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Maksim Grek

(162 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Michael Triboles; c. 1470, Árta, Ípiros – Jan 21, 1556, Sergiyev Posad), major mediator of Greek theology to the church of Moscow, canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church at its millennial council on Jun 6, 1988. Born to an aristocratic family, Maksim grew up on Corfu; after studies at Italian universities, he entered the Dominican order in 1502 but in 1504 became a monk on Athos. In 1518, at the request of Grand Prince Vasily III, he was sent to Moscow to translate biblical and…

Ruarus, Martin

(140 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1589, Krempe, Holstein – 1657, Danzig [Gdańsk]), polymath adherent of Socinianism (Socinians). While Ruarus was studying at Altdorf, the physician E. Soner won him to the Socinian cause. After traveling through Denmark, Holland, England, France, and Italy, in 1621/1622 he served as rector of the academy of the Polish Brethren in Raków, near Sandomierz; after further travels, he settled in Danzig in 1631. Coupled with these travels, his extensive correspondence served to propagand…

Yaroslav the Wise

(164 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Mudry; c. 978 – Feb 20, 1054), son of St. Vladimir the Great. As vice-regent of Novgorod, in 1019 he expelled his elder brother Svyatopolk from Kiev; in 1036, after the death of his younger brother Mstislav of Chernigov and Tumutarakan, he became sole ruler of the Kievan Rus’ empire, which experienced its golden age under him. He expanded his capital after the model of Constantinople; among other building projects, he oversaw the building of the stone Cathedral of St. Sophia in K…

Duchoborcy

(151 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (“spiritual warriors”) is the appellation given to adherents of the “Spiritual Christians,” an extremely spiritualist wing of the Old Russian sectarian movement (Russian sects) which separated in the last third of the 18th century from the equally anti-cult, but still Scripture-bound Molocanes (see also All-Union Council of Evangelical Christians and …

Silesia

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Polish Śląsk, Ger. Schlesien). The name of this historical region has survived all political, ethnic, and religious mutations. Derivation from the Silingi, a Vandalic people, appears dubious; more likely it goes back to a Slavonic root (cf. Old Polish ślęcgnącć, “wet”). As a region, Silesia has an area of almost 40,000 km2 on both sides of the upper and middle Oder; shaped somewhat like an oak leaf, it is bordered to the southwest by the Sudetes and to the south by the western Beskids. Western Slavs began entering Silesia in the mid- 6th century; at the end of t…

Smolich, Igor

(145 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Feb 9, 1898, Uman’ – Nov 2, 1970, Berlin), independent scholar who became the outstanding Russian church historian of the 20th century. After involvement in war and civil war and a stay in Constantinople, he was unable to resume his studies until 1923 in Berlin, initially at the Russisches Wissenschaftliches Institut, founded by émigrés, and then at the university, where he received his doctorate in 1934 with a dissertation on I. Kireyevsky. His subsequent research led to several…

Pauli, Gregor

(157 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Grzegorz Paweł; c. 1526, Brzeziny – c. 1591, Raków), Polish theologian. After studies at Cracow, Königsberg (Kaliningrad), and Wittenberg, he turned from Lutheranism to Calvinism and finally became a radical Antitrinitarian. In 1551 he became a Reformed pastor in his place of birth; in 1556 he became one the seniors of the Reformed congregations of Lesser Poland and in 1558 a pastor in Krakow. In 1562 he began publishing attacks on the traditional doctrine of the Trinity. At the Diet of Piotrków in 1565, he broke with the Reformed ecclesia maior, thus becoming one of …

Meletius Syrigos

(152 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name: Markos; 1585, Heraklion, Crete – Apr 13, 1663, Constantinople), archimandrite and protosynkellos, an important preacher and theologian. Prevented by his father's death from continuing his studies in Italy, Meletius served first on Crete as monk and priest. He was expelled because of his combative attitude, and went in 1627 to Alexandria, where his sermons made a great impression. Appointed by C. Lucaris to support him in Constantinople, in 1630 he was put in charg…

