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Phyllis

(201 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Φυλλίς; Phyllís). [German version] [1] Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon (Struma), which she brings as the dowry to her marriage with Acamas the son of Theseus. When he is unfaithful to her she curses him and he dies. The legend illustrates the great interest of Athens in the region with its rich mineral sources (Aeschin. 2,31 with schol.; Thuc. 1,100,3; 4,102; Androtion FGrH 324 F 33; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 495). P. hangs herself and i…

Deianira

(390 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δηιάνειρα; Dēiáneira). Mythical daughter of king Oeneus of Calydon (Soph. Trach. 6f.) or of Dionysus (Apollod. 1,64; Hyg. Fab. 129) and  Althaea. After the death of her brother  Meleager, D., unlike her sisters, retained her human form (Ov. Met. 8,542ff.; Ant. Lib. 2 after Nicander; Hyg. Fab. 174). The river god Achelous wooed her; then  Heracles, who had heard Meleager singing D.'s praises, also arrived on the scene as a suitor (Pind. Fr. 249aSM; Bacchyl. 5,165ff. SM). Heracles d…

Myrrha

(212 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Μύρρα; Mýrrha). Daughter of the Cyprian king Cinyras and Cenchreis or of the Assyrian king Theias. The gods' anger causes her to fall in love with her father. She is able to have sexual intercourse with him without being recognized, and becomes pregnant. When he recognizes her he tries to kill her; Zeus or Aphrodite takes pity on her and transforms her into a tree; her tears are the resin of the myrrh tree. Later Adonis is born from that tree (Apollod. 3,183f. = Panyassis fr. 27 B…

Themisto

(137 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Θεμιστώ; Themistṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus, third wife of Athamas (Herodoros 31 F 38 FGrH; Apollod. 1,84; Ath. 13,560d; Nonn. Dion. 9,305-307; Tzetz. Lykophr. 22), who is the father of her several children. Her predecessors were Nephele [1] and Ino. When the latter returns, T., tries to kill her children (Hyg. Fab. 4,239, otherwise in Fab. 1). By means of a change of clothing Ino causes T. to kill her own children, whereupon T. takes her own life. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Ancestor of the Arcadians Daught…

Electra

(491 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἠλέκτρα; Ēléktra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The daughter of  Oceanus and  Tethys; wife of Thaumas, mother of  Iris and the  harpies Aello and Ocypete (Hes. Theog. 265ff.; 349; Hom. H. 2,418; Apollod. 1,10). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo The daughter of  Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo (Apollod. 2,19; Hyg. Fab. 170). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Daughter of Atlas and Pleione The daughter of  Atlas and Pleione. One of the  Pleiades. E.'s place of birth is the Cyl…

Andromeda

(183 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομέδα; Androméda). Daughter of  Cepheus king of the Cephenes or Aethiopians, and  Cassiepea (Apollod. 2,43), who boasted that she was as beautiful as the Nereids. This angered Poseidon, who sent tidal waves and a sea monster onto the shore. An oracle then promises release from the plague, if A. would surrender herself to the sea monster. Cepheus then has A. bound to a rock at the shore, where  Perseus sees her on his return after the Gorgon adventure. After she promises to go …

Philomeleides

(61 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Φιλομηλείδης; Philomēleídēs). Mythical king of the island of Lesbos, who challenged those sailing by to a wrestling match. Odysseus defeated him, according to Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 in the fight, but according to Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 150 by deceit together with Diomedes [1]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. P., RE 19, 2519f.

Alcmene

(274 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλκμήνη; Alkmḗnē). Daughter of king Electryon of Mycenae or Tiryns and of Lysidice, Eurydice or Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. Sic. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). She marries  Amphitryon, who kills Electryon and has to flee with A. The marriage is to be consumated only after Amphitryon has avenged A.'s brother, who died in battle (Apollod. 2,55). He leaves, and Zeus comes in his form to A., tells of the victory and conceives  Hercules with her (Pind. Isthm. 7,5 ff.; Pherec. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. …

Polyclea

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολύκλεια/ Polýkleia). Heroine from the family of the Heraclidae, who received an oracular prediction that the first person to cross the Achelous [1] would become ruler of the Boeoti, who were at the time living in Thessalia. She asked her brother Aeatus to carry her over the river, broke away shortly before reaching the other bank and was the first to set foot there; her brother then married her to secure power for his family and they had a son, Thessalus (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,44). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography G. Radke, s. v. Polykleia (1), RE 21, 1695-1698.

