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Reublin

(263 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] (Röubli), Wilhelm (um 1484 Rottenburg/Neckar – 1559 oder später) wirkte 1525–1531 als Führungsgestalt der Täufer in Südwestdeutschland, in der Schweiz und in Mähren und hatte Einfluß auf B. Hubmaier und M. Sattler. Er hatte in Freiburg i.Br. und Tübingen studiert, den Magistergrad erworben und war 1521 in Basel Leutpriester (St. Alban) geworden. Wegen seiner aufwühlenden reformatorischen Predigten, die riesige Hörerscharen anzogen, wurde er 1522 ausgewiesen und ging nach Witikon (…

Pregizer

(313 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Pregizer, Christian Gottlob (18.3.1751 Stuttgart – 30.10.1824 Haiterbach), studierte in Tübingen ev. Theol. (1768–1773), wurde vom Pietismus geprägt und wirkte als Lehrer in Besigheim (ab 1773) und als Pfarrer in Tübingen (ab 1779), Grafenberg bei Nürtingen (ab 1783) und Haiterbach bei Nagold (ab 1795). Er engagierte sich in der Jugendarbeit und war beliebt als Seelsorger und Prediger. Von 1801 an bildete sich um ihn eine pietistische Strömung, die im Gegensatz zum Moralismus der A…

Pappus

(145 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Pappus, Johannes (16.1.1549 Lindau – 13.7.1610 Straßburg) studierte in Straßburg, Tübingen (Dr. theol. 1573) und Basel. Ab 1570 wirkte er in Straßburg als Prof. für Hebr., dann für Gesch., ab 1578 für Theol. und als Münsterpfarrer. Nach dem Tod J. Marbachs 1581 leitete P. die Kirche, verdrängte die Reste ref. Kirchlichkeit und setzte das Luthertum durch. Kämpfe hatte er deswegen mit Johannes  Sturm, der 1578 einen »Antipappus« veröff. Mit der Kirchenordnung von 1598 wurde die Konk…

Utenheim

(168 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Utenheim, Christoph v. (um 1450 in Straßburg – 16.3.1527 Pruntrut [Porrentruy, Kanton Jura]) war 1473/74 Rektor der Universität und 1502–1527 Bf. von Basel. Der Humanist hatte in Basel und Erfurt Theol. und Kirchl. Recht studiert. Er bemühte sich um Kirchenreform, berief 1503 eine Synode ein und beauftragte J. Wimpfeling mit der Ausarbeitung von Statuten, die die Tätigkeit der Kleriker regeln sollten und regelmäßige Synoden vorsahen. Die Reform scheiterte am Widerstand des Domkapit…

Schappeler

(271 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] (Schepler, latinisiert: Sertorius), Christoph (1472 St. Gallen – 25.8.1551 ebd.), war Reformator der Reichsstadt Memmingen und spielte eine Rolle im Bauernkrieg. Er studierte und lehrte 1498–1503 und 1505–1510 in Leipzig (nicht Wien) und erwarb 1501 den M.A. und 1510 das Lizentiat an der theol. Fakultät (kein theol. und kein juristischer Doktorgrad). In St. Gallen wirkte er 1503–1505 und 1510–1513 als Lehrer, dann als Prädikant in Memmingen, wo er sich 1519/20 der Reformation anschl…

Vadian

(284 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] (von Watt), Joachim (29.11.1484 St. Gallen – 6.4.1551 ebd.). Der humanistische Gelehrte war von 1526 an mehrfach Bürgermeister von Sankt Gallen und führte dort zus. mit J. Keßler die Reformation ein. V. hatte von 1501 an in Wien studiert und war von C. Celtis geprägt. 1516 wurde er Prof. für Rhetorik, 1516/17 war er Rektor und 1517 erwarb er den med. Doktorgrad. Reisen führten ihn nach Trient, Venedig, Padua, Leipzig, Posen, Breslau und Krakau. 1518 aus unbekanntem Grund nach St. G…

Pappus, Johannes

(168 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1549, Lindau – Jul 13, 1610, Straßburg [Strasbourg]) studied in Straßburg, Tübingen (Dr.theol. 1573) and Basel. Beginning in 1570, ¶ he taught at Straßburg, first as professor of Hebrew, then as professor of history; in 1578 he was appointed professor of theology and pastor of Straßburg Minster. After the death of J. Marbach in 1581, as head of the church in Straßburg he suppressed the remnants of Reformed practice and enforced Lutheranism. This brought him into conflict with Johannes Sturm, who published an Antipappus in 1578. The church order of 1598 ac…