Rej, Mikolaj

(149 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Feb 4, 1505, Żórawno near Halicz – Oct 4, 1569, Rejowiec near Lublin), member of the landed nobility who, as a versatile and prolific poet, became the “father of Polish literature.” A staunch supporter of the Reformation, he published his extensive Postilla in 1557. The work was reissued many times and was also translated into Lithuanian and Ruthene. It is permeated with praise of simple trust in God. He had already published his Polish translation of the Psalms in 1546. His last prose work, The Mirror ( Zwierciadło, 1568), was the most highly regarded by his conte…

Kettler, Gotthard

(188 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Goddert; c. 1517, near Lippstadt – 1587, Kurland) was the last grand master of the Teutonic Order in Livonia. Following the collapse of the order state, he accepted Polish suzerainty and became the first duke of Kurland in 1562, a part of the territory that had previously belonged to the order and for which the capital Mitau (Jelgava) was eventually built in the vicinity of an old castle. Marrying Anna of Mecklenburg in 1566, he established a dynasty which lasted until 1737. Kurl…

Socinus, Faustus

(162 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Dec 5, 1539, Siena – Mar 3, 1604, Lucławice, near Cracow), a leading thinker of the antitrinitarian movement (Antitrinitarians, Socinians) of his era, shaped its churches in Poland and to some extent in Transylvania. Born a patrician, he served from 1562 to 1574 as a jurist at the Medici court in Florence; inspired by his uncle Lelio Sozzini, who did not believe the doctrine of the Trinity, he devoted himself to theological study, primarily at Basel, from 1572 to 1578, attracting attention with his first writings (including De Jesu Christo servatore, printed in 1594).…

Platon of Moscow

(164 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Petr Egorov, later Levšin; Jun 29, 1737, Chashnikovo near Moscow – Nov 11, 1812, Vifaniya near Sergiyev Posad), metropolitan of Moscow. After study at the Moscow academy, Platon taught there, and later at the seminary of Trinity St. Sergius Monastery. As its rector from 1761, and a gifted preacher, he made such a strong impression on Catherine II that she appointed him as her son’s tutor in religion. In 1766 he became archimandrite of the monastery, which he had already led from …

Lay Theology, Russian

(358 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The expression Russian lay theology is really inadequate to describe a phenomenon that is unique to Russian Orthodoxy. It is neither a theology by and for laity as such nor a theology contrary to the doctrinal decisions reached by episcopal synods. It is in fact antonymic to the Russian scholastic theology that in the 19th century was still strongly shaped by the doctrinal content and ways of thinking of Western Scholasticism and was felt to be cut off from reality. There was a desire…

Palaeologus, Jacob

(170 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (c. 1520, Chios island – 1585, Rome), radical Antitrinitarian who claimed to be descended from the last imperial dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. In trouble with the Inquisition as a Dominican friar in Italy, he was able to flee in 1559. He was in Prague in 1570/1571, in Krakow in 1571/1572, and in Klausenburg from 1572 to 1574. In 1573, he traveled to Turkey and twice to Poland. In 1575, Palaeologus lived in Alzen near Sibiu (Ger. Hermannstadt), Romania, then in Poland and Moravi…

Lismanini, Franz

(145 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Francesco Lismanino; 1504, Corfu – April 1566, Königsberg [Kaliningrad]). Originally a Franciscan provincial, Lismanini came to Poland as confessor and court chaplain to Queen Bona Sforza from Italy in 1546; there he took over leadership of the circle of Humanists in Krakow. Won to the cause of the Reformation by the writings of Calvin and the Bohemian Brethren, he converted to Calvinism in Geneva in 1553. In 1556 he accepted the call of the Protestants in Malopolska to head thei…

Talinn

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] was originally the name of the fortress and episcopal see founded to replace the Estonian fortress of Lyndanisse taken by the Danish king Valdemar II in 1219. In 1227 it was taken over by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword; this led c. 1230 to the founding of a German city based on an earlier trading post. Once more left to the Danes in 1238, Talinn was bought back by the Teutonic Order in 1346. The bishops of Talinn, never having had their own territory, were suffragan to the arc…