Aethra

(161 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αἴθρα; Aíthra). Daughter of Pittheus king of Troezen, mother of  Theseus by  Aegeus or Poseidon (Bacchyl. 17,33 ff. SM; Apollod. 3,208; 216; Hyg. Fab. 37). The variant at Paus. 2,33,1 explains the founding of temples of Athena Apaturia on the island Sphaerea by A. Theseus entrusts  Helen to A. who had been abducted by him. When the  Dioscuri release her, A. is taken as a slave and she later reaches Troy with Helen (Hom. Il. 3,144; Alcm. fr. 21 PMGF; Plut. Theseus 16b; Apollod. 3,…

Polyxena

(391 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολυξένη/ Polyxénē, Latin Polyxena). Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe. In the Cypria (PEG I fr. 34) she is killed by Odysseus and Diomedes [1] and buried by Neoptolemus [1]. Another tradition tells of her being sacrificed by the Greeks on Achilles’ [1] grave (Iliupersis argumentum PEG I p. 89; Hyg. Fab. 110; Apollod. epit. 5,23), because his spirit demands the sacrifice (Eur. Hec. 37-41; 107-115; Ov. Met. 13,441-448; Quint. Smyrn 14,234-245) and threatens to prevent the Greek fleet from retur…

Clytaemnestra

(349 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Κλυταιμήστρα; Klytaimḗstra, earlier form of the name Klytaimnestra/Κλυταιμνήστρα; Lat. Clytaem(n)estra). Daughter of  Tyndareos and  Leda, sister of  Helena [1] and the  Dioscuri, wife of  Agamemnon, who killed her first husband  Tantalus, son of  Thyestes. She had several children by Agamemnon:  Chrysothemis [2],  Laodice [I 2] or  Electra [4],  Iphianassa [2] or  Iphigenia and  Orestes. Labouring under Aphrodite's curse of infidelity (Hes. fr. 176; Stesich. fr. 223 PMG) and afte…

Penelope

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνελόπη/ Pēnelópē, Homeric: Πηνελόπεια/ Pēnelópeia, Latin Penelope, Penelopa). Wife of Odysseus. From antiquity, her name has been interpreted in two ways: according to one, P. means 'weaveress', in reference to the typical female activity which plays such a central role in the Odyssey, while according to the other, her name is derived from pēnélops ('duck'), with the explanation that she had allegedly been thrown into the sea by her parents and had been saved by ducks. For an etymological explanation of P.'s name, see [1]. P. was the daughter of the Arcadian ki…

Scylla

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Σκύλλα/ Skýlla, Σκύλλη/ Skýllē, Lat. Scylla). [German version] [1] Sea monster Sea monster, daughter of Crataeis or Hecate and Phorcys; originally a young woman, transformed by Circe, Amphitrite or Poseidon into a monster (Hom. Od. 12,73-92; Anaxilas fr. 22,4 PCG 2; Verg. Ecl. 6,74-77; Verg. Aen. 3,426-432; Isid. Orig. 11,3,32; Them. Or. 22,279b-d compares the various depictions) out of jealousy when she was wooed by Glaucus [1] (Ov. Met. 13,900-968; 14,1-74; Hyg. Fab. 199). S. lived in a cave opposite Ch…

