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Stundism

(492 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
Stundism refers to a free church movement that arose in 1861 in southern Russia. It called itself the Brethren of the Friends of God, but it came to be known as Stundism (Ger. Stunde, “hour”) because of its link with the German Reformed “observing of the hours” at Rohrbach, near Odessa. For the Stundists, reading and discussing the Bible came to be viewed as more important than maintaining the external Orthodox rites of worship (Bible Study). The movement arose in the context of other indigenous sects going back to the middle o…

Old Believers

(644 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
“Old Believers” (Russ. Raskolniki, “Schismatics”) is the name given to those Christians in the Russian Orthodox Church who in the mid-17th century opposed the liturgical reforms of the Moscow patriarch Nikon (1605–81). They themselves took the name “Old Ritualists” or “Old Orthodox,” claiming to be the only ones to continue true Orthodoxy (Orthodox Christianity; Orthodox Church). Those reforms were avowedly to restore ancient uses but were in point of fact an importation of contemporary Greek pract…

Starets

(486 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
A starets (Russ., lit. “old man, elder”; pl. startsy) is a spiritual adviser in the Orthodox Church, not necessarily a priest, recognized for his piety and spiritual insight. The choice of an experienced ascetic (Asceticism) who deserved special honor as an older Christian (Gk. gerōn = Russ. starets) to act as a confessor was an early feature of Eastern monasticism (Orthodoxy Christianity). In view of the Russian term for gerōn, such men came to be known as startsy toward the end of the 18th century, when they became most influential in Russia. With the developme…

Slavophiles

(466 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
When Russian philosophy became independent in the early 19th century, a prominent question was that of the relation of Russia to Europe, which J. P. Chaadayev (1794–1856) raised in his Lettres philosophiques (1827–31; ET Philosophical Letters [Knoxville, Tenn., 1969]). A “Western” group of thinkers wanted a full and swift adoption of the achievements of the West, but another group, the Slavophiles, argued for Russia’s independence and even superiority and hence advocated separate enterprises. It is hard to draw a distinction betwee…

Vvedenskij

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Vvedenskij, Aleksandr Ivanovič (30.8.1889 Vitebsk – 25.7.1946 Moskau), Apologet und schismatischer Metropolit. Urspr. Lehrer und im 1. Weltkrieg Feldgeistlicher, opponierte er als St. Petersburger Erzpriester und Sekretär einer linken kirchl. Gruppe bereits 1917 gegen die Wiedererrichtung des Moskauer Patriarchats. Als sich Patriarch Tichon in Haft befand, bemächtigte er sich mit zwei anderen Priestern am 18.5.1923 der Patriarchatskanzlei und ermöglichte so die Bildung der »Oberst…

Ruar(us)

(132 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Ruar(us), Martin (1589 Krempe, Holstein – 1657 Danzig), vielseitig gebildeter Anhänger des Sozinianismus, für den ihn während seines Studiums in Altdorf der Mediziner E. Soner gewonnen hatte, wirkte nach Reisen durch Dänemark, Holland, England, Frankreich und Italien 1621/22 als Rektor des Gymnasiums der Polnischen Brüder in Raków bei Sandomierz, um sich nach abermaligen Reisen 1631 in Danzig niederzulassen. Neben dieser Reisetätigkeit diente v.a. sein umfangreicher Briefwechsel d…

Starec

(348 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Pl. Starcy), bez. als russ. Äquivalent des griech. Wortes γε´ρωn̆/gérōn einen erfahrenen und insofern meist schon älteren Asketen, dessen seelsorgerlicher Führung sich neben jüngeren Asketen auch in der Welt lebende Christen vorbehaltlos unterwerfen. Als dt. Übers. des Begriffs in dieser Eingrenzung empfiehlt sich daher wohl am ehesten »Altvater«. Der Ursprung dieser Erscheinung liegt schon im altkirchl. Mönchtum des Ostens. Antonius d.Gr. ist das Urbild eines S. schlechthin. Doch ihre w…

