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Timasius

(168 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius T., an officer under Valens [2], in AD 385 cos., in 386 comes et magister equitum, 388-395 magister equitum et peditum, and in 388 he led the infantry in a war with Maximus [II 7]. He took part in the conflicts between Theodosius [II 2] and Ambrosius over the synagogue in Callinicum, which had been destroyed by Christians. In 389, T. was cos. II. In 391, when he had to fight bands of Goths in Thrace, he came into conflict with Rufinus [II 3] and shortly afterwards fell into disgrace. In 394, however, he was commander-in-chief with Stil…

Theodosius

(3,100 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεοδόσιος/ Theodósios). [German version] [I 1] Greek mathematician and astronomer, 2nd/1st cent. BC Greek mathematician and astronomer. Folkerts, Menso (Munich) [German version] I. Life and works According to Str. 12,4,9, T. was one of the most important men in Bithynia; the birthplace Tripoli given in the Suda (s. v. Θ.) may relate to another T. As Strabo also names T.’ sons as important mathematicians, T. must belong in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, or, at the latest, the 1st half of the 1st. …

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Laeta

(149 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2] from AD 383 on Second wife of the emperor Gratianus [2], whom she married in AD 383. Following his death shortly afterwards, L. lived on as a widow at Rome, where she used her own funds to help alleviate the famine during Alaricus' [2] siege in 409 (Zos. 5,39,4). PLRE 1,492 (L. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Clarissima femina, addressee of Jerome's epist. 107 Clarissima femina, daughter of one Albinus, wife of Toxotius, daughter-in-law of the elder Paula, sister-in-law of E…

Quintinus

(66 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] was magister equitum per Gallias under Magnus Maximus [7], who entrusted his son Victor to him in AD 387. Q. was killed in 388 during an advance east of the Rhine near Neuss against the advice of Nannienus. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography PLRE 1, 760  P. Richardot, Un désastre romain peu connu sur le Rhin, in: Riv. storica dell' antichità 25, 1995, 111-130.

Valentinus

(500 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Christian theologian and poet, 2nd cent. Christian theologian, probably from Egypt, taught in c. AD 140-160 in Rome ( cf. Iren. adv. haereses 3,4,3). He wanted, possibly, to become episcopus ( epískopos ), but was turned down (Tert. adv. Valentinianos 4,1 ff.); afterwards, he must have lived in Cyprus (Epiphanius, Panarion 31,7,2). Besides a few extant fragments from sermons and letters, a work entitled 'On the three natures' ( Perì triôn phýseōn) is known to have existed. V. apparently wrote psalms in verse form; a fragment (in Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haer…

Tribunus

(1,975 words)

Author(s): de Libero, Loretana (Hamburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Formed from the word tribus with the suffix - unus, which indicates a person of superordinate authority); the administrative and/or military leader of a tribus ; pl.: tribuni. [German version] [1] Tribunus aerarius Presumably originally aides to the Roman magistrates, charged by the state treasury ( aerarium ) with paying the wages of the soldiers of their tribus  (Soldiers' pay). Tribuni aerarii were perhaps also headmen of their tribus. They may have been active in financial matters into the 1st cent. BC, and were subject to distraint ( pignus ), which indic…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Magnentius

(353 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius Magnus M., usurper, Roman emperor, AD 350-353. Born in Amiens c. 303, of non-Roman origin, not Christian. M. entered a military career and made it to the rank of comes . The comes rerum privatarum Marcellinus [5] incited him to conspire against Constans [1]: On 18 January 350, M. revolted in Autun (Aur. Vict. 42; Zos. 2,42); Constans was killed. By the end of February, M. was recognized as emperor in northern Italy, and thereafter in the entire West and in Africa as well. In the Danube reg…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mercurinus

(117 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (better known as Auxentius of Durostorum in Moesia). Student of the Gothic bishop Ulfila, perhaps a Goth himself. M. had to give up his bishopric in AD 380 after the edict of Theodosius I with regard to the return of the churches to the Orthodox. Shortly afterwards he was consecrated as Arian bishop of Milan ( Arianism). He was an opponent of Ambrosius; he exerted great influence on the court of Valentinian II. His ‘On the Life and Death of Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707) has come down to us. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography K. G…

Montius Magnus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Came from Africa, proconsul of Constantinople around AD 350, quaestor sacri palatii of Constantius [5] Gallus AD 351-353; while seeking to gain influence with the life guards during Gallus' struggle with the praef. praet. Domitianus [3], he was murdered by soldiers incited by Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,7,12-14; 9,4; 11,17; Philostorgius 3,28; PLRE 1, 535-536, 11; 1, 608). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Spectabilis