Baltic Countries

(2,991 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity – IV. Religion, Society, and Culture in the Present I. General 1. The name Baltic derives from the term “mare Balticum,” commonly used for the Baltic Sea since the High Middle Ages. At first it applied only to later Estonia and Latvia as the Baltic provinces of the Russian empire, which had earlier simply been called Livonia after…

Folly, Holy

(287 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] The Eastern Church, following 1 Cor 4:10ff., describes as such the ascetic practice of publicly ¶ exposing oneself to mistreatment and isolation through feigned mental incapacity and, thus, of protecting oneself from the danger of popular admiration. It presumes a Christian environment and the absence of institutions for the mentally ill. Holy folly appeared first in the 4th century in a nun in Egypt, then occasionally in the Near East; it came to Russia in the 11th century and reached its greate…

Lucaris, Cyril

(372 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (baptismal name, Constantinos; Nov 13, 1570, Herakleion, Crete – Jun 29, 1638, near Constantinople) was patriarch of Constantinople for five terms in office (brought about by depositions and reinstallations) between 1620 and 1638. He was a theologian open to Calvinism and controversial in Orthodoxy, and a martyr (strangled by a band of Janissaries). As the scion of a respected family of priests, he first worked, after studying in Venice and Padua, with his uncle Meletius Pegas, wh…

Starets

(365 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (pl. startsy) is the Russian equivalent to the Greek word γέρων/ gérōn; it denotes an experienced (and therefore usually elderly) ascetic, whose spiritual direction younger ascetics as well as Christians living in the world accept without question. The roots this phenomenon go back to Eastern monasticism in the Early Church. St. Anthony is the prototypical starets, but this form of spiritual direction did not fully come into its own until the late 18th century in Russia, when Paisius Velichkovsky left Athos for Moldavia with 60 discip…

Belaya Krinica

(123 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] From 1846, when the converted metropolitan Ambrosios of Sarajevo ordained the first bishops for the Old Believers in Belaya Krinica, Bukovina, this religious community became an important center for the Old Believer groups that retained the priesthood (Old Believers, Russian). Their congregations have since been under the “hierarchy of the Agr…

Innocent (Veniaminov), Saint

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Aug 26, 1797, Anginskoye, near Irkutsk – Mar 31, 1879, Moscow). Born Ivan Popov, he was orphaned at an early age. At the seminary in Irkutsk, his patron Bishop Veniamin (Benjamin) of Irkutsk gave him the new patronymic Veniaminov. In 1840, when he was made a monk, his baptismal name was replaced by Innocent. In the same year, Innocent – who had been ordained to the priesthood in 1821 and had been working as a missionary in the Aleutians and Alaska since 1824 – was made bishop of Kamchatka. He took up residence as archbishop in 1852…

Slawenmission

(366 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Nachdem die Slawen von ihrer Urheimat nördlich der Karpaten zw. Weichsel und Dnepr aus ihr Siedlungsgebiet so weit nach Westen und Süden vorgeschoben hatten, daß sie zu Beginn des 7.Jh. die Grenzen des Karolingerreichs erreichten und die byz. Reichsgrenzen überschritten, wurde dort die S. als dringliche Aufgabe erkannt. Der Anfang gelang bei den Alpenslawen (Slowenen), wo der Karantanerherzog Borut um die Mitte des 8.Jh. seinen Sohn taufen ließ. Die Gründung der Klöster Inniche…

Radziwill

(344 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] 1.? Nikolaus?V. , genannt »der Rote« (Mikołaj Rudy Radziwiłł; 27.4.1512 – 27.4.1584, Wilna), Großkanzler und Großhetman von Litauen, seit 1566 (als Nachfolger seines Vetters Nikolaus des Schwarzen [2.]) Woiwode von Wilna, trat um 1564 zum Calvinismus über. Seine Nachkommen blieben dem ref. Bekenntnis treu und sicherten bis zu ihrem Aussterben 1667 den Fortbestand der ref. Gemeinden auf den »Radziwillschen Gütern« (des Birsener Zweiges) in Litauen. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die R.s. Die Gesch. einer großen eur. Familie, 1968, 79–81. 2.? Nik…

