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Festus

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] see Marcius Festus see  Marcius Festus Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Iulius F. Hymetius Rom. official, proconsul Africae AD 366-368 served around AD 350 as corrector Tusciae et Umbriae, later as praetor urbanus and consularis Campaniae cum Samnio (before 355). In 362, he became vicarius urbis Romae (Cod. Theod. 11,30,29), and from 366 to 368 proconsul Africae (Cod. Theod. 9,19,3; his entire career: ILS 1256). As proconsul, he helped to alleviate a famine in Carthage, and in this context was sentenced to a fine as a result of b…

Notitia Galliarum

(108 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] ( Notitia provinciarum et civitatum Galliae). The NG is a list, compiled at the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th cent., of the 17 Gallic provinces with 115 civitates (local communities), seven castra (B.) and a portus (port). The administrative classification is associated with the eclesiastic division into dioceses ( dioíkēsis II.). More than 100 MSS, often interpolated, attest to the importance of the NG in the Middle Ages. Notitia dignitatum Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: O. Seeck, Notitia dignitatum, 1876, 261-274  MGH AA 9, 1892, …

Iovius

(182 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Cognomen of Diocletian Cognomen of Diocletian,  Tetrarchy. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Praetorian prefect of emperor Honorius [3] Praetorian prefect under emperor  Honorius [3]. In 407, he was made Praefectus Praetorio Illyrici by Stilicho, in order to wrest this prefecture from the eastern empire, but remained dependent on the Gothic king  Alaricus [2] (Sozom. Hist. eccl. 8,25,3; 9,4,3; Zos. 5,48,2). In 409, he became Praef. Praet. Italiae and Patricius (Cod. Theod. 2,8,25; 16,5,47; Zos. 5,47,1). As the most influential…

Faustus

(805 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
Supposedly an ancient Latin praenomen (Liber de praenominibus 4), but historically only attested (with meaning ‘The Fortunate’) for F. Cornelius [I 87] Sulla, the son of the dictator Sulla and his descendants ( Cornelius [II 57] and [II 60]). Epithet of the Anicii ( Anicius [II 2-6]); also a favourite name for slaves. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Anicius Acilius Glabrio F. Consul AD 438 Scion of the most important late Roman senatorial family who became praefectus urbi Romae three times under Honorius and Valentinian III, in AD 437/8 and 442 praefectus praetorio…

Regendarius

(138 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Late ancient official in the officium [6] of the praetorian prefect, who was responsible for issuing licences ( evectiones) for the use of the cursus publicus (Lydus. Mag. 3,4 and 21; Cassiod. Var. 11,29). It is not certain whether this office is identical with that of a regerendarius, which the Notitia dignitatum records in the offices of all praetorian prefects, the city prefect of Rome, magistri militum and a number of comites and duces of the West (Not. Dign. Or. 2,68; 3,29; Not. Dign. Occ. 2,52; 3,47; 4,28; 5,280; 25,44; 30,27 et passim). The latt…

Iustus

(481 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor 193-194 AD, see Pescennius see  Pescennius Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] I. of Tiberias Jew. historian, 1st cent. AD Jewish historian of the 1st cent. AD, wrote a ‘Jewish War’ (66-70/74), in which he dealt critically with the work of the same name by  Josephus [4] Flavius (this made Josephus write a retort in his autobiography: Vita 65), and a chronological-genealogical work on Jewish kings from Moses to  Iulius [II 5] Agrippa II. This work, which appears to…

Zenonis

(118 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζηνωνίς/ Zēnōnís). Aelia Z. Augusta, wife of the Eastern Roman counter-emperor Basiliscus (January 475 until August 476), who she seems to have influenced towards a pro-Monophysite church policy. Her son Marcus became co-regent, her alleged lover Armatus became head of the army and consul in 476. After the fall of her husband she and her son were banished with him and killed (Malchus fr. 8 = Suda α 3968, 3970 Adler; Candidus fr. 1 = FHG 4,136; Theophanes, Chronographia 1,121,124 f. de Boor = 187, 192 Mango-Scott). Basiliscus; Monophysitism Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) B…

Notitia dignitatum

(811 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] State manual or reference book for the internal use of Roman authorities in Late Antiquity. As shown by its full title Notitia dignitatum tam civilium quam militarium in partibus orientis/occidentis (‘Manual of civil and military appointments in the Eastern and Western parts), this two-part work provides an index of positions to be filled by the Emperor in the army and the administration of the imperium orientale (= or.) and occidentale (= occ.). The high civilian and military offices, beginning with the Praetorian and city prefects ( praefectus praetorio ; praefectus…