(163 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir spectabilis, Greek períbleptos, also spektabílios). Senatorial title, coined in Late Antiquity, for officials ranking second to the illustres (Illustris vir), originally used in the sense of admirabilis ('admirable'), from the middle of the 2nd cent. also to describe prominent persons. The title is first recorded in AD 365 (Cod. Theod. 7,6,1); the usage initially fluctuated considerably between illustres, spectabiles and clarissimi (Vir clarissimus) and seems not to have been unequivocally fixed until c. 400. The first to be given the title were the p rocon…

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Pompeianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul ord. in AD 209 Cos. ord. in AD 209. Identical with L. Aurellius Commodus P. (AE 1978, 733 = 1979, 560; RMD 1, 73; SEG 32, 1149). PIR2 P 568. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Consul suff. in an unknown year Cos. suff. on 13 May of an unknown year (CIL XVI 127); it is possible that there is a connection with the P. who is mentioned in CIL VI 40646 as consul in about AD 212. PIR2 P 567; 569. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Clodius P. (PIR2 P 570) see Clodius [II 12] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] C. Gabinius Barbarus P. (PIR2 P 566) see Gabinius […

Oclatinius

(169 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] M. O. Adventus. Born before AD 160, he came from very humble circumstances and according to Cassius Dio could not read (79,14,1). Under Septimius Severus, O. rose through lowly military positions to the position of princeps peregrinorum and then transferred to the administrative service. In 205-207 p rocurator of Britain under L. Alfen(i)us [2] Senecio [1. no. 1234]. Under Caracalla he was praefectus praetorio together with M. Opellius Macrinus (Herodian. 4,14,2; Cod. Just. Epit. 9,51,1). He went to Mesopotamia with Caracal…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Marina

(126 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] M. Severa Mother of the emperor Gratianus, around AD 370 First wife of Valentinianus I, mother of the emperor Gratianus [2], whose elevation to Augustus she helped effect; removed from the court and divorced before AD 370 because of some fraud, in 375 called back to the court by Gratianus. PLRE I, 828, 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, AD 403-449 Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia [1], born 403, died AD 449; built a palace in Constantinople; following the example…

Macrina

(101 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born around AD 327, sister of Basilius [1] the Great, Petrus of Sebaste and Gregorius [2] of Nyssa. Daughter of the rhetor Basilius and Emmelia, granddaughter of M. the Elder ( c. 270- c. 340). After the death of her bridegroom, M. lived an ascetic life on a family estate on the Iris in Pontus; died around 380. Her brother Gregorius wrote a biography of M. ( Vita M. iunioris; Greg. Nyss. Opera ascetica 8,1, p. 370-414) and had her answer his theological questions as a teacher in his work De anima et resurrectione (PG 46, 12-160). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Rationibus, a

(342 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Head of the central financial administration of the Roman Emperor and his subordinates. In the financial administration of the princeps, at first privately organised and evolving already under Augustus, the entire system of revenues and expenditures was initially managed by a single freedman. His title a rationibus is first attested for the reign of Tiberius; but the freedmen who managed the breviarium totius imperii for Augustus (Suet. Aug. 101,4) were probably already called like this. The functional importance of the department lent consid…

Mittendarii

(141 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Officials on the staff of the comes sacrarum largitionum and the comes rerum privatarum ( comes ), therefore belonging to the palatini . Their principal task was to act as messengers in the provinces. They are first attested under Theodosius I, who stipulated their conditions of rank and salaries (Cod. Theod. 6,30,2; table in [1. 124]), but they probably existed before that. The advancement rota consisted initially of two years and in the 5th cent. AD of one year. A schola mittendariorum of the praefectus praetorio Africae existed in the 6th cent (Cod. Iust. 1,2…

Licinianus

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] [- - - ] L. Cos. Suff. between 149 and 160 AD Senator, whose funerary inscription has been preserved in CIL VI 1441 = XIV 2927 = VI Suppl. VIII Add. ad 1441. After commanding a legion and holding another office he became governor of Aquitania and consul suffectus under Antoninus Pius, between c. AD 149 and 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat, 193 PIR2 L 169. [German version] [2] Lucius (Valerius) L. Friend of Martial, from Bilbilis From Bilbilis, like his friend, the poet Martial; a friend of Licinius [II 25] Sura as well. He was a w…

Nebridius

(290 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, AD 365 Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 365. N. was born in Etruria. His career led through lesser offices, held prior to 354, via the comitiva Orientis 354-358 and the quaestura (sacri palatii) at the court of the Caesar Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 and finally to the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Lib. Epist. 1315). N. attained this office in 360, but withdrew into private life as a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II in 361, when Julian was readying himself for a campaign again…