Rustaweli

(145 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Rustaweli, Schota (Šota Rust[a]veli; 12./13.Jh.), ist mit seinem Versepos aus 1669 vierzeiligen Strophen »Vephistqaosani« (»Der Mann/Recke im Panther-/Tigerfell«) als größter georgischer Dichter in die Weltlit. eingegangen. Hunderte von Legenden, Bühnenstücken, Gedichten und Erzählungen um sein Leben und Werk belegen seine feste Verankerung im Bewußtsein der Georgier. Doch über seine Lebensumstände ist – wie bei Homer – nichts Sicheres überliefert. Die Herkunftsbez. besagt wenig, …

Pauli

(138 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Pauli, Gregor (Grzegorz Paweł; um 1526 Brzeziny – um 1591 Rako´w), polnischer Theologe, der sich nach Studien in Krakau, Königsberg und Wittenberg vom Lutheraner zum Calvinisten und schließlich zum radikalen Antitrinitarier entwickelte. Seit 1551 ref. Pastor in seinem Geburtsort, wurde er 1556 einer der Senioren der ref. Gemeinden Kleinpolens und 1558 Pastor in Krakau. Seit 1562 bestritt er die altkirchl. Trinitätslehre in einer Reihe von Schriften, brach auf dem Reichstag zu Piot…

Rakówer Katechismus

(146 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] ist zur gängigen Bez. für die wichtigste Lehrschrift der antitrinitarischen Kirche (Antitrinitarier) der Polnischen Brüder geworden, weil Valentin Schmalz, Johannes Völkel und Hieronymus Moskoszowski, die diesen Katechismus unter Verwendung von Vorarbeiten F. Sozzinis verfaßten, an ihrem 1603 im Städtchen Raków bei Sandomierz gegründeten Gymnasium als Lehrer wirkten und der R.K. dort auch 1605 in polnischer, 1608 in dt. und 1609 in lat. Sprache gedr. wurde. Die Theol. des R.K. is…

Platon

(150 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Platon, Metropolit von Moskau (Petr Egorov, später Levsˇin; 29.6.1737 Cˇasˇnikovo bei Moskau – 11.11.1812 Vifanija bei Sergiev Posad). Nach dem Studium an der Moskauer Akademie lehrte er zunächst dort, später am Seminar der Troice Sergieva Lavra. Als dessen Rektor seit 1761 beeindruckte er Katharina II. so stark, daß sie den begabten Prediger zum Religionslehrer ihres Sohnes berief. 1766 wurde er Archimandrit der Lavra, die er schon seit 1763 in Stellvertretung geleitet hatte. De…

Wenden

(488 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] . Seit dem MA faßt man die hinter der urspr. dt. Ostgrenze zw. Ostsee und Oberfranken an Elbe und Saale, Havel und Spree sowie bis zum Main ansässigen westslaw. Stämme unter der Sammelbez. W. zus., die vom Namen des illyrischen Stammes der Veneter herzuleiten ist und auch zur Bez. der Slowenen, zumal ihrer Minderheiten auf östr. Gebiet, dient. Die Missionierung der W. gestaltete sich ungemein schwierig. Der große Slawenaufstand von 983 machte alle Anfangserfolge zunichte. Auch de…

Nikon

(248 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Nikon, Patriarch von Moskau (urspr. Nikita Minicˇ; 24.5.1605 Vel'demanovo bei Nizˇnij Novgorod – 17.8.1681 Jaroslavl'). Zunächst Weltpriester, wurde er nach dem Tod seiner drei Kinder und dem Klostereintritt seiner Frau im russ. Norden unter dem Namen Nikon 1635 Mönch in einer Einsiedelei und 1642 Abt eines Einödklosters. Als solcher begegnete er 1646 dem 17jährigen Zaren Aleksej Michajlovicˇ, den er so stark beeindruckte, daß er ihn zum Archimandriten des Moskauer Neuen Heilandsklo…

