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Aenarete

(27 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αἰναρέτη). Wife of  Aeolus (Hes. fr. 10a 31; Schol. Pl. Min. 315c), who is called Enarete in Apollod. 1,51. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Aegle

(191 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Αἴγλη; Aíglē). Suggestive name (‘glory’, ‘radiance’) for youthful radiant heroines, who can have genealogical connections to Helios: [German version] [1] Naiade, with Helios, mother of the Charites Naiade, with Helios, mother of the Charites (Paus. 9,35,5; Verg. Ecl. 6,20). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Daughter of Helios One of the Heliades, daughter of Helios and Clymene, who was turned into a poplar tree together with her sisters, after the death of her brother Phaethon (Hyg. Fab.154; 156, following Hesiod). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] He…

Iamus

(194 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἴαμος; Íamos). Forefather of the Elean family of seers named Iamidai, who were active in Olympia alongside the  Clytidae (Hdt. 9,33) up to the fall of the sanctuary. They usually read prophecies in the flames of the sacrificial fire (cf. Pind. Ol. 8,2f.), but Thrasybulus invented divination from the intestines of dogs (Paus. 6,2,4). Their prophecies were also expressed in detailed oracles ( lógia) (Paus. 3,11,6). They were closely connected to Sparta (where the tomb of the Iamidai was located, Paus. 3,12,8), although their service to Messene…

Lepreus

(117 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Λεπρέος, Λεπρεύς; Lepréos, Lepreús). The son of Pyrgeus or Caucon. He is the founder and eponym of Lepreum ( Triphylia). His grave lay allegedly in Phigalia (this is a reflection of Lepreum's claim to Arcadian). L. advised Augeias to imprison Heracles but Heracles was reconciled with him. He entered into an athletic competition with Heracles (e.g. about who could eat a bull faster) but lost and was killed in the subsequent armed fight. This local legend, the source of which was…

Dionysia

(484 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Διονύσια; Dionýsia). Term for the festival of  Dionysus, characteristic for the cult of Dionysus in many Greek poleis; the Dionysia often took place in the winter months. (1) In Athens, the Dionysia were a part of a cycle of festivals extending over four winter months, which started with the rural Dionysia (τὰ κατ' ἄγρους Δ., in the month of Poseideon), was followed by the Lenaea (month of Gamelion) and the Anthesteria (month of Anthesterion), and culminated in the urban or Great Dionysia (τά ἐν ἄστει Δ., …

Hyacinthides

(203 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ὑακινθίδες; Hyakinthídes). Name of a group of Athenian goddesses, in whose honour a yearly sacrificial festival with maiden dances was held, and who received wineless offerings prior to an army's march into battle. The mythical reason for these rites can be found in the legend that the H. had been sacrificed by  Erechtheus in order to fend off an invasion. Their names and number vary; certain names indicate a relationship to Artemis (who in Sparta received sacrifices prior to a ba…

Amphimachus

(162 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀμφίμαχος; Amphímachos). [German version] [1] Son of Elektryon Son of Electryon, king of Mycenae, brother of  Alcmene (Apollod. 2,52). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Son of Molionic Cteatus Son of Molionic Cteatus, grandson of Actor or of Poseidon. As suitor of Helen (Apollod. 3,129), together with Thalpius he led a section of the Epeians at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,620). He was killed by Hector (Hom. Il. 13,185-205). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Son of Nomion Son of Nomion, brother of Nasturtes, with whom A., as an ally of the Trojans, leads t…

Kanephoroi

(267 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κανηφόροι/ Kanēphóroi, ‘basket-carriers’) were girls carrying the offering basket (κανοῦν, kanoûn ) in Greek offering processions, especially in the great state processions; on illustrations of offering scenes and processions, this basket has three handles and is carried on the top of the girls' heads [1; 2. 10-12]. To be kanephoros was an honour for beautiful freeborn daughters (Aristoph. Lys. 646). In Athens, kanephoroi are mentioned especially for the processions of Panathenaea (IG II2 334; Aristid. or. 18,2), of Dionysia (Syll.2 388,32) and of the pythaḯs se…

Amulius

(85 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Son of Albanian king Procas, younger brother of Numitor. He forced his brother to abdicate, had his brother's son killed, made his daughter Rhea Silvia a vestal and punished her for her pregnancy. Later Numitor was again restored to his rightful situation by Romulus and Remus, but A. was killed (Liv. 1,4,10-11; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,79-83; Origo gen. Rom. 19-21) Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, Reges Albanorum, in: Atti del Convegno Virgiliano di Brindisi nel bimillenario della morte, 1983, 157-190.

