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Will

(3,711 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph | Loos, Fritz | Herms, Eilert | Hühn, Lore
[German Version] I. History of the Term The development and spread of the term will go hand in hand with the history of Christian theology. Classical Greek had no single, distinct term like will denoting an independent mental faculty. The voluntative dimension was contained in the terms used for rational deliberation, decision-making, willingness, and non-rational desire. For Aristotleβουλή/ boulḗ is conation (Striving) that ensues after deliberation and hence is guided by reason based on knowledge ( De anima III 10, 433a ¶ 20–23). In the Bible, especially in Paul, the phenom…

Reinhold, Karl Leonhard

(221 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1757, Vienna – Apr 10, 1823, Kiel), trained by the Jesuits to teach philosophy, Reinhold joined the Illuminati in 1783; in 1784 he and C.M. Wieland began publishing Der Teutsche Merkur. In the same year, he converted to Protestantism. With his eight Briefe über die Kantische Philosophie (1786; Letters on the Kantian Philosophy, 2006), he succeeded in becoming the pioneer of post-Kantian systematic philosophy in Germany. Appointed professor of philosophy in Jena in 1787, in his system of “Elementary Philosophy” he sought to s…

Immediacy

(819 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Ever since Aristotle, immediacy has been placed on a par with the highest concept of judgment (syllogism) and of evaluation (self-evidence), the principle of a first cause and that of a presuppositionless beginning. The theoretical enhancement of the subject's immediate self-awareness proposed by R. Descartes as the secure foundation of philosophical knowledge was further emphasized by early Idealism. For J.G. Fichte and F.W.J. Sch…

Schopenhauer, Arthur

(1,151 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore
[German Version] (Feb 22, 1788, Danzig [Gdańsk] – Sep 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main). Schopenhauer’s philosophy is a metaphysics of the will grounded in pessimism (Optimism and pessimism: II). Historically and systematically, it was a transitional philosophy: its understanding of the totality of our lived reality on the basis of the monistic principle of the will kept it linked to the great systematic designs of Idealism (System: I). At the same time, as a forerunner of psychoanalysis and vitalism (…

Infinity

(1,645 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Philosophy Infinity is a key concept of ancient philosophy that combines a wide spectrum of meanings under the title ἄπειρον/ ápeiron: boundlessness and indeterminacy of the origins from which becoming emerged, that is, the fundamental principle of the physical world and of its objects (Anaximander); the limitlessness, to be evaluated negatively, which stands in opposition to the positive delimitation effected by number or measure (Pythagoras); t…

Potency, Doctrine of Limitation of Act by

(482 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore
[German Version] This doctrine rests on the idea of the dynamic unity of a fundamental constellation, remaining qualitatively self-identical, which through quantitatively increasing self- differentiations constantly repeats itself afresh in everything that has being, albeit in varying measure. Drawing on the Aristotelian distinction between enérgeia and dýnamis (Capacity), Thomas Aquinas set a precedent for Scholasticism by turning potencies into ontological principles, making it possible to establish a hierarchy of all that has finite being while also ground-¶ ing it in…

Atheism Controversy

(294 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore
[German Version] The atheism dispute was one of several religio-philosophical controversies in the early phase of German Idealism – a dispute significant less for the actual issues involved than for its political repercussions. The immediate occasion of the controversy, set at the University of Jena in 1798–1799, was Friedrich Karl Forberg's article “Entwicklung des Begriffs der Religion” [“Development of the concept of religion”], which J.G. Fichte published in the Philosophisches Journal (edited jointly with F.J. Niethammer), flanked …

Romanticism

(4,164 words)

Author(s): Lampart, Fabian | Thimann, Michael | Lauer, Gerhard | Hühn, Lore | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. As Epoch 1. Literature. The term “romantic” (from Old Fr. romanz, roman; cf. Ger. romantisch) appeared as early as the 17th century with the meaning “unbridled,” “fantastic,” “wild”; while Romanticism in Europe denotes a period in culture and art. As a movement in literary studies it runs from 1790 to 1825, with offshoots to c. 1850. ¶ Literary Romanticism in Germany is divided into early, high, and late Romanticism. Around 1798, the so-called Jena or early Romantic group (until c. 1806) formed around the journal Athenäum, represented by Friedrich v. Hardenberg …