Pandora

(543 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πανδώρα/ Pandṓra). Her name ('She who gives everything') is used as an epiclesis of chthonic deities such as Gaia and Hecate (Orph. A. 974ff.; schol. Aristoph. Av. 971). It is not possible to discern a clear development of the figure of P. in the transmitted versions of the myth that would clarify her connection with those deities. P. as the original or first woman can first be found in Hesiodus (Theog. 570-591; Hes. Op. 57-105). At Zeus' order, P. is formed from earth and water by Hephaestus, adorned and equipped with skills by Athen…

Clymene

(225 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κλυμένη; Klyménē, Clymene). [German version] [1] Mother of Atlas [2]  Oceanid, wife of  Iapetus, who by her fathered  Atlas [2],  Prometheus and Epimetheus (Hes. Theog. 351; 507ff.; Hyg. Fab. praef. 11,31). In Euripides (Phaethon 1ff.; 45ff. Diggle; cf. also Ov. Met. 1,750ff.; Hyg. Fab. 152a; 154; 156) she is the mother of  Phaethon. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Nereid  Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,47; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8), who according to Pausanias (2,18,1) had with  Dictys [1] an altar in Athens as saviour of Perseu…

Penthesilea

(299 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πενθεσίλεια/ Penthesíleia, Lat. Penthesilea). Amazon (Amazons), daughter of Ares and Otrere (Aithiopis argumentum, fr. 1f. PEG I), who to expiate blood guilt - in some sources the murder of her sister Hippolyte [1] (Apollod. Epit. 5,1; Quint. Smyrn. 1,20-32) - enters the Trojan War and supports the Trojans after the death of  Hector (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 149; Diod. Sic. 2,46,5). She kills a number of Greeks (Prop. 3,11,14f.; Quint. Smyrn. 1,238-246) but is then defeated by Achilles […

Auge

(160 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αὔγη; Aúgē). Daughter of king Aleus of Tegea, who had made her a priestess of Athena [1. 368-385] in order to force her into chastity, as an oracle had predicted that her son would murder her brothers. She was raped by  Heracles (Hes. fr. 165 Merkelbach-West, Apollod. 2,146f.). Aleus discovered her pregnancy and had her thrown into the sea, together with her son  Telephus. Washed ashore in Mysia, she married king Teuthras (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 29a, b). According to Soph. and Eur., Tel…

Aerope

(147 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀερόπη; Aerópē). Daughter of Catreus, granddaughter of Minos II. Because of a prophecy that Catreus will be killed by the children of A., Catreus hands her and her sister Clymene over to  Nauplius to be sold (Apollod. 3,15) or to be killed; possibly on account of a romantic attachment to a slave (schol. Soph. Aj. 1297 about Euripides' ‘Cretan Women’). Nauplius, however, protects them, and in Argus gives her to  Pleisthenes as wife. Both sons,  Agamemnon and  Menelaus (Hes. fr. 195…

Thallo

(69 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Θαλλώ; Thallṓ). One of the Horae, the daughters of Zeus and Themis (Hes. Theog. 901-903; Hes. Op. 74 f.). The assignment of T. to the Horae or to the Charites is controversial, as are the number and names of the Horae (Hyg. Fab. 183; Paus. 9,35,1-4; Poll. 8,106). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography A. Lesky, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1214 f.  V. Machaira, s. v. Horai, LIMC 5.1, 502 f.; 5.2, 344-368.

Hermione

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē). Daughter of  Helene and  Menelaus (Hom. Od. 4,12ff.), sister of Nicostratus (Hes. fr. 175 M-W). According to one version of the myth, Menelaus promises her to  Neoptolemus outside the gates of Troy (Hom. Od. 4,3ff.), in another version she is promised to  Orestes before the war (Soph. Hermione TrGF 4, 192f.; Eur. Andr. 966ff.; Ov. Epist. 8, slightly different in Eur. Or. 1653ff.). Neoptolemus abducts her but is killed by Orestes (Eur. Andr. 993ff.; 1085ff.; Hyg…

