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Diomedes

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Διομήδης; Diomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Cultic hero of the city of Argos Hero of the city of Argos in the Trojan War, as opposed to Agamemnon of Mycenae, the lord of north-eastern Argolis (Hom. Il. 2,559-568; cf. Il. 23,471f. [1; 2]). Son of Tydeus and Deipyle, the daughter of Adrastus. In his aristeia before Troy (Il. 5 and 6), he killed Pandarus, wounded Aphrodite when she tried to save Aeneas (Il. 5, 290-351), and later also wounded Ares (Il. 5, 825-863). As a friend of the family, he exchanged weapons with Glaucus the Lycian (on the side o…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Nausicrates

(119 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Ναυσικράτης; Nausikrát ēs). Poet of Middle Comedy, in the list of the victors at the Lenaea he is mentioned two places after Antiphanes and two places ahead of Alexis with three victories [1. test. 2]. Athenaeus quotes short passages from N.'s pieces Ναύκληροι ( Naúklēroi) and Περσίς ( Persís), among them culinary riddles possibly by a cook (fr. 1) [2. 259]. In the excerpts in Herodian, N. is quoted as proof of a certain imperative form (εὕρηκε; fr. 3). The mention of a certain comic poet or actor with this name by the orator Aeschines probably also refers to N. [1. test. 3]. Hid…

Dieuches

(444 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Διεύχης; Dieúchēs). [German version] [1] Physician and author of medical texts Physician and author of medical texts in the 4th and possibly even the early 3rd cent. BC. He viewed the human body from the perspective of the four elementary qualities (Gal. 10,452), approved of bloodletting (11,163) and was positively disposed towards anatomy (11,795). He became particularly respected for his methods of treatment (Gal. 10,28; 11,795), especially because of greater care in prescribing dangerous medication (Or…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Autocrates

(86 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Attic author of Old Comedy [1. test. 1], the only play of his which is still known, the Τυμπανισταί, is the source for Aelian's quote of 10 trochaic short verses of a dancing song (fr. 1). The Suda's claim that A. also wrote τραγῳδίας πολλάς (‘many tragedies’) [1. test. 1], seems improbable, but is perhaps a reference to κωμῳδοτραγῳδίαι [2. 17212], i.e. a drama mixing comic and tragic elements, Lat. tragicomoedia. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 18f. 2 Schmid/Stählin I 4, 1946, 172.

Moschion

(705 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Piccione, Rosa Maria
(Μοσχίων/ Moschíōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, 3rd cent. BC Athenian tragedian, probably 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC, known almost solely through quotations by Stobaeus. Titles attested include ‘Telephos and two historical dramas: ‘Themistokles, at the heart of which was probably the naval battle at Salamis, following on from Aeschylus' ‘Persians, with the distinction that M. made Themistocles the protagonist; and ‘The Pheraeans, probably dealing with the death of Alexander [15] of Pherae. A lengthy f…

Apollonius

(7,446 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Hunter, Richard (Cambridge) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollṓnnios). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o ikonomos there in 267 BC. Was dioiketes of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Neanthes

(285 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νεάνθης; Neánthēs). [German version] [1] Of Cyzicus, Greek author of uncertain date N. of Cyzicus. References to and some fragments of the following works under this name are preserved (FGrH 84): a Greek history (Ἑλληνικά, Hellēniká), a history of Attalus [4] I of Pergamum (Περὶ Ἄτταλον ἱστορίαι, Perì Áttalon historíai), writings on the myths and history of the city of Cyzicus (Τὰ κατὰ πόλιν μυθικά, Ὧροι Κυζικηνῶν, Ta katà pólin mythiká, Hȏroi Kyzikēnȏn), a biographical collection ‘On famous men (Περὶ ἐνδόξων ἀνδρῶν, Perì endóxōn andrȏn), a piece on mysteries and cults (Περὶ τελετῶν, P…

Philonicus

(49 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Φιλόνικος; Philónikos). Comic poet of the transition period between Old and Middle Comedy, on the list of victors at the Lenaea after Philyllius with a victory around 390 [1. test. 2]. No fragments of his works are extant. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 362.

