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Timasius

(168 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius T., an officer under Valens [2], in AD 385 cos., in 386 comes et magister equitum, 388-395 magister equitum et peditum, and in 388 he led the infantry in a war with Maximus [II 7]. He took part in the conflicts between Theodosius [II 2] and Ambrosius over the synagogue in Callinicum, which had been destroyed by Christians. In 389, T. was cos. II. In 391, when he had to fight bands of Goths in Thrace, he came into conflict with Rufinus [II 3] and shortly afterwards fell into disgrace. In 394, however, he was commander-in-chief with Stil…

Theodosius

(3,100 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεοδόσιος/ Theodósios). [German version] [I 1] Greek mathematician and astronomer, 2nd/1st cent. BC Greek mathematician and astronomer. Folkerts, Menso (Munich) [German version] I. Life and works According to Str. 12,4,9, T. was one of the most important men in Bithynia; the birthplace Tripoli given in the Suda (s. v. Θ.) may relate to another T. As Strabo also names T.’ sons as important mathematicians, T. must belong in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, or, at the latest, the 1st half of the 1st. …

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Quintinus

(66 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] was magister equitum per Gallias under Magnus Maximus [7], who entrusted his son Victor to him in AD 387. Q. was killed in 388 during an advance east of the Rhine near Neuss against the advice of Nannienus. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un désastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Tribunus

(1,975 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Formed from the word tribus with the suffix - unus, which indicates a person of superordinate authority); the administrative and/or military leader of a tribus ; pl.: tribuni. [German version] [1] Tribunus aerarius Presumably originally aides to the Roman magistrates, charged by the state treasury ( aerarium ) with paying the wages of the soldiers of their tribus  (Soldiers' pay). Tribuni aerarii were perhaps also headmen of their tribus. They may have been active in financial matters into the 1st cent. BC, and were subject to distraint ( pignus ), which indic…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Magnentius

(353 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius Magnus M., usurper, Roman emperor, AD 350-353. Born in Amiens c. 303, of non-Roman origin, not Christian. M. entered a military career and made it to the rank of comes . The comes rerum privatarum Marcellinus [5] incited him to conspire against Constans [1]: On 18 January 350, M. revolted in Autun (Aur. Vict. 42; Zos. 2,42); Constans was killed. By the end of February, M. was recognized as emperor in northern Italy, and thereafter in the entire West and in Africa as well. In the Danube reg…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mercurinus

(117 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (better known as Auxentius of Durostorum in Moesia). Student of the Gothic bishop Ulfila, perhaps a Goth himself. M. had to give up his bishopric in AD 380 after the edict of Theodosius I with regard to the return of the churches to the Orthodox. Shortly afterwards he was consecrated as Arian bishop of Milan ( Arianism). He was an opponent of Ambrosius; he exerted great influence on the court of Valentinian II. His ‘On the Life and Death of Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707) has come down to us. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography K. G…

Montius Magnus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Came from Africa, proconsul of Constantinople around AD 350, quaestor sacri palatii of Constantius [5] Gallus AD 351-353; while seeking to gain influence with the life guards during Gallus' struggle with the praef. praet. Domitianus [3], he was murdered by soldiers incited by Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,7,12-14; 9,4; 11,17; Philostorgius 3,28; PLRE 1, 535-536, 11; 1, 608). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Pompeianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul ord. in AD 209 Cos. ord. in AD 209. Identical with L. Aurellius Commodus P. (AE 1978, 733 = 1979, 560; RMD 1, 73; SEG 32, 1149). PIR2 P 568. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Consul suff. in an unknown year Cos. suff. on 13 May of an unknown year (CIL XVI 127); it is possible that there is a connection with the P. who is mentioned in CIL VI 40646 as consul in about AD 212. PIR2 P 567; 569. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Clodius P. (PIR2 P 570) see Clodius [II 12] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] C. Gabinius Barbarus P. (PIR2 P 566) see Gabinius […