Rej

(127 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Rej, Nikolaus (Mikołaj, 4.2.1505 Żórawno bei Halicz – 4.10.1569 Rejowiec bei Lublin), Landedelmann, der als vielseitiger und fruchtbarer Dichter zum »Vater der polnischen Lit.« geworden ist. Als überzeugter Anhänger der Reformation veröff. er 1557 seine umfangreiche »Postilla«, die wiederholt aufgelegt und auch ins Litauische und Ruthenische übers. wurde. Sie ist durchzogen vom Lob des schlichten Gottvertrauens. Bereits 1546 hatte er seine Übers. der Psalmen ins Polnische herausge…

Sozzini

(144 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Sozzini, Fausto (5.12.1539 Siena – 3.3.1604 Lucławice bei Krakau), ordnete und prägte als führender Denker der antitrinitarischen Bewegung (Antitrinitarier, Sozinianer) seiner Zeit deren Kirchen in Polen und teilweise auch in Siebenbürgen. Der 1562–1574 als Jurist am Hofe der Medici in Florenz tätige Patrizier hatte sich, durch seinen an der kirchl. Trinitätslehre zweifelnden Onkel Lelio S. dazu angeregt, 1572–1578 hauptsächlich in Basel theol. Studien gewidmet und durch erste Sch…

Nino

(131 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Nino, die Heilige (1. Hälfte des 4.Jh.), »Erleuchterin« Georgiens. Rufinus von Aquileia berichtet in seiner Kirchengesch. von einer Kriegsgefangenen, die um 330 durch ihre Askese und Wunderheilungen das ostgeorgische Königspaar für den christl. Glauben gewann und zur Einladung griech. Missionare veranlaßte (PL 21, 480–482). Erst in legendär überwucherten einheimischen Quellen aus dem 10.Jh. erscheint sie unter dem Namen N., wohl einer Kontraktionsform aus »Christiana«. Hier verar…

Tschavtschavadze

(129 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Čavčavadze), Ilja (27.10.1837 Qvareli – 30.8.1907 Cicamuri), georgischer Dichter und Schriftsteller, Publizist und Politiker von fürstlicher Abkunft, als »hl. Ilia der Gerechte« am 20.7.1987 kanonisiert. Nach philos. sowie verwaltungs- und wirtschaftswiss. Studien in St. Petersburg wirkte er in Georgien seit 1864 als Friedensrichter und seit 1874 als Vorsitzender der Verwaltung der Allgeorgischen Adelsbodenkreditbank. 1906 wurde er in den Staatsrat des Kaiserreichs Rußland gewähl…

Schlesien

(965 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (polnisch Śla[c_bottom_right]sk, lat. Silesia). Diese Gebietsbez. hat sich ungeachtet aller polit., ethnischen und konfessionellen Veränderungen behauptet. Ihre Herleitung vom Vandalenstamm der Silingen erscheint zweifelhaft. Eher geht sie auf eine slaw. Wurzel (wie etwa altpolnisch śle[c_bottom]cgna[c_bottom_right]cć, »naß«) zurück. Als Landschaft umfaßt Sch. beiderseits der oberen und mittleren Oder eine wie ein Eichenblatt geformte, im Südwesten von den Sudeten und im Süden von den westlichen Beskiden begrenzte Fläche von nahezu 40 000 km2. Mit…

Narrheit

(273 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] Narrheit, heilige. Als solche bez. man in der Ostkirche in Anlehnung an 1Kor 4,10ff. die asketische Praxis, durch vorgetäuschten Verlust des Verstandes sich Mißhandlungen und der Vereinsamung mitten in der Welt auszusetzen und so vor der Gefahr einer Bewunderung durch die Menge zu bewahren. Sie setzt eine christl. Umwelt ebenso voraus wie das Fehlen von Institutionen für Geisteskranke. Die hl.N. begegnet erstmals im 4.Jh. bei einer Nonne in Ägypten, dann zuweilen im Vorderen Orien…