Flavianus

(513 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio AD 222 or 223 Praefectus praetorio with (Geminius) Chrestus in AD 222 or 223. When upon the insistence of Julia Mamaea, Domitius  Ulpianus was put in charge by Severus Alexander as praetorian prefect, the guard mutinied, so Ulpianus had F. and Chrestus killed (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) [German version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. Pagan, aristorcrat in Rome; friend of Symmachus Dominant figure of the non-Christian aristocracy in Rome in the last quarter of the 4th cent. AD. He had a clo…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Gildas

(154 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Oldest historian of the Britons with the epithet Sapiens. G. was a Romanized Celt from western Britain, was born before AD 504 and wrote before 547, as a Christian who was fully committed to Roman culture, the work De excidio et conquestu Britanniae that was important for the history of the island during and after the decline of Roman rule. A description of the topography is followed by the history in Roman times, emphasizing the events of Church history. The invasion of the Anglo-Saxons is interpreted as a punishment fro…

Aegidius

(121 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Gallic aristocrat, named comes et magister utriusque militiae per Gallias by emperor  Maiorianus in AD 456 or 457, lost Cologne to the Franks, wrested Lyon from the Burgundians in 458 and defended Arles against the West Goths, whom he defeated in 463 in league with the Salic king Childerich at Orléans. In 461 he refused to recognize Maiorianus' successor and created for himself in North Gallia an independent power base centred in Soisson, which he, until his death in 464/65, asserted above…

Laterculum

(253 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Attested in the general sense of ‘list’ from Tertullianus (Ad nat. 1,13), common as a technical term for the list of all civil and military office bearers from the 4th cent. AD. In the notitia dignitatum , among the insignia of the primicerius notariorum a codex-like object (probably a container for loose sheets) with the supplement laterculum maius (Not. Dign. Or. 18,2; Not. Dign. Occ. 16,3) is to be found. It was the list of the high imperial offices, presumably kept by the most senior notary from the time of Constantinus [1] I, as it…

Anthemius

(604 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis 405-414 AD Probably sent to Persia as an envoy in AD 383, comes sacrarum larg. (eastern region) in AD 400; magister officiorum (eastern region) at the latest in AD 404, cos. 405; at the latest from AD 406 patricius. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae

(78 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] The NUC is a description of the 14 regions of Constantinopolis with their churches, palaces, baths, etc., as well as a listing of municipal officials. This compilation, written in Latin, was drawn up under the Emperor Theodosius II around AD 425. Notitia dignitatum; Theodosius II Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: O. Seeck, Notitia dignitatum, 1876, 227-243. Literature: P. Speck, Zur Datierung der N.u.C., in: H.-G. Beck (ed.), Studien zur Frühgeschichte Konstantinopels, 1973, 144ff.

Zemarchus

(125 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζήμαρχος/ Zḗmarchos). Magister militum per Orientem under the emperor Iustinus [4] II, a Cilician by origin who led a legation to the khan Sizabulus of the Turks (AD 552-576) to the central Asiatic region of Sogdiana in the years 569-571/2, rather than 568/9. He took part in Sizabulus' campaign against the Persians, concluded a treaty with the Turks and returned after an adventuresome voyage over the Volga. The account of this legation is very important for its information about the T…

Germany

(31,487 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Johne, Renate (Berlin RWG) | Aurnhammer, Achim (Freiburg i. Br. RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Holtermann, Martin (Mannheim RWG) | Et al.
Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) I. To 1600 (CT) [German version] A. History and Social Development under Carolingian Rule to 918 (CT) The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor (800) laid the foundation for the medieval German empire. In a lengthy process, the German people evolved from those Germanic tribes that had remained settled during the great migration of the peoples, together with some foederati, Rome's former allies. Larger communities developed around many villae, still evident in some place names, particularly in the Rhineland, but settlements also develope…

Lagodius

(65 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Spanish relative, probably cousin, of the emperor Honorius [3]; after the collapse of the resistance put up by his brothers Didymus and Verenianus against the usurper Constantinus [3] III in Spain in AD 408/9, he fled to the eastern part of the Empire (Zos. 6,4,4; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,12,1; cf. Oros. 7,40,5-8). PLRE 2,654; cf. 358, 1099, 1155. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)