Polentz

(170 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Polentz, Georg v. (1478 aus meißnischem Adel – 28.4.1550 Balga am Frischen Haff), Bf. von Samland (seit 1519). Nach Studien in Leipzig und Italien stand er zunächst als Jurist in päpstl. und kaiserlichen Diensten, bevor er 1511 in den Deutschen Orden eintrat und 1516 Hauskomtur in Königsberg wurde. 1522–1525 regierte er als Stellvertreter des Hochmeisters das Ordensland Preußen. Seit 1522 für die Reformation gewonnen, trat er 1525 die Stiftslande seines Bistums an Herzog Albrecht d…

Wachtang Gorgasal

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Wachtang Gorgasal, (Vahtang Gorgasali; 1. Hälfte des 5.Jh. – 502), König von Iberien (Ostgeorgien). Sein Beiname bedeutet »Wolfskopf« und leitet sich von seiner Helmzier her. Die seit seiner Thronbesteigung um 446 verfolgten Ziele einer Stärkung seiner Zentralgewalt und ihrer Ausdehnung auf ganz Georgien sowie dessen Lösung aus der Abhängigkeit vom pers. Sasanidenreich waren 483 vorübergehend erreicht. Gleichzeitig setzte er beim Patriarchen von Antiochien die Weihe seines Kandid…

Paläologus

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Paläologus, Jakob (um 1520 Insel Chios – 1585 Rom), radikaler Antitrinitarier, der sich als Abkömmling der letzten byz. Kaiserdynastie ausgab. In Italien als Dominikaner in Schwierigkeiten mit der Inquisition geraten, konnte er um 1559 fliehen. 1570/71 hielt er sich in Prag auf, 1571/72 in Krakau, 1572–1574 in Klausenburg. 1573 reiste er in die Türkei und zweimal nach Polen. 1575 lebte P. in Alzen bei Hermannstadt, danach in Polen und Mähren. 1581 durch den Bf. von Olmütz der Inqu…

Stancarus

(149 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Stancarus,  Franciscus (um 1501 Mantua – 12.11.1574 Stopnica bei Sandomierz), Hebraist, Mediziner und Theologe, dessen Streitsucht überall, wohin ihn sein unstetes Leben führte, heftige Auseinandersetzungen auslöste. Wohl jüd. Abkunft und zunächst Priester oder Mönch, wurde er nach Studien in Basel und Süddeutschland 1544 in Wien und 1549 in Krakau Prof. für Hebraistik. Im Mai 1551 an die Universität Königsberg berufen, verließ er diese bereits nach einem Vierteljahr wieder, weil …

Peter

(230 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] der Große (30.5./9.6.1672 Moskau – 28.1./8.2.1725 St. Petersburg), seit 1682 Zar von Rußland, seit 1721 allruss. Kaiser, mußte anfangs die Herrschaft mit seinem Halbbruder Ivan V. (1666–1696) teilen und bis 1689 die Regentschaft seiner Halbschwester Sofija ertragen. Danach überließ er seiner Mutter noch weitgehend die Regierungsgeschäfte, um sie erst nach ihrem Tode 1694 entschlossen anzupacken. Durch den Sieg über Schweden im Nordischen Krieg (1700–1721), der den Zugang zur Ostse…

Sozinianer/Sozinianismus

(921 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Unter dieser erst im 17.Jh. aufgekommenen Bez. versteht man den von F. Sozzini seit 1579 durch mancherlei Mäßigung geprägten Hauptstrom der antitrinitarischen Bewegung (Antitrinitarier). Hier hält man an der trinitarischen Formel im Taufbefehl (Mt 28,19) durchaus fest. Wer sie ablehnt, kann nach dem Rakówer Katechismus kein Christ sein. Allein die altkirchl. Lehre von der Wesenseinheit der Personen des Vaters und des Sohnes sowie von der Personhaftigkeit des Hl. Geistes wird en…