Kataibates

(158 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Καταιβάτης/ Kataibátēs, ‘he who descends’). Epiclesis of Zeus and of Hermes. For Zeus the epiclesis is epigraphically documented numerous times and is applied to the god who manifests himself through the lightning strike (‘who [in lightning] descends’). The piece of ground hit by lightning ( enēlýsion, Poll. 9, cf. the Roman fulmen condere) cannot be walked on ( ábaton), is consecrated to Zeus and is marked by a monument or an altar. The fact that the Athenians consecrated the location where Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes dismounted from his…

Anthropomorphism

(689 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (‘Formation in human shape’, anthrōpophyḗs Hdt. 1,131). A feature of Graeco-Roman representations of deities, not only in external appearance but also in terms of self-definition, which contrasts the Graeco-Roman cult with an absence of images (Hdt. 1,131; Tac. Germ. 9) or with an animal cult (Xen. Mem. 1,1,14 [1]). While animal-headed demons are attested and bird forms are disputed [2] in Minoan-Mycenaean art, Hesiod and Homer make use of a radical anthropomorphism [3]. This applies for instance to the external form, where the …

Antaeus

(252 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀνταῖος; Antaîos). Libyan giant, son of Poseidon, who forced strangers into a wrestling match and decorated his father's temple with their skulls; he remained unconquered, as long as he remained in contact with the earth (as whose son he was regarded), but finally Hercules conquered him by lifting him up off the ground and strangling him (Pind. Isthm. 3,70; Apollod. 2,115; Aug. civ. 18,12). Attic vase paintings portrayed the battle numerous times [1], and in Plato he is a heroic wrestler together with  Cercyon (leg. 7,796a). Quite separate from him is the A. menti…

Andreus

(49 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀνδρεύς; Andreús). Eponymous king of the island of Andros, established by Rhadamanthys (Diod. Sic. 5,79). Son of the son of Apollo and the Delian priest-king Anius (Ov. Met. 13,647-50). The Andrians made a gift of his statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,13,4). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Antilochus

(120 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀντίλοχος; Antílochos). Oldest son of  Nestor. He is the actual leader of the Pylians at Ilion. Poseidon, the god of Mycenean Pylos, protects him (Hom. Il. 13,554 f.); Achilles loves him as a comrade (Hom. Il. 23,556). Achilles avenges him when he falls by the hand of Memnon (Hom. Od. 4,187), sacrificing himself for Nestor (Pind. Pyth. 6,28). A., Achilles and Patroclus are laid together in a tumulus in Sigeum (Od. 24,71-84); in Hades they and Ajax are together (Od. 11,46 f., cf. 3…

Agalma

(168 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἄγαλμα; ágalma). Derived from the Greek agállein, ‘to praise, honour’ (especially a deity, cf. Hsch. s. v.), is actually everything that adorns, from honour (Hom. Il. 4,144) to weapons (Alc. fr.15) to children (Aesch. Ag. 208). But it is found especially in the religious sphere; here, already in Homer, agalma is the votive offerings, like   anathema (Hom. Od. 3,438; IG I3 552, 617 and passim). More narrowly, agalma designates statues (Hdt. 1,131; Isoc. Or. 9,57), but also sculpture in contrast to painting (Aristot. Pol. 1336 b 15). Later the term agalma could mean th…

Arachne

(127 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀράχνη; Aráchnē). The metamorphosis of A. (‘Spider’) is told in Ov. Met. 6,5-145 according to an unknown Greek source. The daughter of the Colophonian wool-dyer Idmon is a brilliant weaver and is living in Hypaipa in Lydia. She challenges Athena, patron of the art of weaving, to a competition: A. surpasses the goddess with her technical skills, whereupon the goddess hits the girl in anger and tears up her weaving. A., full of despair, hangs herself and Athena turns her into a spid…

Icarius

(329 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἰκάριος; Ikários). [German version] [1] Att. hero Attic hero, whose cult (probably in the deme Icaria) is recorded as early as the 5th cent. (IG I3 253, 6.9); sacrifices to him, his daughter  Erigone [1] and their dog are mentioned by Ael. NA 7,28. His myth is known in various facets since the ‘Erigone’ of Eratosthenes, which has survived only in fragments (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4; Apollod. 3,192f., etc.). The god  Dionysus comes to I., is fed by him, and gives him the first wine as thanks. When I. serves this to his nei…