Hesione

(209 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἡσιόνη; Hēsiónē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, wife of  Prometheus (Aesch. PV 558). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Wife of Nauplius Wife of  Nauplius, mother of  Palamedes (Apollod. 2,23). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Progenitor of the Trojan royal house Wife of  Atlas [2], mother of  Electra [3], progenitor through her grandson  Dardanus [1] of the Trojan royal house. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [4] Sister of Priamus Daughter of the Trojan king  Laomedon, who has to deliver her up to a sea …

Ismene

(210 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἰσμήνη; Ismḗnē). [German version] [1] Theban heroine Theban heroine, who because of her romantic connection with  Periclymenus incurs the wrath of Athene and is killed by  Tydeus (Mimn. Fr. 21 IEG; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 95). In the 5th cent. BC she was integrated into the Oedipus myth by the tragedians: as the daughter of  Oedipus and  Jocasta or  Eurygane, as the sister of  Antigone [3],  Eteocles [1] and  Polynices, she survives with Antigone the attack of the Seven Against Thebes (Aeschyl. Sept. 861f…

Hecabe

(713 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑκάβη/ Hekábē, Lat. Hecuba). Wife of the Trojan king  Priamus, mother of numerous children (Hom. Il. 24,496; Eur. Hec. 421), among them  Hector,  Paris/Alexander,  Cassandra,  Polyxene and  Troilus. Her parentage is unclear, in Hom. Il. 16,718f. she is the daughter of king  Dymas [1], in Eur. Hec. 3 of king Cisseus (cf. also Hyg. Fab. 91; 111; 243), and in Apollod. 3,148 of Sangarius. Her mother is mentioned in Suet. Tib. 70,3. In Homer, at Hector's urging, she goes to Athena's te…

Laonome

(90 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαονόμη; Laonómē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Guneus Daughter of Guneus, wife of Alcaeus [1] (other names are also mentioned), mother of Amphitryon (Paus. 8,14,2; Apollod. 2,50). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Amphitryon and Alcmene Daughter of Amphitryon and of Alcmene, sister of Heracles [1], wife of the son of Poseidon Euphemus (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,79). In Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 13) she is associated with the god of the Underworld Hodoedocus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography K. Meuli, s.v. L. (1)-(2), RE 12, 758.

Alope

(122 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλόπη; Alópē). Daughter of king  Cercyon of Eleusis (Pherec. FGrH 3 F147), loved by Poseidon, to whom she bears  Hippothoon. She abandons the child; it is suckled by a mare and is found by shepherds, who bring the dispute about the valuable identification marks before the king. He recognizes the marks, locks A. up, and lets her starve. The child is abandoned a second time, again nurtured by the mare and brought up by shepherds. Poseidon transforms A. into a spring (Hyg. Fab. 187; …

Danae

(243 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δανάη; Danáē). Mythical daughter of  Acrisius, the king of Argus, and Euridice or Aganippe (Hom. Il. 14,319f.; Hes. fr. 129; 135MW; Hyg. Fab. 63). She was imprisoned by her father to keep her from any contact with the outside world following a pronouncement by the oracle that he would be killed by his grandson. Zeus approached D. in the form of a shower of gold and she became pregnant with  Perseus (Pind. Pyth. 10,44f.; 12,9ff.; Soph. Ant. 944ff.; Isocr. 10,59; Ov. Met. 4,610f.). …

Praxithea

(249 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα/ Praxithéa). [German version] [1] Wife of Erechtheus Daughter or granddaughter of Cephisus; on the one hand, she is the wife of Erechtheus (Demaratus FGrH 42 F 4) and mother of several children (amongst them Creusa [2], Oreithyia, Procris); on the other, the wife of Erichthonius [1] and mother of Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα/ Phrasithéa Tzetz. Chil. 1,174). According to an oracle, Erechtheus can only win the war against Eumolpus after sacrificing one of his daughters. In his play 'Erechtheus', Euripides allows P. to give detailed …

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Nausicaa

(287 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ναυσικάα; Nausikáa). Young daughter of the Phaeacian royal couple Alcinous [1] und Arete [1]. Athena causes her to go with her serving maids to wash and picnic at the mouth of the river, where she comes across Odysseus, who had been washed ashore at this spot after being shipwrecked. Naked and exhausted, he appeals to her for help. In contrast to her companions, who run off in fright, she listens to him and gives him food, clothes, oil for anointing himself, and precise instructio…