Historia Augusta

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Work Historia Augusta (HA) is the modern title of the Scriptores historiae Augustae (SHA), as Casaubonus in 1603, following the Vita Taciti (10,3), named the six otherwise unknown authors Aelius Spartianus, Iulius Capitolinus, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Aelius Lampridius, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus from Syracuse. They feature as the compilers of a collection of  biographies of Roman emperors, heirs apparent and usurpers from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) to Numerianus and Carinus (283-284/…

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Avitus

(544 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Flavius Eparchius A. West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456 West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456, born c. 400 in Clermont. He came from a family of senators from the Auvergne, came to have some influence over the king of the West Goths,  Theoderic I and, as praef. praetorio Galliarum in 439, he negotiated a peace treaty with the king and persuaded him to join sides in the war against the Huns in 451 (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,295-355). In 455, A. was appointed mag. militum praesentalis by the emperor Petronius  Maximus and after the latter's overthrow was himself…

Honorius

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Grand)father of emperor Theodosius I Listed in [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 as father of the emperor Theodosius I, but may have been his grandfather. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Elder brother of Theodosius I Elder brother of Theodosius I, probably related to  Maria, whose daughter was  Serena; both were taken into the emperor's household. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [3] Flavius H. West Roman emperor 393-423 AD, puer nobilissimus West Roman emperor AD 393-423, was born on 9 September AD 384 …

Ferreolus

(106 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Gallic aristocrat, grandson of the consul of 381 AD Afranius Syagrius, related by marriage through his wife Papianilla to  Sidonius Apollinaris (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 7,12,1f.; Carm. 24,35-38). As praefectus praetorio Galliarum, he supported  Aetius [2] in 451 in the repulse of the Huns, protected Arelate from the Goths in 452/3, and granted tax concessions in Gaul (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 7,12,3). In 469, he came to Rome as an envoy of his homeland to raise charges against Arvandus, his successor in office (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 9). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibl…

Glycerius

(111 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] West Roman emperor from AD March 473 to June 474. In 472/3 he was comes domesticorum and was proclaimed Augustus in Ravenna at the behest of the supreme imperial general  Gundobad. He persuaded Ostrogoths who had invaded Italy to withdraw by giving them gifts. The East Roman emperor  Leo I did not recognize him and sent a fleet under  Iulius Nepos to whom G. submitted without battle. He became bishop of Salona and allegedly instigated the murder of Nepos in 480 (Iohannes Antiochenus Fr. 209,2 FHG IV 617f.; Iord. Get. 45,239; 241; 56,283f.; Anon. Valesianus 7,36). Johne, Klau…

Fidelis

(100 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιδέλιος; Phidélios) of Milan. Lawyer in Rome and in AD 527/8 quaestor palatii of the Ostrogoth king  Athalaricus (Cassiod. Var. 8,18f.). In 536, he was sent to  Belisarius on behalf of the citizens of Rome and pope Silverius, in order to hand over the city (Procop. Goth. 1,14,5). In 537/8, he served as praefectus praetorio for the Eastern Roman Empire. In 538, he fell into the hands of the Goths near Ticinum, who killed him as a traitor (Procop. Goth. 1,20,19f.; 2,12,27f.; 34f.). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 469f. Stein, Spätröm. R. vol. 2, 348, 354.

Nomus

(131 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes et magister officiorum in the eastern Empire AD 443-446 (Nov. Theod. 24f.; Cod. Iust. 1,24,4; 12, 19, 7f.; 21, 6; 26, 2; BGU 12, 2141), consulin 445 together with Emperor Valentinianus III., and patricius 448-451 (Theod. Epist. 81; 96). N. was an influential advisor to Emperor Theodosius II. and a friend of the praepositus sacri cubiculi Chrysaphius; in 450 he was sent with the magister militum Anatolius [2] to the Hun King Attila to conclude a peace (Prisc. fragment 8; 13f. = FHG IV 91; 97f.; Iohannes Antiochenus fragment 198 = FHG IV 613…

Notitia Africae

(67 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] ( Notitia provinciarum et civitatum Africae). The NA is a list of 466 Catholic bishops from Africa up to the time of the Vandal King Hunericus/Hunerich in AD 484. Compiled at approximately the same time as the work of Victor of Vita. Notitia dignitatum Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: MGH AA 3, 1, 1878, 63-71  M. Petschenig, Victor Vitensis, in: CSEL 7, 1881, 115-134.