Hochstetter

(343 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Johann Andreas (Mar 15, 1637, Kirchheim unter Teck – Nov 8, 1720, Bebenhausen). Hochstetter was, as a leading churchman in Württemberg, the most important early proponent of Pietism in the region and was, consequently, called the “Württembergian Spener” already in the 18th century. After studying in Tübingen, he became a pastor there (1659) and then in Walheim, dean in Böblingen (1672), professor of philosophy (1677) and later of theology in Tübingen and general superintendent (16…

Komander (Comander), Johann

(300 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (actually: Dorfmann; c. 1482, Maienfeld, Switzerland – between Feb 15 and 21, 1557, Chur). The most important Reformer of the Swiss canton of the Grisons was probably the son of a hatter. He attended the Latin school in Sankt Gallen and studied in Basel from 1502 to 1505, where he was awarded the Baccalaureus artium. From 1512, he was at first curate and, from 1521, pastor in Escholzmatt near Lucerne. In 1523, already with Protestant inclinations, he was appointed pastor by the co…

Griesinger, Georg Friedrich

(164 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1734, Dornhan-Marschalkenzimmern – Apr 27, 1828, Stuttgart) advocated in the Church of Württenberg a moderate Enlightenment theology (Rationalism: III), eschewing the doctrine of inspiration, but holding firmly to biblicism and belief in revelation, and authored many works of exegesis and systematic theology. After studying theology in Tübingen, from 1766 he was a minister in Stuttgart, and was Consistorial Councilor from 1786 until his retirement in 1822. He played a sig…

Malvenda, Pedro de

(162 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1505, Burgos, Spain – after 1561), important Catholic theologian of whose life little is known. In 1519 Malvenda began his studies in Paris, where in 1538 he earned a doctorate in theology. In 1540 he became chaplain at the imperial court in Spain. He took part in disputations on religion (Disputations, Religious: I) in Worms in 1541 and Regensburg in 1546, tried unsuccessfully in 1547 to win Philip of Hessen back to the Roman Church, and participated in the preparation of the…

Rieger

(354 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Georg Konrad (Mar 7, 1687, Cannstatt – Apr 16, 1743, Stuttgart), representative of Württemberg Pietism and a popular preacher. Rieger was the son of a vintner. He studied theology in Tübingen from 1704 to 1710, and was active from 1721 in Stuttgart, first as a teacher, then from 1733 to 1742 as pastor at St. Leonhard’s, and finally in 1742/1743 as pastor and dean at the Hospitalkirche. He wrote the biography of B. Sturm and volumes of sermons. In 1737 he attempted to convert to Christianity Joseph Süß Oppenheimer (c. 1698–1738), a court Jew who had been condemned to death. Mar…

Watt, Joachim von

(317 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Joachim Vadian; Nov 29, 1484, Saint Gall – Apr 6, 1551, Saint Gall), Humanist and scholar. He began his studies in Vienna in 1501, where he was influenced by C. Celtis. In 1516 he was appointed professor of rhetoric; in 1516/1517 he served as rector, and in 1517 he received a doctorate in medi-¶ cine. His travels took him to Trent, Venice, Padua, Leipzig, Posen (Poznań), Breslau (Wrocław), and Krakow. For unknown reasons, he returned to Saint Gall, where he served as mayor several times (first in 1526) and together with J. Keßler in…

Myconius, Oswald

(183 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (also Molitor, actually Geißhüsler; 1488, Lucerne – Oct 14, 1552, Basel), important Reformer in Switzerland. He was the son of a miller (Lat. molitor), attended school in Rottweil, and studied from 1510 in Basel. From 1514 he was a teacher, first in Basel, then from 1516 in Zürich, and from 1519 in Lucerne, until he was dismissed as a “Lutheran” in 1522. From 1523 to 1531, he worked in Zürich for the Reformation, alongside Zwingli, as a teacher at the Frauenmünster. ¶ Finally back in Basel, as successor of J. Oecolampadius he became the head (Antistes) of the R…