Olmütz

(340 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Olomouc), Stadt an der mittleren March (Morava; Tschechische Republik) mit 106 000 Einwohnern (1989). O. hat sich aus einer 1055 erstmals erwähnten Siedlung am Fuße des mitten im späteren Stadtgebiet gelegenen »Fürstenbergs« entwickelt. Dort wurde anstelle einer alten Burganlage 1107–1131 der im 13./14.Jh. und nochmals 1883–1890 umgestaltete St.-Wenzels-Dom errichtet. Als Sitz eines Bischofs seit 1063 (bis 1344 Mainz und 1344–1421 Prag unterstellt) und eines Erzbischofs seit 177…

Vladimir

(153 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (der Heilige; um 960 – 15.7.1015 Berestovo), Fürst von Kiev. Als jüngster Sohn des Kiever Fürsten Svjatoslav erhielt er 969 das Teilfürstentum Novgorod, mußte es aber 977 auf der Flucht vor zwei älteren Brüdern verlassen. Nachdem er es mit Hilfe warägischer Söldner zurückgewonnen hatte, zog er gegen Kiev, das ihm 980 kampflos in die Hände fiel. Als Alleinherrscher des Kiever Reiches entschied er die unaufschiebbar gewordene Frage einer rel. Neuorientierung im Sinne seiner in Kons…

Warschau

(229 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Warszawa), die Hauptstadt Polens mit 1,65 Mio. Einwohnern (1998), geht auf eine Handelssiedlung am linken Weichselufer aus dem 11./12.Jh. zurück, die 1413 die Kulmer Stadtrechte erhielt und 1406–1526 Residenz der masowischen Piastenherzöge war. Nach deren Aussterben wurde W. der Krone Polens eingegliedert, 1529 erstmals und seit 1569 regelmäßig Tagungsort des Sejm, worauf der Hofsitz der Könige 1596 von Krakau nach W. verlegt wurde. Im 16. – 18.Jh. entwickelte sich W. zu einem e…

Wilna

(203 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Vilnius), Hauptstadt der Republik Litauen (baltische Länder) mit 578 000 Einwohnern (2001), im Südosten des Landes an der Mündung der Vilnia in den Neris, einen Nebenfluß der Memel, gelegen. Ihre älteste urkundliche Erwähnung findet sich in einem Brief des Großfürsten Gediminas von 1323. Als sich Großfürst Jogaila 1387 taufen und eine Kathedrale errichten ließ, gewährte er W. auch das Magdeburger Stadtrecht. Wie die Personalunion Litauens mit Polen von 1385 den Aufstieg, so zog …

Stanislaus

(146 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Stanislaus, der Heilige (um 1036–1040 Szczepanów – 11.4.1079 Krakau), Märtyrerbischof und Patron Polens. Zunächst Pfarrer in Czembocz, geriet er als Bf. von Krakau (seit 1072) in heftigen Streit mit König Bolesław II. Śmiały, der ihn das Leben kostete. Gegenüber der kirchlicherseits gepflegten Überlieferung, derzufolge er während einer Messe in der Michaelskirche vom König selbst erschlagen wurde, weil er dessen Lebenswandel gerügt hatte, verdient die andere, wonach er wegen polit.…

Slawophile

(246 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] nennt man jene Vertreter des russ. Geisteslebens seit Beginn des 19.Jh., die der slaw. Eigenart ihres Volkes unter dem Einfluß der Romantik entscheidende Zukunftsbedeutung beilegen. Sie stehen damit im Gegensatz zu den sog. »Westlern«, die Rußland unbedingt das Erbe der westeur. Aufklärung aufdrängen wollten. Die von P. Tschaadaev in seinen »Philos. Briefen« (seit 1836) aufgeworfene Frage nach dem Verhältnis Rußlands zu Europa wurde als schicksalhaft empfunden. Die von den ältere…