Parthenius

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] I Greek (Παρθένιος; Parthénios). [German version] [I 1] Prolific writer from Nicaea or Myrlea, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC; from Nicaea or Myrlea; according to the Suda (π 664 = T 1 Lightfoot), our only source of biographical information (based on Hermippus of Berytus), P. may have been born in Myrlea and then moved to Nicaea (cf. [5. 9] with literature). Prolific writer, author of poems in a variety of metres. Captured by Cinna during a campaign against Mithridates [6] in 73 BC, but freed ' because of his education', P. is believed to have lived until the time of Empe…

Arbogastes

(177 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Pagan Frank in Roman service, who served in AD 380 under the marshal  Bauto, perhaps his father, and was elevated to magister militum by the army between 385 and 387. On the order of  Theodosius I he defeated the usurper  Maximus in 388, then controlled the politics of the western empire under  Valentinianus II and defended the Rhine frontier against the Franks (Zos. 4,33,1 f.; 53,1 f.; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9). A. was the first German to properly rule parts of the Roman empire. After Valentinian's unres…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Herculius

(58 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio 408 to 410 BC Praefectus praetorio Illyrici from AD 408 to 410 (Cod. Theod. 12,1,172; 15,1,49), in whose honour the Sophists erected statues in Athens and Megara (IG II2 4224f.; VII 93).  Iohannes Chrysostomos sent him epist. 201. PLRE 2, 545. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) [German version] [2] see Maximianus see  Maximianus

Longinianus

(93 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius Macrobius L., in AD 399 comes sacrarum largitionum ( comes, comites ), as praefectus urbi had the walls and gates of Rome restored in 401-402 because of the threat of the Goths (ILS 797). In 406 L. became praef. praet. italiae, as a friend of Stilicho, when he was overthrown, L. was assassinated on 13 August 408 (Zos. 5,32,7; cf. Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,4,7). Symmachus wrote to him epist. 7,93-101. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2,686f. A. Chastagnol, Fastes de la préfecture de Rome, 1962, 255-257 v. Haehling 311-313.

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Ulpius

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [0] C. U. Antoninus Proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia (communication from M. Waelkens). Whether he is identical with the senator U. Antoninus who participated in the secular games of AD 204 [1] must remain an open question. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, s. v. U. (25), RE Supplementum 14, 935. [German version] [1] M. U. Arabianus Senator from Amastris [4] in Pontus; cos. suff.; consular governor of Syria Palaestina (Syria) between AD 187 and 190 (IGR III 85 = [1. 163, no. 16]); procos. of Africa around 200 (CIL VIII 15876). His son was M. U. Domitius…

Gerontius

(304 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Armenian, about AD 350, had great influence at the court in Constantinople Armenian, held his first office in the imperial administration in AD 356-357 (Lib. Ep. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti in 361-362. In 364-365 (without office) he had great influence at the court in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 1484 etc.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Commander of the city of Tomi AD 384-387 Commander of the city of Tomi in AD 384-387. He had barbarians in Roman service executed for planning an assault…

Notitia Romae

(74 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] The Notitia regionum urbis (Romae) XIV, also known as the Libellus de regionibus urbis Romae, is the most comprehensive source for the administrative structure of the city's 14 districts and for the stock of buildings in ancient Rome. Its core description of the city dates back to the reign of Constantinus [1] I, with interpolations from the 4th cent. Notitia dignitatum; Roma Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: A. Nordh, 1949.

Honoria

(181 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Iusta Grata H., western Roman empress. Daughter of  Constantius [6] III and of  Galla [3] Placidia, elder sister of  Valentinianus III, born in AD 417 or 418 (Olympiodorus fr. 34 FHG IV 65; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,16,2), probably became Augusta before 437 (ILS 817f.). She was forced to take a vow of eternal virginity, but in 449 was expelled from court because of an affair with her procurator and she became betrothed to a senator. She then asked  Attila, king of the Huns, for help an…

Reparatus

(172 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Late-Roman senator, c. AD 527, praefectus urbis Romae Late-Roman senator, brother of Pope Vigilius, c. AD 527 praefectus urbis Romae under the Gothic king Athalaric. In 536, he was interned by the Goths in Ravenna. He fled to Liguria, and in 538, Belisarius appointed him praefectus praetorio (Italiae) in Mediolan(i)um [1] (Milan), where he was assassinated in 539 by the victorious Goths (Cassiod. Var. 9,7; Procop. Goth 1,26,1 f.; 2,12,34 f.; 21,40). Ostrogoths Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 939 f., 1323  Rubin 2, 109, 126 f.  Ch. Schäfer, Der wes…