Oclatinius

(169 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] M. O. Adventus. Born before AD 160, he came from very humble circumstances and according to Cassius Dio could not read (79,14,1). Under Septimius Severus, O. rose through lowly military positions to the position of princeps peregrinorum and then transferred to the administrative service. In 205-207 p rocurator of Britain under L. Alfen(i)us [2] Senecio [1. no. 1234]. Under Caracalla he was praefectus praetorio together with M. Opellius Macrinus (Herodian. 4,14,2; Cod. Just. Epit. 9,51,1). He went to Mesopotamia with Caracal…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Marina

(126 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] M. Severa Mother of the emperor Gratianus, around AD 370 First wife of Valentinianus I, mother of the emperor Gratianus [2], whose elevation to Augustus she helped effect; removed from the court and divorced before AD 370 because of some fraud, in 375 called back to the court by Gratianus. PLRE I, 828, 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, AD 403-449 Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia [1], born 403, died AD 449; built a palace in Constantinople; following the example…

Macrina

(101 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born around AD 327, sister of Basilius [1] the Great, Petrus of Sebaste and Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Daughter of the rhetor Basilius and Emmelia, granddaughter of M. the Elder ( c. 270- c. 340). After the death of her bridegroom, M. lived an ascetic life on a family estate on the Iris in Pontus; died around 380. Her brother Gregorius wrote a biography of M. ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. Opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) and had her answer his theological questions as a teacher in his work De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Mittendarii

(141 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Officials on the staff of the comes sacrarum largitionum and the comes rerum privatarum ( comes ), therefore belonging to the palatini . Their principal task was to act as messengers in the provinces. They are first attested under Theodosius I, who stipulated their conditions of rank and salaries (Cod. Theod. 6,30,2; table in [1. 124]), but they probably existed before that. The advancement rota consisted initially of two years and in the 5th cent. AD of one year. A schola mittendariorum of the praefectus praetorio Africae existed in the 6th cent (Cod. Iust. 1,2…

Sebastianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Senior officer, 2nd half of the 4th cent. A senior officer during the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD. From 356 to 358 as dux Aegypti he was ordered to proceed against the followers of Athanasius (Athan. Hist. Ar. 59-63; 72; cf. Lib. Ep. 318; 520). On 24 December358 he drove them from the churches (Historia acephala 2,4). From 363 to 378 he was comes rei militaris, in 363 took part in the Persian campaign of Iulianus [11] Apostata (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5), and in 368 in the operation of Valentinianus I against the Alamanni (Amm. Marc. 27,10,6). After …

Licinianus

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] [- - - ] L. Cos. Suff. between 149 and 160 AD Senator, whose funerary inscription has been preserved in CIL VI 1441 = XIV 2927 = VI Suppl. VIII Add. ad 1441. After commanding a legion and holding another office he became governor of Aquitania and consul suffectus under Antoninus Pius, between c. AD 149 and 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat, 193 PIR2 L 169. [German version] [2] Lucius (Valerius) L. Friend of Martial, from Bilbilis From Bilbilis, like his friend, the poet Martial; a friend of Licinius [II 25] Sura as well. He was a w…

Nebridius

(290 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, AD 365 Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 365. N. was born in Etruria. His career led through lesser offices, held prior to 354, via the comitiva Orientis 354-358 and the quaestura (sacri palatii) at the court of the Caesar Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 and finally to the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Lib. Epist. 1315). N. attained this office in 360, but withdrew into private life as a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II in 361, when Julian was readying himself for a campaign again…

Perfectissimus

(259 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir perfectissimus, Greek διασημότατος/ diasēmótatos). From no later than the time of Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) onward honorary predicate and title of rank for equites above the rank of egregius ( vir egregius ), but under eminentissimus . Initially it was conferred on a person without relation to any particular office. Before Diocletianus (284-305) the title is recorded for e.g. praefectus [3] vigilum, praefectus [12] annonae and praefectus Aegypti , procuratores a rationibus ( procurator ) and praesides ( praeses ). In the beginn…

