. Wolff and Wolfhart Pannenberg, and philosophy, especially with T.W. Adorno and Wolfgang Cramer, he quickly became active in the biblicistic, socially conservative Heliand scouting association. In 1969 he received his Dr.theol. at Munich with a thesis entitled Der Gedanke der Persönlichkeit Gottes bei Fichte und Hegel. His habilitation followed in the winter semester of 1971/1972 with a critical interpretati…

Völkische Theologie

(379 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Genese und diskursive Kontexte der seit spätestens 1880 nachweisbaren Formel sind kaum erforscht. Auch fehlen Studien über mögliche Äquivalente in anderen eur. Sprachen. In wissenssoziologischen Begriffen läßt sich v. Theol. als eine spezifisch moderne Emanzipationsideologie bzw. als eine auf das Volk als kollektives Handlungssubjekt bezogene Befreiungstheologie deuten. Unbeschadet aller rel., theol. und polit. Differenzen stimmen die Produzenten v. Theol. ausnahmslos im normat…


(471 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Schmitt,  Carl (11.7.1888 Plettenberg – 7.4.1985 ebd.), röm.-kath. Jurist und Theoretiker des Politischen. Der fest in traditionalem kath. Milieu verwurzelte Sch. gilt als einer der brillantesten dt. Intellektuellen des 20.Jh. Trotz seiner teils pathetisch-konfessorischen, teils opportunistischen Parteinahme für die »dt. Revolution« der Nationalsozialisten übte der radikale Antisemit auch nach der Entlassung 1945 und zweijähriger Haft einen starken Einfluß aus, indem er jüngere Ge…

Religious economics

(223 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] (Religionsökonomie). In Studien zu den ökumenischen Bewegungen des 20.Jh. hatte der Soziologe Peter L. Berger 1963 »A Market Model for the Analysis of Ecumenicity« entwickelt. Seine These: Beendigung konfessioneller Kulturkämpfe und ökum. Kooperationsprozesse zw. traditionell rivalisierenden Konfessionskirchen folgten auch zweckrational pragmatischen Nutzenkalkülen. Inspiriert von der neoliberalen Chicago School der Wirtschaftswiss., machten Religionsökonomen wie Roger Finke, Lau…


(491 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen (6.7.1888 Berlin – 23.2.1973 Norwich, VT, USA), Jurist, Kulturphilosoph, Soziologe. Der einer jüd. Bankiersfamilie entstammende R. war ein rel. Intellektueller von hoher Kreativität. Studien in sehr unterschiedlichen Feldern der Kulturwissenschaften verband er mit Sinnsuche, Moralpäd. und linksbürgerlicher Sozialreform. 17jährig konvertierte er 1905 zum Protestantismus. Nach dem Studium der Rechtswiss., Gesch. und Philol. in Zürich, Berlin und Heidelberg w…


(1,253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Rothe, Richard (28.1.1799 Posen – 20.8.1867 Heidelberg). Im Theologiestudium in Heidelberg seit 1817 und in Berlin seit 1819 hörte der einzige Sohn einer höheren preußischen Beamtenfamilie u.a. C. Daub, G.W. F. Hegel und A. Neander. Im Hause Neanders gewann er F.A. G. Tholuck als Freund, der ihn gemeinsam mit Neander für die Erweckungsbewegung begeisterte. 21jährig legte R. im Herbst 1820 glanzvoll das Erste Theol. Examen in Berlin ab, so daß er für zwei Jahre in das von Heinrich …


(453 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Paulus, Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob (1.9.1761 Leonberg – 10.8.1851 Heidelberg). Nach dem frühen Tod der Mutter prägte der 1771 vom Stuttgarter Consistorium wegen seines myst. Separatismus als Diacon entlassene Vater P.' rel. Erziehung. Schon als Tübinger Stiftsstudent entwickelte P. in Absage an den Supranaturalismus (Rationalismus) seines Lehrers G. Ch. Storr seit 1781 Grundelemente einer krit.-rationalen Exegese. Bei einer 1784 bis 1786 unternommenen Studienreise durch Deutschland, …


(267 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Trillhaas, Wolfgang (31.10.1903 Nürnberg – 24.4.1995 Göttingen), studierte 1922–1926 Philos. und ev. Theol. in München, Erlangen und Göttingen, stark luth. beeinflußt durch P. Althaus, W. Elert, E. Hirsch und den Phänomenologen Alexander Pfänder. 1931 philos. Diss. über F. Nietzsche, 1932 Lic. Theol., 1933 Habil. über »Schleiermachers Predigt und das homiletische Problem«, die in 2. Aufl. 1975 zur praktisch-theol. Renaissance F. Schleiermachers beitrug. Nach Lehrstuhlvertretungen …


