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Scandinavia, Theology in

(5,232 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Rasmusson, Arne | Bergmann, Sigurd | Saarinen, Risto
[German Version] I. Denmark With the coming of the Reformation in 1536, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1478, gained new academic status. P. Palladius was among the first of many Danish theologians to receive a doctorate at Wittenberg. In his dual role as bishop of Zealand and professor of theology (a provision in place until 1830), he was well aware of his office as both ecclesiastical superintendent and royal official. Palladius energetically set about implementing the Reformation. Althou…

Transcendence and Immanence

(3,184 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Figl, Johann | Steinmann, Michael | Danz, Christian
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences The natural sciences themselves do not work with a concept of transcendence as the opposite of nature. They consider “nature” or the “cosmos” (Cosmology) the totality of reality. 1. Nevertheless the natural sciences are based on a finitized epistemology. Kurt Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem of 1931 demonstrated that it is impossible in principle to prove within a formal system both the system’s internal consistency and its completeness. There are also physical limits to what can be know…

Nature

(3,393 words)

Author(s): Harrington, Anne | Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Niekerk, Kees van Kooten
[German Version] I. Terminology and Natural Science 1. Terminology. The term “nature” (Gk ϕύσις/ phýsis; Lat. natura [ Physis/Natura : II, 2]) is a concept that derives from Aristotle and ancient philosophy. There it denotes that which is of itself, as distinct from that which is made by art or culture (Arist. Phys. II 1.6). Greek philosophy distinguished, if often implicitly, between (a) investigation of ethical, juridical and political questions as the field of human interest and (b) study of the origin of nature and physical reality. In this c…

Chaos

(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science I. History of Religions 1. So-called chaos research (see VI below) has renewed a positive meaning of the term with the model of the “creative” self-organization of matter (thus without the goal-oriented will of an ordering creator). Previously, since Late Antiquity, a negative evaluation of chaos had prevailed: Since creation demonstrates the existence of God, chaos was a negative in relation to the Creator God in a dualistic system, as disorder ( confusio: Augus…

God

(23,549 words)

Author(s): Zinser, Hartmut | Kaiser, Otto | Lindemann, Andreas | Brümmer, Vincent | Schwöbel, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Art – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. It is fundamentally true that God is not an object of religious studies, since God – as theology teaches – cannot be made an object of empirical scientific study. Religious studies can only address the concepts that human beings have expressed concerning their God (or gods: God, Representations and sym…

Miracle

(8,918 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Fabry, Heinz-Josef | Alkier, Stefan | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Evers, Dirk | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Fundamental Theology – VII. Dogmatics – VIII. Education and Practical Theology – IX. Judaism – X. Islamic Theology I. History of Religions Miracles are extraordinary, mystifying human experiences that cannot be explained by normal causes, which in many cases suggest the intervention of a deity or superhuman power. Miracles are found in all cultures and are among the traditions of almost all religi…