Parthenos

(379 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Παρθένος; Parthénos). [German version] [1] Divine epithet primarily of Athena 'Maiden' (in the sense of an unmarried woman of marriageable age) is the epithet of several Greek goddesses (Hom. H. ad Venerem 7-30 mentions Athena, Artemis, and Hestia), particularly Athena as the goddess of Athens [1]: the statue of Phidias is the 'so-called Parthenos' (Paus. 5,11,10; 10,34,8); from the image on them (head of Athena), parthénoi (plural) is also a nickname for Attic coins (Poll. 9,74). The epithet parthenos often refers to the role of these goddesses in the lives of women [1;…

Cabiri

(2,062 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Κάβειροι; Kábeiroi, Lat. Cabiri). A group of divine beings (usually two), appearing occasionally but also one alone. They can be found in a series of local  mystery cults, were not actually Pan-Hellenic, and according to ancient views, were pre-Greek or not even Greek at all (Phrygian or Thracian) (overviews [1; 2]). [German version] A. Name The origin and meaning of the name C. are vague, the spelling not entirely clear: The texts traditionally use Kábeiroi, dialectal inscriptions also refer to Kábiroi. According to ancient thought, the name derives from a Phrygian mounta…

Alector

(157 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
A suggestive hero name (‘Defender’), which occurs in various genealogies. [German version] [1] Figure from the Odyssee: servant of Menelaus Father (Schol. Hom. Od. 4,22) or uncle (Pherecyd. FGrH 3 F 132) of Eteoneus, servant of Menelaus (Hom. Od. 4,22) and Iphiloche (Echemela), whom Megapenthes, Menelaus' son by a slave woman, married (Hom. Od. 4,10); he was son of  Argeius and Hegesandra (Pherecydes loc. cit.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Mythical argive king Argive. King, son of Megapenthes, father of Anaxagoras (Paus. 2,18,4) and of Iphis (Apollod. 3,60). Graf,…

Anchises

(583 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀγχίσης; Anchísēs). Son of Capys (Hom. Il. 20,239) and of a Themis (Apollod. 3,141) or a Naiad (Dion. Hal. 1,62,2); besides Priam, one of the most respected heroes of Troy, already in the Iliad described as father of  Aeneas [1] by Aphrodite. The Homeric Aphrodite hymn (h. 5) describes how the shepherd A. is seduced by Aphrodite on Mount Ida and thus becomes father of Aeneas; because of this his lineage will rule in the Troad [1]. Later hymns report that Aphrodite had also given h…

Aether

(240 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αἰθήρ; Aithḗr). The ‘radiantly clear’ heaven, since the epic (Hom. Il. 2,412) domicile of the gods; in the cosmology up to late antiquity the highest and purest part of the cosmos (Macrob. Sat. 1,17,70). In cosmogonic poetry aether has various roles. For Hesiod the light aether is the son of the dark power Nyx ‘Night’ (and Erebus, Acusilaus of Argus FGrH 2 F 6b), but brother of Hemera, ‘Day’ (Theog. 124); with Hemera he generates the enigmatic Brotus (Hes. fr. 400), according to l…

Astyoche

(170 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀστυόχη; Astyóchē). Common mythic-epic woman's name, which is easily adapted to the hexameter, for instance: [German version] [1] Sister of  Agamemnon and Menelaus Sister of  Agamemnon and Menelaus, wife of the Phocian Strophius, who was the father of Pylades (Hyg. Fab. 117). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Daughter of  Laomedon Daughter of  Laomedon (Apollod. 3,146), wife of Telephus, mother of Eurypylus, whom she sent to help Priam (Apollod. Ep. 5,12). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Daughter of an Actor Daughter of an  Actor, through Ares mo…

Antho

(63 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀνθώ; Anthṓ). Daughter of the usurper  Amulius, from whom she gained the promise that Rea Silvia would not be killed (Plut. Romulus 3,4, following Fabius Pictor and Diocles of Peparethus). The Greek name (‘flower’) has aetiological foundations. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography C. Ampolo, in: C. Ampolo, M. Manfredini (eds.), Plutarco. Le vite di Teseo e Romolo, 1988, 280 f. T. P. Wiseman, Remus, 1995, 142.