Perfectissimus

(259 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir perfectissimus, Greek διασημότατος/ diasēmótatos). From no later than the time of Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) onward honorary predicate and title of rank for equites above the rank of egregius ( vir egregius ), but under eminentissimus . Initially it was conferred on a person without relation to any particular office. Before Diocletianus (284-305) the title is recorded for e.g. praefectus [3] vigilum, praefectus [12] annonae and praefectus Aegypti , procuratores a rationibus ( procurator ) and praesides ( praeses ). In the beginn…

Primicerius

(152 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Literally 'the first' ( primus) on the 'wax tablet' ( cera) of a roster, primicerius describes the head of an office ( officium) or section in military and civil Roman departments (Chancellery). There were primicerii, for example, for the domestici et protectores ( domesticus ), the duces ( dux ), the scholae and fabricae of the magister officiorum , among the offices at court [C], and in the central administration and the schola notariorum. The rank of a primicerius depended on his activities. The primicerius sacri cubiculi, who was subordinate to the praepositus sacri …

Invictus

(171 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (‘the undefeated’, ‘invincible’). Epithet of Roman emperors since  Commodus. Already in the Republican period, this epithet was occasionally bestowed on victorious military leaders (e.g.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio), It is known that  Traianus [1] bore the Greek epithet ἀνίκητος/ aníkētos (of the same meaning). Commodus was the first to turn it into a permanent imperial epithet; this must be understood in the context of his veneration of  Hercules. Only with the Severans ( Severan dynasty) did Invictus lose this connotation and referred to the triumphancy …

Severinus

(237 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Pupil of Libanius, 4th cent. AD Pupil of Libanius, then lawyer, entered service at the Imperial court (AD 363?), was comes rerum privatarum to Theodosius I (AD 388-390), comes sacrarum largitionum in 391 and finally praef. urbi Constantinopolitanae in 398-399. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography P. Petit, Les étudiants de Libanius, 1956 PLRE 1, 830 f. (S. 3). [German version] [2] S. of Noricum Monk in Noricum ripense, 5th cent. d. 8.1.482 in the monastery of Favianis (Mautern on the Danube) which he had founded. His actual …

Vetranio

(140 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman emperor 1 March - 25 December AD 350, of lowly origin from Upper Pannonia, worked his way up to magister peditum under Constantinus [1] and Constans [1]. When Magnentius was proclaimed emperor, V. was in Illyricum. At the request of Constantina, he allowed himself to be proclaimed emperor in order to prevent his army siding with Magnentius, and was recognized by Constantius [2]. Since the latter's support was too weak, however, V. formed an alliance with Magnentius, but minted no coins with Mag…

Proximus

(113 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] ('the next') was applied in the imperial scrinia (Scrinium) of Late Antiquity to an official nearest to a magister. The length of service of the proximi gradually became limited to a year. From c. 380 AD onwards proximi belonged to the viri spectabiles (Spectabilis), from 400 they were given the rank of senator on retirement, with certain privileges such as exemption from an expensive praetorship. In the early Imperial Period there were freedmen of the emperor, in various administrative positions with the title proximus; they could rise as high as procurator . Groß-Alben…

Germanianus

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Decimius G. Official under Constantius II Under Constantius II he was consularis of the province Baetica (CIL II 2206). In AD 361, he was temporarily praefectus praetorio Galliarum in place of Nebridius, who had refused to give allegiance to Julian, and then again in 363-366 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1; 26,5,5). PLRE 1, 392 (G. 4). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I Comes sacrarum largitionum at the court of Valentinian I in AD 366-368 (Cod. Theod. 7,7,1; Cod. Iust. 11,62…

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…

Tractatores

(121 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Greek τρακτευταί/ trakteutaí). Accounting official, primarily in the financial administration, which came under the praefectus praetorio , first attested in a 468 AD law of the emperor Leo [4] I (Cod.  Just. Epit. 10,23,3,3). In the provinces they were responsible for the annual notification of the amount and use of taxes, supervised the collection and passing on of all tax demands and saw to the recovery of financial arrears; for this they also received armed assistance when needed. They were selected by the heads of the office. Negligence by tractatores attracted …

Serena

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born c. AD 365 in Spain, daughter of Honorius [2], niece of Theodosius I, who held in great esteem the highly educated S., adopted her after the death of her father in 379(?) and in 384 married her to Stilicho. Children of this marriage were Maria [I 3], Eucherius [2] and Thermantia. S. gained significant influence at the court of Honorius [3], who she had cared for when he was a child. In 408 she came into opposition with Stilicho but nevertheless fell into disgrace when he was ki…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Sebastianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Senior officer, 2nd half of the 4th cent. A senior officer during the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD. From 356 to 358 as dux Aegypti he was ordered to proceed against the followers of Athanasius (Athan. Hist. Ar. 59-63; 72; cf. Lib. Ep. 318; 520). On 24 December358 he drove them from the churches (Historia acephala 2,4). From 363 to 378 he was comes rei militaris, in 363 took part in the Persian campaign of Iulianus [11] Apostata (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5), and in 368 in the operation of Valentinianus I against the Alamanni (Amm. Marc. 27,10,6). After …