Polen

(2,838 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] I. Allgemeines Der Name P. geht auf einen der westslaw. Stämme zurück, aus deren Zusammenschluß im 9. und 10.Jh. das polnische Volk entstanden ist, und kennzeichnet die Angehörigen dieses Stammes als Feldbewohner (Polani oder Poleni). Das vom Geschlecht der Piasten begründete Reich wird erstmals um das Jahr 1000 als Polonia bez. Heute nennt sich das Staatswesen Polska Rzeczpospolita (Republik P.). Geographisch ist P. von Deutschland im Westen, von der Ostsee und dem Gebiet Kaliningrad der Russ. Föderation im Norden, von Litauen (baltisch…

Soner

(142 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Sohner), Ernst (Dezember 1572 Nürnberg – 28.9.1612 Altdorf bei Nürnberg), seit 1603 Stadtphysikus in Nürnberg, seit 1605 Prof. für Medizin an der reichsstädtischen Akademie in Altdorf und 1607/08 deren Rektor, war auf einer Bildungsreise 1598 in Leyden durch Andreas Wojdowski und Christoph Ostorodt für die theol. Lehrmeinungen ihres Meisters F. Sozzini gewonnen worden, für die er dann in Altdorf im vertrauten Kreise warb. Dabei ließ er solche Vorsicht walten, daß man zu seinen Le…

Reval

(150 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (estnisch: Tallinn) hieß zunächst die anstelle der 1219 vom Dänenkönig Waldemar II. eroberten Estenfestung Lyndanise gegründete Burg mit Bischofssitz. 1227 wurde sie vom Schwertbrüderorden in Besitz genommen. Das führte um 1230 zur Gründung einer dt. Stadt im Anschluß an eine frühere Handelsstätte. 1238 wiederum den Dänen überlassen, wurde R. 1346 vom Deutschen Orden zurückgekauft. Die Bischöfe von R., von jeher ohne Landesherrschaft oder eigenes Territorium, unterstanden noch bi…

Posen

(240 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[English Version] (Poznan´), Bistum. 968 als Missionsbistum für ganz Polen gegründet, nachdem der Piastenherzog Mieszko I. mit seiner Taufe 966 die Christianisierung Polens eingeleitet hatte, verlor P. schon 999/1000 seinen Vorrang infolge der Gründung des Erzbistums Gnesen (Gniezno), dem es Anfang des 11.Jh. als Suffraganbistum eingegliedert wurde. Es umfaßte fortan die Mitte Großpolens und den Süden Masowiens. Zwar erlangte Bf. Paweł Grzymała 1232 das sog. »Große Privileg« für P., doch erst 1821 …

Philip of Moscow, Saint

(165 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Fedor Kolyčev; 1507 – Dec 23, 1569, Tver’), metropolitan of Moscow. As boyar, Philip was involved in a conspiracy at the tsar’s court, but then escaped to Solovki monastery and became abbot there. In 1566 he was elevated to the position of metropolitan of Moscow, but soon fell out with Ivan IV Grozny because of the latter’s reign of terror. After he had publicly reproached Ivan in Uspensky cathedral and refused to bless him, Philip was deposed by a compliant church court, and on …

Soner, Ernst

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (or Sohner; Dec 1572, Nuremberg – Sep 28, 1612, Altdorf, near Nuremberg), appointed district physician in Nuremberg in 1603 and professor of medicine at the Reichsstädische Akademie in Altdorf in 1605. In 1607/1608 he served as its rector. During an educational tour in 1598, he had been converted by Andreas Wojdowski and Christoph Ostorodt in Leiden to the theological views of their teacher F. Socinus; on his return to Altdorf, he promoted their ideas among his close friends. He w…