Caeculus

(180 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Mythical founder of  Praeneste (Cato Orig. 59 Peter; Verg. Aen. 7,678-81; Serv. Aen. 7,678; Solin. 2,9, according to the libri Praenestini; Festus s.v.). Conceived from a spark of the hearth fire and thus a son of  Vulcanus (or euhemeristically -- according to Cato -- found on a hearth), he was abandoned and brought up by his maternal uncles. He gathered shepherds around him, and with them founded the town. This myth is a combination of familiar motives (birth from the hearth fire like  Tarquinius Pr…

Academus

(132 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀκάδημος). Attic hero, who was venerated in the grove  ‘Akademeia’, 1.6 km west of Athenian Dipylon (a cultic building is presumed). Hecademus is probably an older form of the name (a vase inscription reads hεκα[δεμος] Beazley, ABV 27,36). He revealed to Castor and Polydeuces that Theseus was holding their sister Helena, abducted from Sparta, in Aphidna (Plut. Theseus 32,3-5), and founded the gymnasium (Hesych. s. v. akadḗmia). In gratitude the Spartans spared the academy during their invasions of Attica. The myth competes with another, in whic…

Amymone

(142 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀμυμώνη; Amymṓnē). Daughter of Danaus and Europa. By Poseidon she is the mother of Nauplius (Nostoi fr. 1; Hes. fr. 297; Paus. 2,38,2); a river in Lerna is named after her, and the spring of Lerna is ascribed to her (Str. 8,6,8; Paus. 2,37,1. 4). Hyg. Fab. 169 and Apollod. 2,14 recount her myth in the form which goes back to a satyr game, which is probably Aeschylus' A. Sent out by Danaus in order to find a spring in arid Argus, she accidentally startles a sleeping satyr; Poseidon…

Hyacinthus

(731 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ὑάκινθος; Hyákinthos).Hero whose tomb and cult are located in  Amyclae [1] near Sparta, but whose festival, the Hyacinthia, and the name of the month connected to it (hyakínthios, Cretan bakínthios/wakínthios [1]) is known in many Doric cities. The widespread familiarity with H. indicates the hero's ancient, supra-regional significance. The name must be pre-Greek due to the suffix -nth-. Although the Amyclaean sanctuary is pre-Doric, it can be traced only from the late Mycenaean …

Abderus

(82 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Son of Hermes or Poseidon (Pind. Paean 2), Opuntic Locrian, favourite of Hercules and eponymous hero of the Thracian city Abdera. For Hercules he guarded the human-flesh-eating mares, stolen from the Bistonian king Diomedes, and in so doing, he was himself eaten by them. Hercules founded Abdera on his grave site (Apollod. 2,97) and instigated annually an agone, which was conducted without horse races (Philostr. Imag. 2,25). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography J. Boardman, s. v. A., LIMC 1.1, 1.

Baubo

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Βαυβώ; Baubṓ). According to a version of the Eleusinic myth attributed to Orpheus, she was an original inhabitant of Eulisis with the heroes Triptolemus, Eumolpus, Eubuleus and her husband Dysaules, who are visited by  Demeter on her search for his daughter. Like  Iambe in the version of the myth in the Homeric hymn, B. entertains the goddess with food and drink and then obscenely exposes her lower body in order to cheer her up (Clem. Protrepticus 20f.; Arnob. 5,25, who describes …

Ephesia Grammata

(261 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἐφέσια γράμματα; Ephésia grámmata, ‘Ephesian letters of the alphabet’). Designation for a series of words devoid of meaning ─ ( askion kataskion lix tetrax damnameneus aision or aisia) that was used orally and in writing for apotropaic and salvation-bringing purposes. Their name comes from the fact that they were engraved on the statue of Artemis of Ephesus (Paus. ap. Eust. Od. 19,247). They were spoken in  exorcism (Plut. Mor. 706 de) for the protection of a bridal couple which was ritually encircled (Men…

Allogenes

(48 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀλλογενής; Allogenḗs, the ‘different’). Name of  Seth as son of Adam and Eve in Sethian  Gnosticism (Epiphanius, Panarii libri 40,7,2). His seven sons are the Allogeneis (40,7,5). Books are also ascribed to him, which are likewise called Allogeneis (39,5,1; 40,2,2). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Amphissus

(92 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄμφισσος; Ámphissos). Son of Apollo and  Dryope, the daughter of Dryops, ruler on Mount Oete, strong as an ox. A., as well as Aeolus' granddaughter Amphissa (Paus. 10,38,4), must be eponyms of the city of Amphissa in Ozolian Locris; however, while A.'s stepfather  Andreamon is regarded as founder of Amphissa, A. is founder of the city of Oete. In Amphissa A. founds temples for Apollo and the Dryads and sets up a sprinting agon (Ant. Lib. 32) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 A. Brelich, Gli eroi Greci, 1958, 94-106.