Primicerius

(152 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Literally 'the first' ( primus) on the 'wax tablet' ( cera) of a roster, primicerius describes the head of an office ( officium) or section in military and civil Roman departments (Chancellery). There were primicerii, for example, for the domestici et protectores ( domesticus ), the duces ( dux ), the scholae and fabricae of the magister officiorum , among the offices at court [C], and in the central administration and the schola notariorum. The rank of a primicerius depended on his activities. The primicerius sacri cubiculi, who was subordinate to the praepositus sacri …

Invictus

(171 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (‘the undefeated’, ‘invincible’). Epithet of Roman emperors since  Commodus. Already in the Republican period, this epithet was occasionally bestowed on victorious military leaders (e.g.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio), It is known that  Traianus [1] bore the Greek epithet ἀνίκητος/ aníkētos (of the same meaning). Commodus was the first to turn it into a permanent imperial epithet; this must be understood in the context of his veneration of  Hercules. Only with the Severans ( Severan dynasty) did Invictus lose this connotation and referred to the triumphancy …

Severinus

(237 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Pupil of Libanius, 4th cent. AD Pupil of Libanius, then lawyer, entered service at the Imperial court (AD 363?), was comes rerum privatarum to Theodosius I (AD 388-390), comes sacrarum largitionum in 391 and finally praef. urbi Constantinopolitanae in 398-399. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography P. Petit, Les étudiants de Libanius, 1956 PLRE 1, 830 f. (S. 3). [German version] [2] S. of Noricum Monk in Noricum ripense, 5th cent. d. 8.1.482 in the monastery of Favianis (Mautern on the Danube) which he had founded. His actual …

Vetranio

(140 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman emperor 1 March - 25 December AD 350, of lowly origin from Upper Pannonia, worked his way up to magister peditum under Constantinus [1] and Constans [1]. When Magnentius was proclaimed emperor, V. was in Illyricum. At the request of Constantina, he allowed himself to be proclaimed emperor in order to prevent his army siding with Magnentius, and was recognized by Constantius [2]. Since the latter's support was too weak, however, V. formed an alliance with Magnentius, but minted no coins with Mag…

Proximus

(113 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] ('the next') was applied in the imperial scrinia (Scrinium) of Late Antiquity to an official nearest to a magister. The length of service of the proximi gradually became limited to a year. From c. 380 AD onwards proximi belonged to the viri spectabiles (Spectabilis), from 400 they were given the rank of senator on retirement, with certain privileges such as exemption from an expensive praetorship. In the early Imperial Period there were freedmen of the emperor, in various administrative positions with the title proximus; they could rise as high as procurator . Groß-Alben…

Germanianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Decimius G. Official under Constantius II Under Constantius II he was consularis of the province Baetica (CIL II 2206). In AD 361, he was temporarily praefectus praetorio Galliarum in place of Nebridius, who had refused to give allegiance to Julian, and then again in 363-366 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1; 26,5,5). PLRE 1, 392 (G. 4). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I in AD 366-368 (Cod. Theod. 7,7,1; Cod. Iust. 11,62…

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…

Tractatores

(121 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Greek τρακτευταί/ trakteutaí). Accounting official, primarily in the financial administration, which came under the praefectus praetorio , first attested in a 468 AD law of the emperor Leo [4] I (Cod.  Just. Epit. 10,23,3,3). In the provinces they were responsible for the annual notification of the amount and use of taxes, supervised the collection and passing on of all tax demands and saw to the recovery of financial arrears; for this they also received armed assistance when needed. They were selected by the heads of the office. Negligence by tractatores attracted …

Serena

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born c. AD 365 in Spain, daughter of Honorius [2], niece of Theodosius I, who held in great esteem the highly educated S., adopted her after the death of her father in 379(?) and in 384 married her to Stilicho. Children of this marriage were Maria [I 3], Eucherius [2] and Thermantia. S. gained significant influence at the court of Honorius [3], who she had cared for when he was a child. In 408 she came into opposition with Stilicho but nevertheless fell into disgrace when he was ki…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Spectabilis