Polentz, Georg von

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1478 – Apr 28, 1550, Balga am Frischen Haff [Kaliningrad]), bishop of Samland from 1519. Polentz belonged to the Meissen nobility; after studying in Leipzig and Italy, he was a lawyer in papal and imperial service, before entering the Teutonic Order (Orders of Germany) in 1511 and becoming commander in Königsberg (Krolewiec, Poland) in 1516. Between 1522 and 1525 he ruled the order’s territory of Prussia as the grand master’s deputy. Converted to the Reformation from 1522, he ced…

Vakhtang Gorgasal

(151 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1st half of the 5th cent. – 502), king of Iberia (East Georgia). His byname, which means “wolf ’s head,” relates to the decoration on his helmet. After his accession c. 446, he pursued the goals of strengthening his royal authority, extending it throughout Georgia, and freeing Georgia from dependence on the Persian Sassanian Empire. He achieved these goals temporarily in 483. At the same time, he persuaded the patriarch of Antioch to consecrate his candidate Peter as catholicos a…

Old Believers, Russian

(566 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] I. The believers who, from 1653, were expelled from the Great Church because of their rejection of the liturgical reforms of the Moscow patriarch Nikon, gathered in their own communities in order to maintain the Old Russian forms of devotion laid down by the Moscow Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. The authorities first called them “schismatics” (Raskol’niki), and later “Old Ritualists,” while for the people they were the Old Believers. They did not contest the necessity for correcti…

Warsaw

(314 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (Warszawa), the capital of Poland, with a population of 1.71 million (2009), goes back to a trading settlement established in the 11th/12th century on the left bank of the Vistula; in 1413 it received Kulm rights. From 1406 to 1526, it was the official residence of the Piast dukes of Masovia. When the dynasty died out, Warsaw was incorporated into the crown of Poland. The Sejm met there for the first time in 1529; after 1569 it met there regularly, and as a result the royal court …

Knöpken, Andreas

(180 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (also: Knopken; c. 1468, near Küstrin – Feb 18, 1539, Riga). Having studied in Ingolstadt (?) and Frankfurt an der Oder, Knöpken taught – as assistant to J. Bugenhagen, under whose influence he turned from Erasmus to Luther, – at the municipal school in Treptow an der Rega until 1517 and again from 1519 to 1521. From 1517 onward, he was chaplain at St. Petri in Riga and from 1522 Protestant preacher there. Having successfully participated in a disputation at Pentecost, 1522, he wa…

Herman of Alaska, Saint

(171 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] (1757, Serpuchov, Russia – Dec 13, 1837, Spruce Island, Alaska). Herman entered the Trinity-St. Serge Hermitage near St. Petersburg at the age of 16 and transferred to Valaam Monastery in 1778. In 1793, the abbot sent him with seven other monks to Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska to care for the Russian trappers and furriers there, but also in order to evangelize the native population. Apart from a few minor interruptions, the conduct of the Kodiak mission was effectively in hi…

Ivan IV, the Terrible

(179 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] ( Groznyj, better: the Harsh; Aug 25, 1530, Moscow – Mar 18, 1584, Moscow), was the first grand duke to be crowned tsar of all Russia in 1547. He laid the foundations of Russia's rise to a major power by pursuing a policy of territorial expansion in the east (conquest of Kazan in 1552 and of Astrakhan in 1554, beginning of the subjugation of Siberia in 1582), but also contributed to its ruin by engaging in unsuccessful wars (esp. for Livonia, 1558–1582) and implementing cruel measu…

Radziwill

(362 words)

Author(s): Hauptmann, Peter
[German Version] 1. Nicholas the Red (Mikołai Rudy Radziwiłł; Apr 27, 1512 – Apr 27, 1584, Vilnius), high chancellor and high hetman of Lithuania, from 1566 (following his cousin Nicholas the Black [see 2 below]) voivode of Vilnius; he became a Calvinist c. 1564. His descendants remained faithful to the Reformed confession and, until the line failed in 1667, ensured the continuation of Reformed parishes on the Radziwill estates (of the Birse branch) in Lithuania. Peter Hauptmann Bibliography T. Nowakowski, Die Radziwills. Die Geschichte einer großen europäischen Familie, 1968, 79–…
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