Smolitsch

(135 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Smolitsch,  Igor (9.2.1898 Uman' – 2.11.1970 Berlin), der als Privatgelehrter zum bedeutendsten russ. Kirchenhistoriker des 20.Jh. wurde, konnte sein Studium nach Teilnahme am Krieg und Bürgerkrieg sowie einem Zwischenaufenthalt in Konstantinopel erst 1923 in Berlin aufnehmen, und zwar zunächst an dem von Emigranten ins Leben gerufenen »Russ. Wiss. Institut«, anschließend an der Universität, wo er 1934 mit einer Diss. über I. Kireevskij zum Dr. phil. promoviert wurde. Aus den ansc…

Philip of Moscow, Saint

(165 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Fedor Kolyčev; 1507 – Dec 23, 1569, Tver’), metropolitan of Moscow. As boyar, Philip was involved in a conspiracy at the tsar’s court, but then escaped to Solovki monastery and became abbot there. In 1566 he was elevated to the position of metropolitan of Moscow, but soon fell out with Ivan IV Grozny because of the latter’s reign of terror. After he had publicly reproached Ivan in Uspensky cathedral and refused to bless him, Philip was deposed by a compliant church court, and on …

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Polentz, Georg von

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1478 – Apr 28, 1550, Balga am Frischen Haff [Kaliningrad]), bishop of Samland from 1519. Polentz belonged to the Meissen nobility; after studying in Leipzig and Italy, he was a lawyer in papal and imperial service, before entering the Teutonic Order (Orders of Germany) in 1511 and becoming commander in Königsberg (Krolewiec, Poland) in 1516. Between 1522 and 1525 he ruled the order’s territory of Prussia as the grand master’s deputy. Converted to the Reformation from 1522, he ced…

Vakhtang Gorgasal

(151 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1st half of the 5th cent. – 502), king of Iberia (East Georgia). His byname, which means “wolf ’s head,” relates to the decoration on his helmet. After his accession c. 446, he pursued the goals of strengthening his royal authority, extending it throughout Georgia, and freeing Georgia from dependence on the Persian Sassanian Empire. He achieved these goals temporarily in 483. At the same time, he persuaded the patriarch of Antioch to consecrate his candidate Peter as catholicos a…

Old Believers, Russian

(566 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. The believers who, from 1653, were expelled from the Great Church because of their rejection of the liturgical reforms of the Moscow patriarch Nikon, gathered in their own communities in order to maintain the Old Russian forms of devotion laid down by the Moscow Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. The authorities first called them “schismatics” (Raskol’niki), and later “Old Ritualists,” while for the people they were the Old Believers. They did not contest the necessity for correcti…

Warsaw

(314 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Warszawa), the capital of Poland, with a population of 1.71 million (2009), goes back to a trading settlement established in the 11th/12th century on the left bank of the Vistula; in 1413 it received Kulm rights. From 1406 to 1526, it was the official residence of the Piast dukes of Masovia. When the dynasty died out, Warsaw was incorporated into the crown of Poland. The Sejm met there for the first time in 1529; after 1569 it met there regularly, and as a result the royal court …

Knöpken, Andreas

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (also: Knopken; c. 1468, near Küstrin – Feb 18, 1539, Riga). Having studied in Ingolstadt (?) and Frankfurt an der Oder, Knöpken taught – as assistant to J. Bugenhagen, under whose influence he turned from Erasmus to Luther, – at the municipal school in Treptow an der Rega until 1517 and again from 1519 to 1521. From 1517 onward, he was chaplain at St. Petri in Riga and from 1522 Protestant preacher there. Having successfully participated in a disputation at Pentecost, 1522, he wa…

Herman of Alaska, Saint

(171 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1757, Serpuchov, Russia – Dec 13, 1837, Spruce Island, Alaska). Herman entered the Trinity-St. Serge Hermitage near St. Petersburg at the age of 16 and transferred to Valaam Monastery in 1778. In 1793, the abbot sent him with seven other monks to Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska to care for the Russian trappers and furriers there, but also in order to evangelize the native population. Apart from a few minor interruptions, the conduct of the Kodiak mission was effectively in hi…

