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(3,671 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
Hindus in Bangladesh today are a minority of about ten percent of the total population of the country. Official figures are not easily available since statistics of religious affiliation are treated as sensitive data by the Bangladeshi authorities (the yearly Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh, published by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, for example, withholds statistical information on religious communities), but it may be estimated that they number about 15 million individuals, thus constituting the largest Hindu population out…
Date: 2019-01-30


(258 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[German Version] The term Neo-Hinduism denotes ideas and practices that began to take shape in India in the 19th century, as Indians contended with British colonialism, orientalism, and Christianity (Hinduism: I, 2). As part of Indian religious and cultural apologetics vis-à-vis the West, Neo-Hinduism has nationalistic features; it arose as a distinct term, appropriating the non-native collective term Hinduism. The expression Neo-Hinduism appeared for the first time in 1885 in Bengali ( nabyahindu), used by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay and others to denote exegesis o…


(400 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[German Version] (Rāmakṛṣṇa Paramahaṃsa, birth name Gadadhar Chattopadhyay; Feb 18, 1836, Kamarpukur, India – Aug 16, 1886, Calcutta), is considered the most important holy figure of Hinduism in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847 Rāmakrishna, who was born into a rural Bengal Brahman family, came to ¶ Dakshineshvar where he served as a Kālī priest from 1856 and was taught Vedānta by the ascetic Totāpurī. His ecstatic worship and mystical show of the goddess Kālī became widely known and, from the 1870s on, attracted primarily young Calcut…

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli

(329 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[German Version] (Sep 5, 1888, Tiruttani, India – Apr 16, 1975, Madras), philosopher of religion and politician, an important exponent of neo-Hinduism. Radhakrishnan studied at Madras Christian College; he was professor at various Indian universities; from 1946 he was a statesman; from 1962 to 1967, president of India. His apologetic and nationalistic interpretation of Hinduism was to give it a new self-understanding in dealing with Christianity; this included, among other things, a positive recep…


(348 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[English Version] (Rāmakṛṣṇa Paramahaṃsa, Geburtsname Gadadhar Chattopadhyay; 18.2.1836 Kamarpukur, Indien – 16.8.1886 Kalkutta), gilt als bedeutendste Heiligengestalt des Hinduismus im 19. und 20.Jh. Der aus einer ländlichen bengalischen Brahmanenfamilie stammende R. kam 1847 nach Dakshineshvar, wo er seit 1856 als Kālı̄-Priester wirkte und von dem Asketen Totāpurı̄ im Vedānta unterwiesen wurde. Seine ekstatische Verehrung und myst. Schau der Göttin Kālı̄ wurde publik und zog seit den 70er Ja…


(231 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[English Version] Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (5.9.1888 Tiruttani, Indien – 16.4.1975 Madras), Religionsphilosoph und Politiker; wichtiger Exponent des Neohinduismus. Studium am Madras Christian College; Professuren an verschiedenen indischen Universitäten; seit 1946 Staatsmann, 1962–1967 indischer Präsident. R.s apologetisch-nationalistische Ausdeutung sollte dem Hinduismus in Auseinandersetzung mit Christentum, u.a. in positiver Rezeption der Person Jesu Christi (: III.), und westlicher Philos. ein…


(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Hans
[English Version] . Der Begriff N. bez. Anschauungen und Praktiken, die sich in Auseinandersetzung mit brit. Kolonialismus, Orientalismus und Christentum seit dem 19.Jh. in Indien formierten (Hinduismus: I.,2.). Als Teil einer indischen rel.-kulturellen Apologetik dem Westen gegenüber hat der N. nationalistische Züge; er entstand mit der Aneignung der Fremd- und Sammelbez. Hinduismus als Eigenbez. Der Ausdruck N. erschien erstmals 1885 im Bengali (nabyahindu) bei Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay u.a. als Bez. für die westlich-philol. geprägte Exegese d…