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Hananias (Ananias)

(223 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Hananias (Ananias), the son of Nedebaeus, was appointed high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, in 47 ce (Agrippa I and II; Jos. Ant. XX 5.2) and replaced by Ishmael under King Agrippa II in 59 ce ( Ant. XX 8.8). Following an altercation between Jews and Samaritans, Ananias was put in chains and sent with a delegation to the Roman emperor Claudius to give an account of himself (Jos. Bell. II 12.6; Ant. XX 6.2). In Acts 23:1–10, Paul faces Ananias during his interrogation by the Sanhedrin (the insult “whitewashed wall” is uttered according to Acts 23:3).…

Tax Collectors (New Testament)

(339 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] Tax collectors (τελώνης/ telṓnēs) appear only in the Synoptic Gospels: in the context of Jesus’ table fellowship (Mark 2:15f. par.; Luke 15:1f.; 19:5f.), in the calling of disciples (Mark 2:14 par.), and in passages that make a special point of Jesus’ friendship with them (Matt 11:19 par.; also Luke 19:1–10). Although tax collectors are mentioned alongside sinners (Mark 2:15f. par.; Matt 11:19 par.; Luke 15:1), prostitutes (Matt 21:31f.), and Gentiles (Matt 18:17), despite their bein…

Tiberius

(199 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Nov 16, 42 bce, Rome – Mar 16, 37 ce, Misenum [modern Miseno]). Initially the son-in-law of Augustus, then his adopted son, after a constant series of military and political victories he finally succeeded Augustus as emperor and reigned from 14 to 37 ce. He ¶ is mentioned by name and title only once in the New Testament, in Luke 3:1; in his function as Caesar, he is referred to in Mark 12:16f. par. (paying taxes: silver denarius with the head of Tiberius); Luke 23:2; John 19:12, 15. Luke 3:1 dates the appearance of John the …

Claudius, Emperor

(161 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Oct 1, 10 bce, Lyon – Oct 13, 54 ce, Rome). Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus was proclaimed emperor after the death of Caligula (Jan 24, 41 ce). He was poisoned by Agrippina, one of his wives, who wanted to secure the succession for her son Nero. Under Claudius, the imperial administration was expanded and the boundaries of the empire were extended. He promoted the ancient Roman cults (Roman religion). Unlike Caligula, however, he did not encourage the religious veneration of the emperor's person. According to Cassius Dio (60.6.6), Claudius decreed an assembly ba…

Ethics

(18,301 words)

Author(s): Herms, Eilert | Antes, Peter | Otto, Eckart | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Leicht, Reimund | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept and Scope – II. Religious Studies – III. Bible – IV. Judaism – V. As a Theological Discipline – VI. As a Philosophical Discipline (Business Ethics, Discourse Ethics, Economic Ethics, Ethics, Bio-Medical Issues, Ethics Commissions, Ethics Education, Ethics of Conviction, Ethics of Duty, Ethics of Goods, Ethics of Responsibility, Evolutionary Ethics, Fraternal Ethics, Individual Et…

Caiaphas

(197 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Caiphas; Aram. Qayafa on an ossuary), in the New Testament always Καϊάφας or Καϊ  ϊφᾶς (manuscripts), in Josephus ( Ant. XIII, 95) ᾽Ιωσήφος ὁ Καϊ  ϊάφας/ Iōsḗphos ho Kaïáphas, where it seems to be an epithet. The Roman prefect Valerius Gratus installed Caiaphas as high priest (III) in 18 ce, and the Syrian governor Vitellius deposed him in 36 ce ( Ant., loc. cit.). The office of high priest had been awarded discretionarily since the Herodians (Herod/Herodian dynasty). Caiaphas achieved this long period in office only through t…

Theudas

(208 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] The speech of the high priest Gamaliel in Acts 5:35–39 recalls the uprisings of Theudas (with some 400 supporters) and of Judas the Galilean at the time of the census (probably 6 ce), both unsuccessful. The placement of Theudas before Judas cannot be reconciled with the statement of Josephus ( Ant. XX 97) that Theudas appeared during the time of the Roman procurator Cuspius Fadus (44–46 ce). According to Ant. XX 97–99, Theudas, believing himself a prophet, collected a throng by the Jordan and announced that he would command the waters to part and a…