Ivan IV, the Terrible

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] ( Groznyj, better: the Harsh; Aug 25, 1530, Moscow – Mar 18, 1584, Moscow), was the first grand duke to be crowned tsar of all Russia in 1547. He laid the foundations of Russia's rise to a major power by pursuing a policy of territorial expansion in the east (conquest of Kazan in 1552 and of Astrakhan in 1554, beginning of the subjugation of Siberia in 1582), but also contributed to its ruin by engaging in unsuccessful wars (esp. for Livonia, 1558–1582) and implementing cruel measu…

Radziwill

(362 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] 1. Nicholas the Red (Mikołai Rudy Radziwiłł; Apr 27, 1512 – Apr 27, 1584, Vilnius), high chancellor and high hetman of Lithuania, from 1566 (following his cousin Nicholas the Black [see 2 below]) voivode of Vilnius; he became a Calvinist c. 1564. His descendants remained faithful to the Reformed confession and, until the line failed in 1667, ensured the continuation of Reformed parishes on the Radziwill estates (of the Birse branch) in Lithuania. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die Radziwills. Die Geschichte einer großen europäischen Familie, 1968, 79–…

Javorskij, Stefan

(158 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Semën Ivanovič; 1658, Javorov near Lemberg – Nov 24, 1722, Moscow). After studying in Polish Jesuit schools, he returned to Kiev in 1689 where he taught in the college and served as abbot. As metropolitan of Rjazan', he was appointed by Peter the ¶ Great administrator of the patriarchate in 1700 and president of the newly created Holy Synod in 1721, although he inwardly opposed Peter's reform plans. Thus, when Peter commissioned an expert's opinion on a union project by the Sorbonne in 1717, the elaboration by Javorskij's …

Leskov, Nikolaj Semyonovich

(163 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 4/16, 1831, Gorochovo near Orël – Feb 21/Mar 5, 1895, St. Petersburg), Russian author. The grandson of a clergyman, Leskov became familiar with the Orthodox Church at an early age. As an orphan, he was brought up in the household of a professor of medicine in Kiev, and spent years traveling throughout Russia in the employ of a trading company. Working as a professional journalist and employed by the ministry of culture from 1862 onward, he reflected the numerous experiences g…

Vilnius

(219 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] capital of the Republic of Lithuania (Baltic countries), with a population of 554,060 (2011); it is situated in southeastern Lithuania where the Vilnia joins the Neris, a tributary of the Memel. Its earliest mention in a document is in a 1323 letter of Grand Duke Gediminas. When Grand Duke Jogaila accepted baptism in 1387 and saw to the building of a cathedral, he also granted Vilnius a city charter modeled on the Magdeburg Law. The personal union of Lithuania with Poland in 1385 …

Gdańsk

(582 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Ger. Danzig). The earliest literary reference to the settlement west of the mouth of the Wisla (Vistula) under the name Gyddanizc relates to the year 997 when Adalbert of Prague baptized a local prince and “many heathen” there. After the region was incorporated into the Polish church organization, German Cistercians worked there beginning in 1175, and Dominicans, too, from 1227. Around 1190, the churches of Sw. Katarzyny (St. Catherine) was erected for the Slavic and St. Nikolai …

Chavchavadze, Ilia

(157 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Čavčavadze, Ilja) (Oct 27, 1837, Qvareli – Aug 30, 1907, Cicamuri), Georgian poet and writer, journalist and politician of royal origins, who was canonized as “St. Ilia the Righteous” on Jul 20, 1987. ¶ After studying philosophy as well as administration and economics in St. Petersburg, he worked as a magistrate in Georgia from 1864, and from 1874 as the chair of the administration of the Bank of the Nobility. In 1906, he was elected to the State Council of the Russian Empire. His verses and …