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Cantharus

(417 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Michel, Raphael (Basle) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κάνθαρος; Kántharos. Cp. Kantharos) [German version] [1] Main harbour of Piraeus The main harbour of Piraeus (Plut. Phocion 28,3; Aristoph. Pax 145 with schol.; Hesch. s.v. Κάνθαρος; Anecd. Bekk. 1,271,8), otherwise referred to simply as mégas or mégistos limḗn ('large' or 'largest harbour'; Plut. Themistocles 32,4; Paus. 1,1,2; IG II2 1035,45f.) [1. 61f.; 2. 9], modern Kentrikos limen. Named after an otherwise unknown heros [1] C. (Philochorus, FGrH 328 F 203) or after the pottery shape Kantharos [1] (cf. [3]). Moles narrowed the entry into the C. which, as limḕn kleistós ('close…

Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Axionicus

(107 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Ἀξιόνικος; Axiónikos) Poet of the Middle Comedy, of whose life nothing is known. The four play titles that are known (Τυρρηνός, Φιλευριπίδης, Φίλιννα, Χαλκιδικός) and the few fragments that have been preserved, suggest that A. belongs to the Middle Comedy [1; 2. 245ff.]. The monody of the cook in the style of Euripides in Φιλευριπίδης (fr. 4) is particularly characteristic: the comedy is evident less in the mockery of the tragic model and more in the contrast between the dithyrambic language and the everyday activity of preparing a meal [2. 246f.]. Hidber, Thomas (Be…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Anaxippus

(101 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Poet of the New Comedy, dated by the Suda in the time of the two Diadochi, Antigonus I and Demetrius I ( c. 320-283 BC) -- apparently on the basis of a mention of both these in one play of A. [1. 299]. The titles of five plays have been preserved (Ἐγκαλυπτόμενος, Κεραυνός, Ἐπιδικαζόμενος, Κιθαρῳδός, Φρέαρ); of these the last three also appear in other representatives of the New Comedy [1. 302 ff.], as well as some shorter fragments and a longer fragment (fr.1) of 49 verses with the speech of a cook. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 299-306.

Antidotus

(89 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] Writer of comedies, probably a contemporary of Alexis (second half of 4th to beginning of 3rd cent.) Like the latter, A. had written a Πρωτόχορος (two short fr. extant), and he or Alexis was regarded as the writer of the Ὁμοία quoted by Ath. 14 642cd. Whether one may conclude from this that both poets may have each written a Homoía [1. 308; 2], remains uncertain. However, the title Μεμψίμοιρος [1. 308] is well attested. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 308-310 2 PCG V, 1986, 144.

Neleus

(637 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Νηλεύς; Nēleús). [German version] [1] King of the Messenian Pylos King of Messenian Pylos, son of Poseidon and Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus. Tyro, wife of Cretheus, falls in love with the river god Enipeus. In his guise, Poeseidon sires with her N. and his twin brother Pelias (Hom. Od. 11,235-253; cf. also Hes. Cat. 30f.). After Cretheus' death, strife develops between N. and Pelias over who is to rule in Iolcus. N. is forced to repair to the Peloponnese, where he founds Pylos (Hom. Od. 11,254-259; He…

Musaeus

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος; Mousaîos). [German version] [1] Mythical companion of the Muses Mythical companion of the Muses (whose name is an adjectival derivative of Μοῦσα ( Moûsa; ‘Muse’)), an archegete of poetry and a close associate of Orpheus connected with Eleusis [1] . As a scion of the Muses (and Selene: Pl. Resp. 2,364e), M. was brought up by them (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) and buried on their hill in Athens (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). The origin of M. who lived in Eleusis and Athens (Suda s.v. Μ.) (pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, end of the 5th cent. BC; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A…

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Sosipater

(78 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σωσίπατρος; Sōsípatros). Poet of New Comedy, known only from a 57-verse citation, preserved in Athenaeus, from the play Καταψευδόμενος ( Katapseudómenos, 'The Slanderer') [1]. In the fragment, a cook praises himself - in a dialogue with his interlocutor Demylus, presumably his employer - as one of the three greatest living exponents of his craft, which he depicts as a most exacting science based on astrology, architecture and strategy. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 604-607.

Mnesimachus

(228 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Μνησίμαχος; Mnēsímachos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy A comic poet whom both Athenaeus and the Suda attribute to Middle Comedy [1. test. 1, 2]. His name is on the victors' list of the Lenaean festival, immediately after Antiphanes [1. test. 3], and his creative period extends from the 360's into the  340's BC [2]. We still have the titles of seven of his plays: Ἀλκμαίων (or -έων), Βούσιρις, Δύσκολος, Ἱπποτρόφος, Ἰσθμιονίκης, Φαρμακοπώλης, Φίλιππος ( Alkmaíōn/éōn, Boúsiris, Dýskolos, Hippótrophos, Isthmioníkēs, Pharmakopṓlēs, Phílippos). By far the longest fra…

Sogenes

(36 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Σωγένης; Sōgénēs). Poet of New Comedy, reached the fifth rank at the Attic Dionysia in 183 BC with his play Φιλοδέσποτος ('His Master's Friend') [1]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 593.