Anna Perenna

(227 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A festival was held in her honour at the Ides of March in her grove (Martial. 4,64; 16) at the first milestone of the Via Flaminia near the Tiber, which is characterized by a sacrifice for a good year ut commode liceat annare perennareque (Macrob. Sat. 1,12,6) and by both sexes drinking wine together in tents and grass huts (Ov. Fast. 3,523-540); the date, rites and portentous character indicate a festival of dissolution associated with the beginning of a new year. The origin and character of the goddess were just as uncle…

Iatros

(155 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Greek ἰατρός; iatrós, ‘physician’). [German version] [1] Physician Physician,  Medicine. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of  Apollo as healing god, esp. common in the Ionian east and the Greek colonies along the western coast of the Black Sea. In Olbia, Apollo I. has replaced the Milesian Apollo Delphinios from the Hellenistic period. This form of Apollo was adopted as Apollo Medicus in early Republican Rome. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Title of four Att. healing heroes Functional name and title of four Attic he…

Gelanor

(108 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γελάνωρ; Gelánōr). Mythical original king of Argus, son of Sthenelus (Paus. 2,16,1), whose only significance is that he abdicated the rulership to  Danaus (Apollod. 2,13); in Aesch. Supp. 266 he is called  Pelasgus. The change in dynasty took place either after a battle (Plut. Pyrrhus 32,9f., 404e-f) or by referendum (Paus. 2,19,3f.). A battle, understood as an omen, between a bull and a wolf, which the wolf wins, is crucial on both occasions. Danaus is in this way connected to Ar…

Asteria

(112 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] [1] see Precious stones see  Precious stones Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Titaness Titaness, daughter of Coeus and Phoebe, sister of Leto, wife of the Titan Perses (Perseus, Persaeus). By Zeus, mother of  Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409; Apollod. 1,8; 21). In the battle of the giants in the Pergamene altar frieze she is inscribed between Leto and Hecate. A Delian myth explained the earlier names of the islands Asteria (Pind. Paean. 5,42) and Ortygia through the fall of A. into the se…

Augeias

(261 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αὐγείας, Αὐγέας; Augeías, Augéas). King of the Epeians (Hom. Il. 11,698), often of the Eleans or of Ephyra. His genealogy vacillates -- his father is often and from early on  Helius, with whom his name connects him (from αὐγέα, ‘shine, beam’); other names mentioned are  Poseidon or Phorbas, his mother is Hyrmine, his brother Actor. He is rich in herds of cows like his father Helius; his treasury was built by  Trophonius and Agamedes; to this is connected since the  Telegony a novell…

Acesis

(69 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄκεσις). Healing hero in Epidaurus ( akéomai ‘healing’), whom the Pergamens equated with Telesphorus, the Sicyonans with Euhamerion (Paus. 2,11,7). The Telephorus hymn inscription of the imperial period, from Athens, IG II/III ed. minor 3,1 4533,36 (Kaibel 1027) [1] also knows of this equation with Telesphoros. The classical form would be Akesios [2]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 Edelstein, Asclepius Vol. 1, 89 n. 50 2 Schwyzer, Gramm., 1953, 473.

Alcides

(48 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀλκείδης; Alkeídēs). Patronymic of Alceus = Alcaeus [1], therefore epithet of Hercules as grandson (Hes. Sc. 112) of Amphitryon and as son of Alcaeus. A. is also regarded as Hercules' real name, which was altered by the Pythia (Apollod. 2,73). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Galeotae

(163 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Γαλεῶται; Galeôtai). Name of a Sicilian family of seers, probably from Hybla Galeatis/Gereatis (Paus. 5,23,6), whose members are linked with prophecies relating to the rule of  Dionysius I (Philistus FGrH 556 F 57 in Cic. Div. 1,39; Ael. VH 12,46). Myth associates them with  Telmissus, the location in Caria famous for its prophecy (Cic. Div. 1,91): the eponymous Galeos was said to be, like his brother Telmissus, the son of  Apollo and the Hyperborean princess Themisto. On the advi…

Anticlea

(70 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀντίκλεια; Antíkleia). Daughter of  Autolycus, wife of  Laertes, mother of  Odysseus and Ctimene. In Homer she died of anguish about her long-absent son; Odysseus speaks with her shadow in the Underworld (Hom. Od. 11). Post-Homer, Odysseus is also regarded as son of A. and  Sisyphus. She committed suicide on the false news of Odysseus' death (Hyg. Fab. 243). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography A. Touchefeu-Meynier, LIMC 1.1, 828-830.