Hannas

(190 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] (Annas; in Jos.: Ananos), high priest, the son of Sethi. Annas was installed as high priest in 6 ce by the Roman legate of Syria Quirinius (Jos. Ant. XVIII 26) and deposed in 15 ce by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus ( Ant. XVIII 34) although he continued to bear the title (Luke 3:2, Acts 4:6). From his family, five other sons ( Ant. XX 198) held the office of high priest, including Annas II who was responsible for the death of James, brother of Jesus (62 ce), and, according to John 18:13, also his son-in-law Caiaphas (18–36 ce). According to the Johannine passion narrativ…

Festus, Porcius

(183 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] was Roman procurator in Judea from 60 to 62 ce. The beginning of his time in office, as well as the end of that of his predecessor Felix, is dated to the year 54 or 56, on the basis of the Armenian version of a Chronicle of Eusebius (GCS 20, 215) or on the version of Jerome (GCS 24, 182). A natural death ended his time in office. In contrast to his predecessor Felix and his successors Albinus and Gessius Florus, Festus seems to have been concerned, according to Flavius Josephus, who welcomed Festus's fight against the Zealots ( Bell. II 14.1; Ant. XX 8.9), with executing his offic…

Creation

(7,608 words)

Author(s): Elsas, Christoph | Crenshaw, James L. | Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm | Editors, The | Frey, Christofer
1. In the History of Religion 1.1. Perspectives on Creation Philosophy and natural science trace the origin of the world and humanity back to impersonal, law-governed causes. Religion, however, finds a suprahuman plan behind life and its foundations. In addition to the elementary language of confession (Confession of Faith), reflection on creation also can draw on philosophical and scientific argumentation, which makes use of elements and general concepts familiar from the world around us. It may also use the language of myth, which presents creation ¶ in the story of a one-time,…

Tiberius

(173 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] Tiberius, röm. Kaiser (16.11.42 v.Chr. Rom – 16.3.37 n.Chr. Misenum), zunächst Schwiegersohn, dann Adoptivsohn, wurde er schließlich, nachdem er stetig militärisch und polit. aufgestiegen war, Nachfolger des Augustus und regierte als röm. Kaiser in den Jahren 14–37 n.Chr. Mit Namen und Titel genannt wird er im NT ausschließlich in Lk 3,1; auf T. in seiner Funktion als Caesar beziehen sich Mk 12,16f. par. (Zinsgroschen: Silberdenar mit Kopf des T.); Lk 23,2 und Joh 19,12.15. Das A…

Theudas

(195 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Innerhalb der Rede des Hohenpriesters Gamaliel (Apg 5,35–39) wird an die Aufstandsbewegungen des Th. (mit etwa 400 Mann Anhang) und des Judas des Galiläers in den Tagen des Census (wohl 6 n.Chr.) erinnert, die beide erfolglos waren. Die gesch. Einordnung des Th. in die Zeit vor Judas ist mit der Angabe bei Flav.Jos.Ant. XX 97, Th. sei in der Zeit des röm. Prokurators Cuspius Fadus (44–46 n.Chr.) in Erscheinung getreten, nicht zu vereinbaren. Ant. XX 97–99 zufolge sammelte Th. m…

Zöllner im Neuen Testament

(289 words)

Author(s): Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm
[English Version] . Z. (τελω´n̆ης/telō´nēs) begegnen ausschließlich in den synopt. Evv.: im Zusammenhang mit Jesu Mahlgemeinschaften (Mk 2,15f. par.; Lk 15,1f.; 19,5f.), Jüngerberufungen (Mk 2,14 par.) und an den Stellen, an denen von einer bes. Freundschaft zw. Jesus und den Z. die Rede ist (Mt 11,19 par.; auch Lk 19,1–10). Obwohl die Z. den Sündern (Mk 2,15f. par.; Mt 11,19 par.; Lk 15,1), den Prostituierten (Mt 21,31f.) und den Heiden (Mt 18,17) gleichgestellt werden, sind sie trotz ihres im hala…