Heniochus

(107 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Ἡνίοχος; Hēníochos). Writer of Middle Comedy, of whose work the Suda still mentions eight titles:Τροχίλος (‘Trochílos’), Ἐπίκληρος (‘The daughter heiress’), Γοργόνες (‘The Gorgons’), Πολυπράγμων (‘The Busybody’), Θωρύκιον (‘Thōrýkion’), Πολύευκτος (‘Polýeuktos’), Φιλέταιρος (‘Philhétairos’), Δὶς ἐξαπατώμενος (‘The Twice Deceived’) [1. test. 1]. Apart from the scanty remains of these plays preserved by Athenaeus (at least the dithyrambizing language of fr. 1 [2. 262] is noteworthy)…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Dexicrates

(100 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
[German version] (Δεξικράτης; Dexikrátēs). Comedy writer of the 3rd cent. BC and hence belonging to the New Comedy if his name is correctly supplied on the epigraphical list of Lenaean victors [1. test. *2]. Ath. 3,124b cites two verses from the play Ὑφ' ἑαυτῶν πλανώμενοι (fr. 1); the Suda article is based on this passage, and the addition that D. was an Athenian was probably a conclusion drawn from this [1. test. 1]. A brief mention is also to be found in the work of the grammarian Herodian (fr. 2). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 16.

Philippides

(307 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Φιλιππίδης/ Philippídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Athenian, follower of Philip II (Philippus [4] II), mocked by the comic poets Alexis, Aristophon [4] and Menander [4] (Ath. 6,230c; 238c; 11,503a; 12,552d-f). After two convictions for proposing illegal measures, as charged by Hyperides in 336 BC or between 336 and 334, he was again prosecuted on such a charge ( paranómōn graphḗ ) for his proposal to grant honours to the próhedroi (Hyp. Or. 4), among whom Philip [4] II had been honoured. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography J. Engels, Stu…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Demophilus

(250 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne)
(Δημόφιλος; Dēmóphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, mid-4th cent. BC Athenian orator who, in 346/45 BC, proposed the scrutiny of citizen lists which resulted in loss of citizenship for many (Aeschin. In Tim. 77,86; Androtion FGrH 324 F 52 = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 52; Sch. Aeschin. In Tim. 77) [1; 2]. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian prosecutor of Aristotle 323 BC Athenian, accused  Aristotle in 323 BC (Diog. Laert. 5,5; Ath. 696a) of asébeia,impiety, because of the hymn and epigram to Hermias of Atarneus (cf. [3]). D. was successful in…

Philetaerus

(662 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Φιλέταιρος; Philétairos). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (1st half of 4th cent. BC), according to Dicaearchus, son of the comic poet Aristophanes [3] [1. test. 1; 2. 192], though this remains uncertain owing to some discrepancies in ancient tradition [3]. In the list of victors at the Lenaea, P. has two victories immediately after Anaxandrides and before Eubulus. Of the total of 21 pieces attributed to P. by the Suda [1. test. 1], the titles…

Demonikos

(49 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
[English version] (Δημόνικος). Komödiendichter unbekannter Zeit, vielleicht des 4. Jh.v.Chr. [1]. D. ist einzig bei Athen. 9,410c bezeugt, wo aus dem Stück Ἀχελῶιος vier Verse zitiert werden, welche die Bewirtung eines heißhungrigen Böoters (vielleicht des Herakles) schildern (fr. 1). Hidber, Thomas (Bern) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 14.

Sogenes

(36 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas
[English version] (Σωγένης). Dichter der Neuen Komödie, erreichte im J. 183 v. Chr. an den att. Dionysien mit dem Stück Φιλοδέσποτος (‘Der Freund seines Herrn) den fünften Rang [1]. Hidber, Thomas Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 593.