(163 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir spectabilis, Greek períbleptos, also spektabílios). Senatorial title, coined in Late Antiquity, for officials ranking second to the illustres (Illustris vir), originally used in the sense of admirabilis ('admirable'), from the middle of the 2nd cent. also to describe prominent persons. The title is first recorded in AD 365 (Cod. Theod. 7,6,1); the usage initially fluctuated considerably between illustres, spectabiles and clarissimi (Vir clarissimus) and seems not to have been unequivocally fixed until c. 400. The first to be given the title were the p rocon…

Princeps castrorum

(79 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] PC peregrinorum or princeps peregrinorum was the designation of the highest-ranking centurio in the frumentarii stationed at Rome in the castra peregrina. Until the late 2nd cent. AD, the PC had no further opportunity for promotion, but from the 3rd cent. on, he could attain the highest offices of state (governor, praefectus praetorio ) (Cass. Dio 78,14; CIL VIII 2529; ILS 1372). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. von Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 21967.

Iustina

(145 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman empress, married in a second marriage to  Valentinianus I, mother of Valentinianus II. Other children: Iusta, Grata, Galla [2]. She supported the Arian line of belief and is said to have backed the Milan ecclesiastical conflict with  Ambrosius of AD 385/86. This concerned the use of a church by the Arians, but it seems unlikely that she would have been able to pursue this alone [1. 170-173]. In any case this episode has resulted up to the present day in a negative image of I…

Olympius

(422 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ὀλύμπιος; Olýmpios). [German version] [1] Court doctor of Constantine [2] II, 4th cent. Doctor, friend (and pupil) of Libanius, whom he treated in AD 354 for pains in the head and kidneys. In the two years that followed he visited Rome from where he returned to Constantinople and became court physician to Constantine [2] II (Lib. Ep. 51; 65; 353; 534; 539). Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Office bearer (4th cent. AD) O. of Antioch, around AD 355 consularis Macedoniae, senator first in Rome, then (from 358) in Constantinople where in 361 he achieved exemption from munera ( munu…

Maria

(1,540 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Petersen, Silke (Hamburg)
I. Roman women [German version] [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1]; one was the wife of M. Gratidius [2] and mother of C. Marius [I 7] Gratidianus, the other one was the mother of C. Lusius [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Possibly wife of Honorius Mentioned by Claudianus (Laus Serenae 69), possibly wife of Honorius [2], the brother of Theodosius I, therefore the mother of Serena and Thermantia. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography J. R. Martindale, Notes on the Consuls of 381 and 382, in: Hi…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Moderator

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Late antique collective term for those provincial governors who held the title of v ir clarissimus (Cod. Theod. 1,10,8 et passim), similar to rector or iudex. It was Justinian who in AD 535 first used moderator as a genuine official title for the governors of particular provinces with the rank of spectabilis (Court titles; Moderator Iustinianus Helenoponti, Nov. 28, Phoniciae ad Libanum, Edict. 4, Arabiae, Nov. 102). This last had civil and military authority. Occasionally moderator is also found as the title of officials who were not governors, includin…

Pinianus

(224 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387 Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387, P. was sent as a legate to emperor Valentinianus II by the senate in 395 with Postumianus to seek assistance with regard to a rise in prices. The choice of another legate, Paulinus, proved contentious. Probably the father or uncle of P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Christian ascetic 4th/5th cent. Nephew or son of P. [1], in AD 396 AD at the age of 16 or 17  the younger Melania [2], who after the death of their two chil…

Cleodamus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Κλεόδαμος; Kleódamos). C. of Byzantium, commissioned by  Gallienus with strengthening the fortifications of the cities near the mouth of the Danube against the  Heruli in AD 267 (SHA Gall. 13,6). In the same year (not later under Claudius II) C. drove the Heruli from Athens, which they had conquered (Zon. 12,26, p. 151 Dindorf III). PIR2 C 1144. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Gerontius

(304 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Armenian, about AD 350, had great influence at the court in Constantinople Armenian, held his first office in the imperial administration in AD 356-357 (Lib. Ep. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti in 361-362. In 364-365 (without office) he had great influence at the court in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 1484 etc.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Commander of the city of Tomi AD 384-387 Commander of the city of Tomi in AD 384-387. He had barbarians in Roman service executed for planning an assault…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; address…
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