Hippolyte

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη; Hippolýtē). [German version] [1] Amazon, daughter of Ares  Amazon in the myth of Heracles and Theseus, daughter of  Ares and of Otrere. Heracles was ordered by  Eurystheus to rob H. of the belt of Ares (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. Fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). According to some sources, he kills H. in the process (Eur. HF 407ff.). In conflicting versions of the myth of Theseus, H.,  Antiope [2] or  Glauce [3] appear as the wife of Theseus (Isoc. Or. 12,193; Plut. These…

Aglaurus

(296 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἄγλαυρος, also Ἄγραυλος; Áglauros, Ágrauros). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter the first king in Attica Daughter of  Actaeus, the first king in Attica, spouse of  Cecrops, mother of  Erysichthon, of   Aglaurus [2],  Herse and  Pandrosus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops. Athena entrusts Erichthonius to A. and her sisters in a chest guarded by snakes, forbidding them to open it, which A. and Herse do nonetheless. T…

Rhoeo

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥοιώ; Rhoiṓ). Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1], sister of Molpadia [1] and Parthenus [2]. After the sisters fail to guard their father's newly produced wine, they throw themselves into the sea and are rescued by Apollo, who fathers Anius with R. Staphylus locks the pregnant R. in a chest, which comes ashore in Delos (or Euboea, Tzetz. Lycoph. 570), where Apollo tends to his son (Diod. 5,62 f.; Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 11,17; Lycoph. 570). In the story of the Argive Lyrcus,…

Oreithyia

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ὠρείθυια/ Ōreíthyia). Mentioned in Homer (Il. 18,48) as a Nereid, but not in Hesiod's catalogue of Nereids (Theog. 240ff., Apollod. 1,11f.). Her name ('storming in the mountains') suggests she is a 'bride of the wind'. In Attic mythology, she is the daughter of the Attic king Erechtheus and of Praxithea. O. is abducted to Thrace by the wind god Boreas, who makes her his wife (Hdt. 7.189; Verg. G. 4,463). Their children are Cleopatra [I 1] and Chione [1] as well as Calais and Zetes…

Pero

(125 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πηρώ; Pērṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neleus and Chloris Daughter of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4], with twelve brothers, including Nestor [1]. Neleus demands Iphiclus' cattle as a bride price for P. Melampus [1] delivers the cattle for his brother Bias [1], who is given P. as his bride (Hom. Od. 11,281-297; 15,231-238; Apoll. Rhod. 1,120f.; Paus. 4,36,3; 10,31,10). Several of the couple's sons are part of the Argonaut campaign (Apoll. Rhod. 1,118-120). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Mother of the river god Asopus Mother by Poseidon of the river god Aso…

Andromache

(220 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομάχη; Andromáchē). Daughter of king Eetion in Hypoplacian Thebes, wife of  Hector, mother of  Astyanax-Scamandrius (Hom. Il. 6,395 ff.). At her wedding (Sappho fr. 44 Voigt) Aphrodite gives her gifts (Hom. Il. 22,470). Hector is affectionate towards A., especially after the death of her family (Hom. Il. 6,370 ff.). Her lament for her fallen spouse is impressive (Hom. Il. 22,477 ff.; 24,723 ff.). Her son is murdered after the conquest of Troy (Ilioupersis arg. fr. 5 PEG; Eur. …

Molpadia

(114 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Μολπαδία; Molpadía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1]. Together with her sister Rhoeo, she was charged with guarding the wine, which had just been invented. However, they fell asleep and pigs overturned the jug. Out of fear, the sisters leapt into the sea. Apollo rescued them and took M. as Hemithea to Castabus in the Carian Chersonesus of Knidos (Diod. 5,62f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Amazon Amazon who killed Antiope [2], who was fighting alongside Theseus, after which sh…