Poland

(3,123 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. General The name Poland derives from the name of one of the West Slavic tribes that joined together in the 9th and 10th centuries to form the Polish nation; it characterizes the members of this tribe as field-dwellers ( Polani or Poleni). The kingdom, founded by the Piast dynasty, was first called Polonia around the year 1000. Today the official name of the state is Rzeczpospolita Polska (Republic of Poland). ¶ Geographically, Poland is bounded by Germany to the west, by the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation to the north, …

Stancarus, Franciscus

(155 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1501, Mantua – Nov 12, 1574, Sopnica, near Sandomierz), Hebraist, physician, and theologian, whose contentiousness triggered violent disputes wherever his unsettled life took him. Probably of Jewish descent and initially a priest or monk, after studying in Basel and in southern Germany he was appointed professor of Hebrew in Vienna in 1544 and in Cracow in 1549. Called to the University of Königsberg (Kaliningrad), he left after three months because of a clash with A. Osiander…

Gorazd, Saint

(175 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Matěj Pavlík; May 26, 1879, Hrubá Vrbka, near Hodonín – Sept 4, 1942. Prague). Gorazd, bishop of Moravia and Silesia, was the founder of Czech Orthodoxy. Having been a Roman Catholic chaplain in ¶ Kromeríz, in 1920 he joined the Czechoslovakian Church, which had broken its ties with Rome. In 1921 he was sent to Belgrade to be consecrated bishop by the Serbian patriarch, thus securing apostolic succession. As this went together with a sincere conversion to Orthodoxy, in 1924 he broke with the Czechoslovakian Churc…

Vladimir, Saint

(176 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 960 – Jul 15, 1015, Berestovo), prince of Kiev. As the youngest son of Prince Sviatoslav of Kiev, Vladimir received the principality of Novgorod in 969 but had to give it up in 977 as he fled from his two elder brothers. After winning it back with the help of Varangian mercenaries, he advanced against Kiev, which fell into his hands in 980 without a fight. As autocrat of the Kievan kingdom, he decided the urgent question of a religious reorientation in favor of his grandmother…

Lebus

(291 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] Lebus, a small town approx. 10 km north of Frankfurt an der Oder, on the left bank of the river, shares its name – which recalls the Lutiz prince Lub (Lubosłav) in the 9th century – not only with its vicinity but also with the diocese bequeathed in 1124 by the Polish duke ¶ Bolesłav III Krzywousty. The diocese kept the name, although in the years 1276 to 1326 the see was in Göritz (Górzyca), to the right of the Oder approx. 10 km upstream, and since 1385 it was in Fürstenwalde on the Spree, where the Marienkirche was elevated to a ca…

Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint

(178 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1036–1040, Szczepanów – Apr 11, 1079, Cracow), martyr bishop and patron saint of Poland. Initially a parish priest in Czembocz, as bishop of Cracow (from 1072) he came into bitter conflict with King Boleslav II, which cost ¶ him his life. Church tradition has it that he was slain by the king himself during mass in the Church of St. Michael because he had rebuked the king for his immoral way of life, but the alternative tradition is more believable – that he was condemned to death as a traitor for his political opposition and was gruesomely executed by truncatio membrorum. His…

Henry of Livonia

(164 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1188, near Magdeburg – after 1259, Papendorf). Henry of Livonia was educated in the canon seminary of Segeberg, went to Riga as a student of Bishop Albert of Buxhöveden in 1205, was ordained to the priesthood in 1208, and spent his entire life as pastor among the northern Latvians in Papendorf (Latvian Rubene) near Wenden (Latvian Cēsis). From this location, he participated in over 30 military campaigns against the still heathen Livonians and Estonians, while he and his assistants baptized more than 10,000 people during his numerous…

Avvakum

(194 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1620, Grigorovo beyond the Kudma – Apr 14, 1682, Pústozersk), spokesman for the Russian Old Believers. Was designated protopope (archpriest) for Jur'evec – Povolžskij in 1652, and after 1653 moved to the forefront of the opposition against the cultic reforms of Patriarch Nikon with the consequence that he was immediately dispatched to Siberia until 1663. Excommunicated in 1666, from 1667 onwards he was held prisoner on the lower reaches of the Pechora. There he carried on with the fight until his death – he was burned at the stake – by composing his own vita ( Zhitiye…