(226 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Pfleiderer, Otto (1.9.1839 Stetten im Remstal – 18.7.1908 Groß Lichterfelde bei Berlin). Der letzte Repräsentant der Tübinger Schule F. Ch. Baurs entwickelte Modelle der Religionsgesch. des Urchristentums, in denen Jesu Judesein betont und Paulus dank seiner Kritik an den »Orientalismen« von Jesu Predigt und entschiedener »Hellenisierung« zum entscheidenden Begründer der christl. Rel. erklärt wurde. Mit den hist. Methoden der vergleichenden Religionswiss. wollte P. das Christentum…

Zeitgeschichte, Kirchliche

(972 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Der schon Mitte des 17.Jh. nachweisbare, aber erst seit 1800 gebräuchliche dt. Begriff »Z.« wird nicht deckungsgleich mit Begriffen wie contemporary history oder histoire contemporaine verwendet. Im engl. und franz. Wissenschaftskontext bez. die Begriffe relativ lange Perioden der modernen Gesch., wohingegen der aktuelle dt. Sprachgebrauch stark durch die Katastrophen der eur. Gesch. im »age of extremes« (Weltkrieg, Erster; Nationalsozialismus; Totalitarismus; Weltkrieg, Zweite…


(214 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Schneckenburger, Matthias (17.1.1804 Thalheim bei Tuttlingen – 3.6.1848 Bern). Der ältere Bruder des Schriftstellers Max Sch., dessen 1840 vf. »Die Wacht am Rhein« zur wichtigsten dt. Kriegshymne im Krieg 1870/71 wurde, durchlief schnell die Institutionen der württembergischen Theologenausbildung. 1826 hörte er in Berlin F. Schleiermacher, Ph.K. Marheineke, A. Neander und G.W. F. Hegel. Als Tübinger Stiftsrepetent konnte der erst 23jährige die sog. Geniepromotion um D.F. Strauß, C…


(200 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Vischer, Friedrich Theodor (ab 1870 v.; 30.6.1807 Ludwigsburg – 14.9.1887 Gmunden). Nach dem Studium der ev. Theol., Philos. und Philol. in Tübingen (Dr. theol. 1832; 1833 Stiftsrepetent) habilitierte sich der Pfarrerssohn, Schüler F. Ch. Baurs, Jugendfreund und zeitweilige theol. Sympathisant von D.F. Strauß dort 1836 für Ästhetik und dt. Lit. Als Prof. für Literaturgesch. (1844 Tübingen, unter »Pantheismus«-Verdacht zwei Jahre suspendiert; 1855 Zürich, 1866 Stuttgart) und einfluß…


(2,016 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Troeltsch, Ernst Peter Wilhelm (17.2.1865 Haunstetten bei Augsburg – 1.2.1923 Berlin-Charlottenburg) T. gilt als führender theol. Krisendiagnostiker im Deutschland der klassischen Moderne um 1900. Mit einem thematisch weit gespannten Oeuvre entgrenzte er die Syst. Theol. zu einer Kulturwissenschaft des Christentums, die die distinkte »Zusammenbestehbarkeit« des christl. Glaubens mit modernen wiss. Rationalitätsstandards erweisen sollte. T. publizierte ideen- wie kulturhist. Studien zum Ne…


(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Ronge, Johannes (16.10.1813 Bischofswalde, Schlesien – 26.10.1887 Döbling bei Wien). Der einflußreichste Vertreter des Deutschkatholizismus kam aus einer streng kirchl. Bauernfamilie. Im Breslauer Studium der Theol. und Philos. 1836–1839 begeisterte sich der Burschenschaftler für die Kulturideale von Aufklärung und dt. Idealismus sowie die Emanzipationsforderungen der Frühliberalen. Seit 1841 Kaplan in Grottkau, wurde er am 30.1.1843 wegen einer im »Sächsischen Vaterlandsblatt« Ro…


(257 words)

Author(s): Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Die Ursprünge des Begriffs transfert de sacralité liegen noch im dunkeln. Der früheste derzeit bekannte Beleg stammt aus Arbeiten der Historikerin Mona Ozouf, die seit 1976 die Symbolwelten, Riten und »impliziten Theologien« (Assmann) in den Festen der Französischen Revolution erforscht. Durch synkretistische Verknüpfung von paganen, christl. und maurerischen Symbolen und zeremoniellen Gesten sei ein nachchristl. polit.-rel. Kultus entworfen worden, in dem sich die revolutionär…
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