Dionysios

(10,308 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Tyrann von Syrakus D. [1] I.; der Historiker D. [18] von Halikarnassos. Dionysios (Monat) Monatsnamen. Die Chronik des Ps.-D. von Tell Maḥre s. D. [23]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] D.I. berüchtigter Tyrann in Syrakus um 400 v. Chr. von Syrakus, Sohn des Hermokritos, geb. um 430, gest. 367 v.Chr. Begründer der ‘größten und längsten Tyrannenherrschaft in der Geschichte’ (Diod. 13,96,4; Aussehen: Timaios FGrH 566 F 29). Im Besitz sophistischer Bildung (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), war D. von größtem Ehrgeiz…

Neanthes

(258 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
(Νεάνθης). [English version] [1] von Kyzikos, griech. Schriftsteller unsicherer Datierung N. von Kyzikos. Unter diesem Namen sind Testimonien zu und z.T. Fr. aus folgenden Werken überl. (FGrH 84): einer griech. Gesch. (Ἑλληνικά, Hellēniká), einer Gesch. des Attalos [4] I. von Pergamon (Περὶ Ἄτταλον ἱστορίαι, Perí Áttalon historíai), Schriften über Mythen bzw. Gesch. der Stadt Kyzikos (Τὰ κατὰ πόλιν μυθικά, Ὧροι Κυζικηνῶν, Ta katá pólin mythiká, Hṓroi Kyzikēnṓn), einem biographischen Sammelwerk ‘Über berühmte Männer (Περὶ ἐνδόξων ἀνδρῶν, Perí endóxōn andrṓn), einer Schrift…

Philetairos

(610 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Φιλέταιρος). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Mittleren Komödie, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Dichter der Mittleren Komödie (1. H. 4. Jh. v.Chr.), laut Dikaiarchos Sohn des Komödiendichters Aristophanes [3] [1. test. 1; 2. 192], was aber aufgrund der teilweise abweichenden ant. Trad. unsicher bleibt [3]. Auf der Liste der Lenäensieger ist Ph. mit zwei Siegen unmittelbar nach Anaxandrides bzw. vor Eubulos verzeichnet. Von den insgesamt 21 Stücken, die Ph. von der Suda zugeschrieben werden [1. test. 1], sind noc…

Sopatros

(378 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael | Hidber, Thomas
(Σώπατρος). [English version] [1] griech. Rhetoriker, 4. Jh. Griech. Rhet. des 4. Jh. n. Chr., Zeitgenosse und vielleicht Schüler des Himerios (Walz 8,318,29, wo die Lesart ὁ σοφὸς ὁ ἡμέτερος Ἱμέριος wohl vorzuziehen ist). Wahrscheinlich lehrte S. in Athen (Walz 8,55,6 f.). Diese Angaben entstammen seinem Hauptwerk, der Διαίρεσις Ζητημάτων (etwa: ‘Auseinandersetzung von Streitfällen), einer an einen sonst unbekannten Karponianos (den S. “Sohn” nennt) gerichteten Slg. von 82 fiktiven controversiae , die in höchst unterschiedlicher Ausführl…

Nikarchos

(349 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος). [English version] [1] Feldherr Antiochos' III., 218 v.Chr. Wirkte zu Beginn des 4. Syrischen Krieges als Feldherr Antiochos' [5] III. 218 v.Chr. bei dessen Vormarsch nach Südsyrien an der Besetzung der Engstellen am Lykos-Fluß und später an der Eroberung von Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) mit und wurde dort Kommandant der Besatzung. In der Schlacht von Raphia 217 befehligte er den Teil von Antiochos' Phalanx, der durch sein Weichen zur Niederlage des Seleukiden beitrug (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 B. Bar-Koch…

Philippos

(6,203 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φίλιππος). Die maked. Könige Ph. [3-7], darunter Ph. [4] II., Ph. [7] V.; Apostel und Evangelist Ph. [28]; Philosophen und Dichter Ph. [29-32]. [English version] [1] Spartanischer Flottenführer 411 v. Chr. Spartiat, Befehlshaber in Miletos 412 v.Chr. (Thuk. 8,28,5), wurde 411 mit zwei Trieren nach Aspendos geschickt, um dort mit Unterstützung des Tissaphernes die phoinikische Flotte zum Kampf gegen Athen zu bewegen (Thuk. 8,87), teilte aber dem naúarchos Mindaros bald mit, seine Mission werde ergebnislos sein (Thuk. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesischer Krieg Welwei, Karl-Wilhe…

Diokles

(2,629 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Princeton) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς). [English version] [1] Heros in Megara Heros in Megara. Er soll in einer Schlacht, einen Jüngling tapfer mit seinem Schild deckend, gefallen sein. An seinem Grab wetteiferten die Knaben, wer den süßesten Kuß geben konnte. Dieser jeweils im Frühling stattfindende Agon hieß Diokleia (schol. Pind. O. 7,157; 13,156a; Theokr. 12,27-33 mit schol.: Aition). Die Küsse stellten vielleicht im Heroenkult wiederholte Abschiedsküsse dar ([1]; dagegen [2]). Nach schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 war der Agon von Al…