Filipovcy

(88 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] is the name for the priestless Old Believers under the leadership of the monk Philipp (Fotiy Vasilyev) who separated themselves off in monasteries ¶ on the Vyg beginning in 1737 after taking up intercession for the tsar; in 1743, Philipp and about 70 followers burned themselves to death on the Kola Peninsula to avoid imminent arrest. Only small remnants of their communities exist today. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography P. Hauptmann, “Das russische Altgläubigentum 300 Jahre nach dem Tode des Protopopen Avvakum,” KO 29, 1986, 69–135, esp. 125–27.

Old Calendarians

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Palaiohemerologites) is the name given to the opponents of change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian system in the Church of Greece from Mar 10 to 23, 1924, which happened under state pressure. They understand themselves, however, as the “true Orthodox Christians” who stand for the maintenance of tradition in its entirety. Individual circles quickly grew into a church organization which since 1932 worships in its own buildings, and since the accession of three bishops in 1…

Vvedensky, Aleksandr Ivanovich

(168 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 30, 1889, Vitebsk – Jul 25, 1946, Moscow), apologist and schismatic metropolitan. Originally a teacher and a military chaplain in World War I, in 1917 as archpriest of St. Petersburg and secretary of a leftist church organization he was already opposing the restoration of the Moscow patriarchate. When Patriarch Tikhon succumbed to house arrest, on May 18, 1923, Vvedensky and two ¶ other priests took over the patriarchal chancery, thus enabling the formation of the “supreme governing body” of the modernist “Living Church” movement. In rec…

Alexander Nevski

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (May 30, 1220, Jaroslav – Nov 14, 1263, Gorodok) was Prince of Novgorod from 1236 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1252; he defeated the Swedes on the Neva in 1240 (whence his nickname) and the Knights of the Teutonic Order on the ice of Lake Peipus; in contrast, he submitted to the Tatars whom he saw as less of a threat to Russian Orthodox identity than the Latin West. He died as a monk and has been venerated as a saint since as early as the 14th century. Peter the Great transported his remains to the Lavra in St. Petersburg, which was named after Alexander in 1724. Peter Hauptmann Bibl…

Slavic Missions

(394 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] In the early 7th century, the Slavs, expanding to the west and south from their original homeland north of the Carpathians between the Vistula and the Dnieper, reached the boundaries of the Carolingian empire and crossed the boundaries of the Byzantine Empire; now a mission to them was recognized as an urgent necessity. The first success came among the Alpine Slavs (Slovenes): around the middle of the ¶ 8th century, Borut, duke of Carantania, had his son baptized. The new abbeys of Innichen and Kremsmünster were founded to support the Slavic missi…

Lviv

(173 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Ukrainian L'viv, Polish Lwów, Russ. L'vov, Ger. Lemberg). The variety of names borne by this city of some 733,000 (2001) in the heart of Galicia bears witness to its mixture of nationalities. Founded c. 1250 by the Galician prince Daniel and his son Leo, it was incorporated into Poland in 1366, fell to Austria in 1772, became Polish once more in 1919, Soviet in 1939, came under the German General Government in 1941, and in 1944 was restored to the Ukraine (until 1991 part of the …

Częnstochowa,

(173 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] a large city in southern Poland, has been an episcopal see since 1925 (in 1995, with a Catholic population of 837,500 in 286 parishes). A monastery of Pauline hermits (originally Hungarian but now represented only in Poland), founded in 1382 on the Jasna Góra (“Shining Mountain”), is the most important pilgrimage destination in Poland. Devotion centers on the Black Madonna, a miraculous image of the Virgin Mary dating from the 14th century, which has been blackened by the smoke of candles. Since 1655, when the monastery was …
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