Heraclianus

(116 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Western Roman usurper in the year AD 413. He murdered  Stilicho in Ravenna in 408 and was rewarded for this by being named comes Africae (Zos. 5,37,6). In spite of the despotism he practiced there he was made consul in 413 (Oros. 7,42,10), but he revolted against  Honorius [3] and landed near Rome with a large fleet. He was defeated and condemned to death on the 3rd of August 413 (Cod. Theod. 15,14,13). He fled to Carthage, where he was killed (Oros. 7,42,14; Zos. 6,7ff.; Chron. min. 1,467, 654; 2,18,71 Mommsen). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 539f. A. Deman…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Flavianus

(473 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Praefectus praetorio 222 oder 223 n. Chr. Praefectus praetorio mit (Geminius) Chrestus im Jahre 222 oder 223 n.Chr. Als ihnen auf Drängen der Iulia Mamaea Domitius Ulpianus von Severus Alexander als Praetorianerpraefekt übergeordnet wurde, meuterte die Garde, worauf Ulpianus F. und Chrestus töten ließ (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Franke, Thomas (Bochum) [English version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. heidnischer, stadtröm. Aristokrat; Freund des Symmachus Dominierende Gestalt der stadtröm. nichtchristl. Aristokratie im letzten Vier…

Honoria

(163 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] Iusta Grata H., weström. Kaiserin. Tochter Constantius' [6] III. und der Galla [3] Placidia, ältere Schwester Valentinianus' III., 417 oder 418 n.Chr. geb. (Olympiodor fr. 34 FHG IV 65; Soz. 9,16,2), wurde wohl vor dem Jahre 437 Augusta (ILS 817f.). Sie wurde zum Gelübde ewiger Jungfrauenschaft gezwungen, 449 jedoch wegen einer Affäre mit ihrem Prokurator vom Hofe verstoßen und mit einem Senator verlobt. Daraufhin bat sie den Hunnenkönig Attila um Hilfe und gab ihm ein Heiratsver…

Vigilantia

(128 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Sister of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, married to Dulcidius, mother of Praeiecta, of the magister militum and patricius Marcellus [7] and of the emperor Iustinus [4] II, who was born c. AD 510-515; she was still alive for his ascension to the throne in 565 and she had influence over him (Procop. Vand. 2,24,3; Victor Tonnunensis, Chron. Min. ed. Mommsen: MGH AA 2,206; Corippus, In laudem Iustini, praef. 21 f.; 1,8 f.; 2,283). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Cameron (ed.), Corippus, In laudem Iustini (with an English translation and commentary…

Litorius

(84 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes and alongside Aetius [2], influential magister militum in Gaul, fought from AD 435 with Hunnic troops primarily against the Visigoths. L. subjugated Aremorica, laid waste to the land of the Arvernians, liberated Narbo from the Gothic siege and in 439 was captured near Tolosa and killed by the Goths (Chron. min. 1,475f.; 2,23 Mommsen; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,246-50, 300-303; Salv. Gub. 7,10). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 684f. A. Demandt, s.v. magister militum, RE Suppl. 12, 553-790, esp. 666f.

Florentius

(359 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius F. Praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 357-360 Was praefectus praetorio Galliarum from AD 357 to 360. At his instigation, Constantius [2] II had his auxiliary troops withdrawn from Gaul, which resulted in Julian's elevation (Julian. Ep. 282c; Amm. Marc. 20,4,2). In 360 Constantius appointed him praefectus praetorio Illyrici and in 361 honoured him with the consulate (Amm. Marc. 21,6,5). After Julian's victory he was sentenced to death in absentia by the Commission of Calchedon (Amm. Marc. 22,3,6). He is probably identical to the homonymous comes of Const…

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Gabrielus

(53 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae in AD 543; while in office, he resumed charge of the capital's grain supply, which John the Cappadocian ( Iohannes [16]) had assigned to the praefectus praetorio Orientis (Lydus, Mag. 3,38; Nov. Iust. 125). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 3 A, 498 Stein, Spätröm. R., vol. 2, 441.

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…
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