Archegetes

(183 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἀρχηγέτης; archēgétēs). ‘Leader’, functional title of heroes and epiclesis of Apollo and Hercules. In the case of heroes, A. indicates in particular the role of progenitor and patron -- examples are the heroes of Attic demes (Demosth. 43,66 [1]) and the Thracian horse-riding hero in northern Greece and in Pontus [2]. Apollo A. denotes Apollo as the main god of the Seleucid foundations. The basis for this is the god's role in the Seleucid dynasty [3], but the epiclesis as a descrip…

Codrus

(330 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κόδρος; Kódros). Son of  Melanthus, a mythical king of Athens. In the list of Attic kings, his role is primarily to establish the connection to the Pylian colonists of Ionia. According to a tradition common in the 5th cent. BC, his father, a Neleid, came to Athens as a refugee and was made king by the last descendant of  Theseus; C. followed his father. His only notable act was his voluntary sacrificial death in order to save the city: when the Dorians attacked Athens and an oracl…

Alcathous

(209 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλκάθοος; Alkáthoos). [German version] [1] Megarian hero, connected with the town that was also called Alcathoe Megarian hero, son of Pelops and Hippodamia of Elis. A fugitive after striking his brother dead, by killing the Cithaeronian lion he won the daughter of the Megarian king Megareus and succeeded him to the throne. Many aetiologies connect him with the city (Paus. 1,41,3-43,3), which is addressed as Alcathoi urbs or Alcathoe. With Apollo's help, he renewed the city wall that made sounds like a kithara (Ov. Met. 6,16), built temples (Apollo and Artemis) …

Acesamenus

(40 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀκεσ(σ)αμενός). King of Pieria, founder and hero of Acesamenae in Macedonia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἀκεσαμεναί); father of Periboea, who became mother of Pelegon by the river god Axius (Hom. Il. 21,142). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Achlys

(109 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀχλύς). The darkness that in Homer comes upon the eyes of mortals (e.g. Il. 5,696) or those whom the gods have blinded (e.g. Il. 20,324). It is depicted on the shield of Hercules in a female personification with hideous baroque-like features as leader of the team of horses of Nyx (Hes. asp. 264), in the late Orph. A. 341. The Latin correspondence to her is Caligo ‘dark fog’, Mother of Chaos and Nox in the cosmogonical myth, of unknown, but probably Greek origin (Hyg. Fab. praef. 1). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography F. Queyrel, s. v. A., LIMC 1.1, 214 A. Shapiro, Personi…

Aeaea

(31 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αἰαία). ‘The woman from  Aea’, the corresponding epithet of Circe (Hom. Od. 9,32; Verg. Aen. 3,386), Calypso (Prop. 3,12,31), Medea (Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Hyrieus

(123 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ὑριεύς; Hyrieús). Son of  Poseidon and  Alcyone [1], founder of the Boeotian town  Hyria.  Trophonius and Agamedes build him a treasury, but such that they can secretly steal from it; a story follows this which varies the tale of the master thief (Hdt. 2,121) (Paus. 9,27,5-7). The story of how H. comes by his son Orion is often told: Zeus and Apollo visit the childless widower, and in thanks for his hospitality (he slaughters his only cow for them) they urinate into the skin of the beast; from this is created the child Orion (wordplay on oureîn, ‘urinate’; in detail Ov. Fas…

Lenaea

(261 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Λήναια, the Lenaea). Name of a festival of Dionysus that according to the name of the month associated with it - Lenaion - must have been widespread over the whole of Ionia. However, we have more precise knowledge only of the festival from Athens, where the Lenaea together with the Anthesteria and the two Dionysia were part of the winter festival cycle for Dionysus. They took place in the month of Gamelion (January/February) and in the texts were called Dionysia ‘on the Lenaion’ (ἐπὶ Ληναίωι), a place in the lower part of the Athenian Agora. They comprised a pompḗ (procession…
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