Creusa

(223 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κρέουσα; Kréousa, Latin Creusa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus, who bears  Hypseus and Stilbe to the river god Peneius (Pind. Pyth. 9,14f.; Diod. Sic. 4,69). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Erechtheus The youngest daughter of  Erechtheus and  Praxithea. Apollo begat  Ion [1] with her, whom she abandons but whom Hermes took to Delphi. C. marries  Xuthus (Hes. fr. nova 10a 20ff.), who becomes king of Athens after Erechtheus' death. When consulting th…

Procris

(261 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πρόκρις/ Prókris, Lat. Procris). Daughter either of Erechtheus and Praxithea (Apollod. 3,196) or Pandion (Hyg. Fab. 189; 241) or Iphiclus (Serv. Aen. 6,445). Renowned hunter, married to the Athenian hunter Cephalus [1], who, disguised, tests her fidelity by seducing her with gifts (cf. Pherecydes acc. to Schol. Hom. Od. 11,321, Ov. Met. 7,690-865, Antoninus Liberalis 41). Ashamed, she flees to Minos or Artemis, her hunting companion (Callim. H. 3,209). From Artemis or Minos, P. rece…

Tecmessa

(108 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τέκμησσα/ Tékmēssa, Latin Tecmessa). Phrygian princess, given to Ajax [1] as a prize (Hom. Il. 1,138). With her he fathers Eurysaces. In Soph.  Aj. the character of T. is developed for the first time, her relationship with Ajax is defined by mutual respect and fidelity (Dictys 2,18; Quint. Smyrn. 5,521-567). Roman tragedy writers also took an interest in the subject, as did Horace (Carm. 2,4,5f.) and Ovid (Ars am. 3,517-520). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography J. Boardman, s. v. T., LIMC 7.1, 832  E. Oberhummer, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 157 f.  K. Synodinu, T…

Eriphyle

(138 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἐριφύλη; Eriphýlē). Daughter of Talaus; sister of  Adrastus and wife of the seer  Amphiaraus in Argus, who were reconciled after a feud and were willing to submit to E.'s judgement in case of future quarrels. Amphiaraus, in anticipation of his death, refused to take part in Adrastus' campaign against Thebes. Bribed by  Polyneices with Harmonia's necklace, E. forced him to participate. He instructed his sons to avenge him regarding E. (Hom. Od. 11,326f.; Stat. Theb. 4,187-213; Apol…

Laothoe

(84 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαοθόη; Laothóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thespius Daughter of Thespius, by Heracles [1] mother of Antiphus (Apollod. 2,163). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Lover of Apollo Lover of Apollo, by whom she bears Thestor, grandmother of Calchas (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 108). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Concubine of Priamus Concubine of Priamus, by whom she bears Lycaon and Polydorus (Hom. Il. 21,34f., 85-96; 22,46-48). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography O. Scherling, s.v. L. (1)-(3), RE 12, 761.

Tilphusa

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιλφοῦσα, Τέλφουσα; Tilphoûsa, Télphousa). Boeotian well nymph, who does not allow Apollo to build his oracle temple at her well, and sends him to Delphi so that she herself can preserve her area of influence. Apollo later fills in her well and in its place builds an altar to himself (Hom. H. 3,244-276; 3,375-387). According to Apollod. 3,84 Teiresias meets his death after drinking from her well; his grave was marked for a long time (Str. 9,2,27; 9,2,36). T. is also known in Arcadia (Paus. 8,25,1-3). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography E. Wüst, s. v. T., RE 6 …

Alcestis

(207 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἄλκηστις; Alkēstis). Daughter of  Pelias and Anaxibie (Hom. Il. 2,714). Her participation in the supposed rejuvenation of Pelias (Diod. Sic. 4,52,2; 53,2; Hyg. Fab. 24) does not fit with A.'s hand being asked of Pelias by  Admetus of Pherae -- which with Apollo's help was successful. Admetus can only escape the death he is to suffer, according to later sources (Apollod. 1,105) because of a neglected sacrifice, if someone dies in his place. Only A. declares herself prepared to do t…

