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Mesopotamia

(6,968 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl
[German Version] I. Geography – II. History – III. Society – IV. Religion – V. Literature and Art I. Geography The name Mesopotamia, Greek “(land) bewteen the rivers (i.e. Euphrates and Tigris),” originally only denoted the territories between the bend of the Euphrates near Baghdad and the Khabur River, i.e. the area known as Ğazīra (“island”) in Arabic; the meaning of the name was later extended to include the entire land between the Persian fringe mountains in the east (Zagros) and the Syro-Arabian desert in…

Soden, Wolfram von

(797 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl
German Assyriologist. Born Berlin 19. 6. 1908, died Münster 6. 10. 1996. School in Berlin and Marburg; studied Assyriology and¶ Semitic languages at Marburg, Munich and Leipzig. Doctorate 1931 Leipzig. 1933 habil. Göttingen. From 1934 lecturer, from 1936 prof. ext. at Göttingen. 1940 prof. ord. in Berlin, but did not take up his teaching post because of war service (ending as a Lieutenant and interpreter). 1945 teaching at Göttingen; 1954 prof. ord. in Assyriology at Vienna. 1961 prof. ord. at Münster in ancient Se…

Soden, Wolfram von

(713 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl
Dt. Assyriologe. Geb. am 19. 6. 1908 in Berlin, gest. am 6. 10. 1996 in Münster. Schulbesuch in Berlin und Marburg; Studium der Assyriologie und semitischer Sprachen in Marburg, München und Leipzig, dort 1931 Prom.; 1933 Habil. Göttingen. Ab 1934 Dozent, ab 1936 ao.Prof. ebda.; 1940 o.Prof. Berlin, Lehrtätigkeit wegen Militärdienst (zuletzt als Leutnant u. a. als Dolmetscher) jedoch nicht angetreten. 1945 Lehrauftrag in Göttingen; 1954 o.Prof. Assyriologie in Wien; 1961 o.Prof. in Münster für Al…

Berosus

(251 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl
[German Version] (340–270 bce). The spelling Βηρωσσος is preferable to Βηρῶσος, since the Akkadian form behind the name is Bēl-rēʿ-šu, “Bēl is his shepherd.” Berosus was a priest of Esagila, the temple of Bēl/Marduk in Babylon. Some years before his death, he is reported to have moved to Cos, where he founded a school for astronomers. Around 281, he wrote (in Greek) his Babyloniaca, in which he recorded creation (book 1) and the history of the kings before and after the Flood down to the Persian period…

Historiography

(5,830 words)

Author(s): Hecker, Karl | Cancik, Hubert | Dietrich, Walter | Plümacher, Eckhard | Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Et al.
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East – II. Greece – III. Rome – IV. The Bible – V. Christianity – VI. Judaism I. Ancient Near East Historiography in the classic sense, with a reflective account of historical linkages, developed rudimentarily at best in the cuneiform cultures of the ancient Near East in Hittite and Neo-Assyrian annals and the introductions to treaties; even these documents were usually written to justify the political actions. Around the middle of the 3rd millennium bce, however, there appeared an immense number of all sorts of texts containing more …