Metagenes

(231 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Μεταγένης). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5./4. Jh. v. Chr. Att. Dichter der ausgehenden Alten Komödie (Ende 5., frühes 4. Jh.v.Chr.), auf der Liste der Lenäensieger mit zwei Siegen unmittelbar vor Theopompos verzeichnet [1. test. 2]. Die Suda nennt noch fünf Stücktitel: Αὖραι ἢ Μαμμάκυθος, Θουριοπέρσαι, Φιλοθύτης, Ὅμηρος ἢ Ἀσκηταί (bzw. Ὅμηρος ἢ Σοφισταί [1. fr. 11]) [1. test. 1]. Die Stücke sind bis auf geringe Fr. verloren, in deren umfangreichstem (11 V. aus den Θουριοπέρσαι) der…

Musaios

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Genf) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος). [English version] [1] myth. Musenbegleiter Mythischer Musenbegleiter (dessen Name eine adj. Ableitung von Μοῦσα (“Muse”) ist), ein Archeget der Dichtung und mit Eleusis [1] verbundener Attaché des Orpheus. Als Sproß der Musen (und der Selene: Plat. rep. 2,364e) wird M. von diesen aufgezogen (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) und auf deren Hügel in Athen bestattet (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). Eine thrakische Herkunft (Pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, Ende 5. Jh. v.Chr.; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A 1a DK) ist dem in Eleusis bzw. Athen beheimateten …

Sosikrates

(58 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas
[English version] (Σωσικράτης). Ausschließlich lit. bezeugter griech. Komödiendichter, allem Anschein nach der Neuen Komödie angehörig. Pollux überliefert drei Verse aus dem Stück Παρακαταθήκη ( Parakatathḗkē, ‘Das Pfand), Athenaios ebenfalls drei aus den Φιλάδελφοι ( Philádelphoi, ‘Die Geschwisterliebenden), Stobaios zwei Verse und die Suda die Glosse ἀμφίας jeweils aus einer unbekannten Komödie [1]. Hidber, Thomas Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 600-602.

Anaxippos

(88 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
[English version] Dichter der Neuen Komödie, von der Suda in die Zeit der beiden Diadochen Antigonos I. und Demetrios I. (ca. 320-283 v. Chr.) datiert - offenbar aufgrund einer Erwähnung der beiden in einem Stück des A. [1. 299]. Erh. haben sich fünf Stücktitel (Ἐγκαλυπτόμενος, Κεραυνός, Ἐπιδικαζόμενος, Κιθαρῳδός, Φρέαρ) wovon die letzten drei auch bei anderen Vertretern der Neuen Komödie begegnen [1. 302 ff.], sowie einige kürzere und ein längeres Fragment (fr.1) von 49 Versen mit der Rede eines Kochs. Hidber, Thomas (Bern) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 299-306.

Neleus

(575 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
(Νηλεύς). [English version] [1] König des messen. Pylos König des messenischen Pylos, Sohn des Poseidon und der Tyro, der Tochter des Salmoneus. Tyro, die Frau des Kretheus, verliebt sich in den Flußgott Enipeus. In dessen Gestalt zeugt Poseidon mit ihr N. und den Zwillingsbruder Pelias (Hom. Od. 11,235-253; vgl. auch Hes. cat. 30f.). Nach Kretheus' Tod kommt es zum Streit zwischen N. und Pelias um die Herrschaft in Iolkos. N. muß auf die Peloponnes gehen und gründet dort Pylos (Hom. Od. 11,254-259; Hes…

Philonikos

(45 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern)
[English version] (Φιλόνικος). Komödiendichter aus der Übergangszeit von der Alten zur Mittleren Komödie, auf der Liste der Lenäensieger hinter Philyllios mit einem Sieg um 390 verzeichnet [1. test. 2]. Von seinen Werken sind keine Reste erhalten. Hidber, Thomas (Bern) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 362.

Satyrion

(36 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas
[English version] (Σατυρίων). Dichter der Neuen Komödie (3. Jh. v. Chr.), bekannt lediglich aus einer inschr. Erwähnung auf der Liste der Dionysiensieger, auf der S. mit einem Sieg verzeichnet ist [1]. Hidber, Thomas Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 590.
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