Iocaste

(232 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἰοκάστη/ Iokástē, in older sources also Ἐπικάστη/Epicaste). Daughter of  Menoeceus, sister of  Creon, wife of  Laius, mother and later wife of  Oedipus. In spite of the negative oracle of Apollo in Delphi, Laius fathers Oedipus with I. After his birth, Oedipus is abandoned, later kills his father and, after solving the puzzle of the  Sphinx, marries his mother. In the older sources, the gods reveal the incest (Hom. Od. 11, 271-280), whereupon I. kills herself. Here, I. usually has…

Antiope

(495 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἀντιόπη; Antiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the river god Asopos In epics, the daughter of the river god Asopus (Hom. Od. 11,260 ff.; Apoll. Rhod. 1,735), according to Euripides' Antiope (in Hyg. Fab. 8) daughter of the Theban king Nycteus and Polyxo (Apollod. 3,111; Paus. 2,6,1). Zeus falls in love with her and unites with her in the form of a satyr [1. 857]. For fear of her father, A. flees and marries king Epopeus of Sicyon; according to Paus. 2,6,2 ff. she was kidnapped by him. Her father Nycteus thereupon goes to war against E…

Penelope

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πηνελόπη, homer.: Πηνελόπεια, lat. Penelope, Penelopa). Gattin des Odysseus. Seit der Ant. existieren zwei Deutungen ihres Namens. Nach der einen bedeutet P. “Weberin”, was auf die in der ‘Odyssee so prominent dargestellte typische Frauenarbeit hinweist, nach der anderen leitet sich ihr Name von pēnélops (“Ente”) ab, was damit erklärt wird, daß sie von ihren Eltern ins Meer geworfen und von Enten gerettet worden sei. Zur etym. Erklärung von P.s Namen s. [1]. P. ist die Tochter des arkadischen Königs Ikarios [2] und der Nymphe Periboia [1] (Apollod. …

Andromache

(216 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀνδρομάχη). Tochter des Königs Eetion im hypoplakischen Theben, Gemahlin Hektors, Mutter des Astyanax-Skamandrios (Hom. Il. 6,395 ff.). Bei ihrer Hochzeit (Sappho fr. 44 Voigt) beschenkt Aphrodite sie (Hom. Il. 22,470). A. ist Hektor zärtlich zugetan, vor allem nach dem Tod ihrer Familie (Hom. Il. 6,370 ff.). Ihre Klage um den gefallenen Gatten ist eindrücklich (Hom. Il. 22,477 ff.; 24,723 ff.). Ihr Sohn wird nach der Eroberung Trojas ermordet (Iliupersis arg. fr. 5 PEG; Eur. Tr…

Oreithyia

(220 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ὠρείθυια). Bei Homer (Il. 18,48) als Nereide erwähnt, nicht jedoch im Nereidenkatalog des Hesiod (theog. 240ff., Apollod. 1,11f.). Ihr Name (“im Gebirge stürmend”) weist sie eher als “Windsbraut” aus. In die attische Myth. wird sie als Tochter des att. Königs Erechtheus und der Praxithea eingebaut. O. wird vom Windgott Boreas nach Thrakien entführt, der sie zu seiner Frau macht (Hdt. 7.189; Verg. georg. 4,463). Das Paar hat als Kinder Kleopatra [I 1] und Chione [1] sowie Kalais …

Hippolyte

(215 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη). [English version] [1] Amazone, Tochter des Ares Amazone im Herakles- und Theseusmythos, Tochter des Ares und der Otrere. Herakles soll ihr im Auftrag des Eurystheus den Gürtel des Ares rauben (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). In einigen Quellen tötet er dabei H. (Eur. Herc. 407ff.). Im Theseusmythos konkurriert H. mit Antiope [2] und Glauke [3] als Gemahlin des Theseus (Isokr. or. 12,193; Plut. Theseus 27,5,13). Theseus raubt H. und zeugt mit…
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