Vacantes

(57 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman titular officials (like honorarii), i.e. they bore an official title without holding or having held the corresponding office. They usually received the title when retiring from active service and were entitled to wear the sash ( cingulum), which was not granted to  honorarii. They ranked after the actual holders of the office. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Orestes

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ὀρέστης; Oréstēs). [German version] [1] Son of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra Son of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, who took brutal revenge on his mother and her lover Aegisthus for the murder of his father. The story, which is told in the Nostoi (EpGF p. 67,25-27; PEG I p. 95), was already familiar to the author of the Odyssey (Hom. Od. 1,29ff., 298ff.; 3,193ff., 248ff., 303ff.; 4,90-92, 512ff.; 11,387ff.; 24,20ff., 93ff., 192ff.); depending on the context, the story serves as a foil, either negatively for Penelope, the faithful wife (vs. Clytaemnestra…

Mardonius

(427 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Μαρδόνιος/ Mardónios < old Persian Marduniya). [German version] [1] Aristocratic Persian, son of Gobryas [3] Aristocratic Persian, son of the Gobryas [3] who plotted with Darius [1] I against Gaumāta (Gaubaruva; Hdt. 6,43,1 et passim) and a sister of Darius (Hdt. 7,5,1), grandson of M. [3. DB IV 84], husband of the daughter of Darius, Artazostra (Hdt. 6,43,1; [2. PFa 5,1f., 110, 118]) and father of Artontes (Hdt. 9,84,1). As a young man M. reorganized the political affairs of the Ionian cities on behalf of th…

Romulus

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Legendary founder of Rome The legendary founder of Rome. Perhaps literally 'the Roman'. A possible correspondence between the Etruscan nomen gentile Rumelna (Volsinii, 6th cent. BC: ET Vs 1,35) and the alleged Roman nomen gentile Romilius - the name is securely attested only in an old tribus Romilia/-ulia (Paul Fest. 331 L.) - and between R. and an Etruscan praenomen * Rumele [1. 31 f.] proves nothing about the historicity of the figure of R. Also problematic is the attempt [2. 491-520; 3. 95-150] to connect the finds from the Roman Mon…

Praeses

(159 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (literally: 'chairman/president') initially used in 2nd and 3rd cents. AD as a special honorific Latin title for governors, later becoming established in official usage for an equestrian procurator . Subsequently, in the wake of the administrative reorganization under Diocletian and Constantine [1] I, it became a special title for the lowest group of provincial governors after the consularis and corrector , esp. in the many newly created small provinces. The ranking hierarchy, however, was subject to changes. In the Notitia dignitatum , 40 praesides are mentio…

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Thermantia

(154 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I, 4th cent. AD Mother of Theodosius [II 2] I; died before AD 389/391. PLRE 1, 909 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Niece of Theodosius [II 2] I, c. AD 400 Granddaughter of T. [1], adopted, with her sister Serena, into the family of her uncle Theodosius [II 2] the Great before AD 384 and treated as an adopted daughter (Claud., Laus Serenae 105-109; 118; 187; Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 48,1); married to a high-ranking officer. PLRE 1, 909 no. 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3…

Flacilla

(97 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Aelia Flavia F. First wife of the emperor Theodosius I; three children were born of the marriage contracted in c. AD 376: the later emperors  Arcadius and  Honorius as well as  Pulcheria. In 379 F. was appointed Augusta. The committed supporter of Nicene Christianity (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,6; Theod. Hist. eccl. 5,19) was considered pious and charitable. When she died in 386 in Skotumis (Thrace), Gregorius [2] of Nyssa held the funerary oration (PG 46, 877-892). Her statue was erected in the Senate building (Them. Or. 19,228b). PLRE 1, 341f. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Fr…

Helpidius

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Vicarius urbis Romae, 321-324 AD In AD 321-324 vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 2,8,1; 16,2,5; 13,5,4; Cod. Iust. 8,10,6 calls him agens vicem praefectorum praetorio). In 329 he was still the recipient of laws (Cod. Theod. 9,21,4; 13,5,4); as such a long period in office as a vicarius would have been unusual, we should assume that he held a higher office in the meantime, perhaps that he was praefectus praetorio Italiae. PLRE 1, 413 (H. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Claudius H. Praefectus praetorio Orientis 360-361 AD Paphlagon…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…
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