Jäger, Johann Wolfgang

(303 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Mar 17, 1647, Stuttgart – Apr 11 [not: 2], 1720, Tübingen), Lutheran theologian, was the son of a Württemberg official. He studied in Tübingen, received the M.A. in 1669 and, from 1671, was tutor to two sons of the duke in Tübingen, whom he accompanied to Switzerland and Italy. As professor of philosophy in Tübingen (from 1678), he initially taught geography and Latin, then Greek, later ethics, and finally logic and metaphysics. He became professor of theology in 1690, received t…

Venturini, Karl Heinrich Georg

(306 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1768, Brunswick – May 25, 1849, Brunswick). The son of a musician, Venturini studied theology at Helmstedt from 1788 to 1793, where he was influenced by H.P.K. Henke, a proponent of rationalism. To earn a living, he worked as a historical writer. In 1794 he was appointed as a lecturer at Helmstedt. From 1797 to 1799 he worked as a teacher in Copenhagen; in 1807 he was appointed pastor in Hordorf, near Brunswick. From ¶ 1844 on he lived as an independent scholar in Schöppenstedt, near Wolfenbüttel. He had tried unsuccessfully to find a job as a lec…

Gengenbach, Pamphilus

(185 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1480, Basel – 1524/25, Basel). The Basel printer, bookseller and poet was the first 16th-century German dramatist and, influenced by J. Eberlin von Günzburg, an early adherent of the Reformation. He authored songs, politico-moral essays and plays. His most successful play was the Shrovetide drama Die zehn Alter dieser Welt [The ten ages of this world] (1515?), in which a hermit shares instructions for life with people of all ages, from childhood to old age. In the play Gouchmatt [Fool's mate], he criticized the moral state at the time (1516). In the poem…

Elizabeth of Braunschweig-Lüneburg

(190 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (also: Elizabeth of Münden; Aug 24, 1510, Berlin? – May 25, 1558, Ilmenau). The daughter of Joachim I of Brandenburg married Erich I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1525, assumed the government on behalf of her minor son Erich II (1528–1584) after her husband's death in 1540, and began the Reformation of the duchy in 1542 with A. Corvinus. After her son assumed rule in 1545 …

Cruciger

(268 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Caspar (the Elder; Jan 1, 1504, Leipzig – Nov 16, 1548, Wittenberg) studied in Leipzig (1513–1523) and Wittenberg, and became preacher and schoolmaster in Magdeburg in 1525. Returning to Wittenberg in 1528, he earned his doctorate in 1533. As professor of theology and collaborator of Luther (Bible revision, printing of sermons, edition of Luther's works) and Melanchthon (Disputations, Religious; Augsburg Interim), he ¶ sparked off a dispute over justification in 1536, when he called for repentance and good deeds. He played a part in the reformation of L…

Renato, Camillo

(184 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Paolo Ricci, Lisia Fileno; c. 1500, Sicily – c. 1575, Caspano, Valtellina?), lived as a Franciscan friar in Naples, got into trouble with the Inquisition, worked as a private tutor in Bologna in 1538, became an advocate of psychopannychism (Soul), and was convicted and imprisoned in Ferrara in 1540 as a “Lutheran.” In 1542, he was able to flee to Chiavenna and to the Valtellina, which was at the time ruled by Graubünden, and worked there as a teacher. Excommunicated in Chiavenna …

Weismann, Christian Eberhard

(150 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Weissmann, Weißmann; Sep 2, 1677, Hirsau – May 22, 1747, Tübingen), a Pietist influenced by P.J. Spener, served churches in Calw, Stuttgart, and Tübingen; from 1721 he was professor of theology at Tübingen. His Introductio in memorabilia ecclesiastica historiae sacrae (1718/1719, 21745) was a substantial contribution to church history. Influenced by G. Arnold, it drew a gloomy picture of the Reformed and Lutheran churches of the 17th century. ¶ Weismann also wrote theological and devotional works, including his anti-Catholic Grund-Lehren (1729, 21737) and the…

Sturm, Beata

(165 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1682, Stuttgart – Jan 11, 1730, Stuttgart), daughter of a jurist, was one of the most important women in Pietism; after her death, she was venerated as a saint. Apart from a brief period in Blaubeuren, she spent her entire life in Stuttgart. Par-¶ tially blind since childhood and orphaned at the age of 11, she deliberately remained single and several times “affianced” herself to Jesus. She actively committed herself and her fortune to helping the poor, the sick, and widows, so that later she came to be called the “Wü…

Heynlin of Stein, Johann

(182 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Latinized: de Lapide; also: Steinlin, Lapidanus, Lapierre; c. 1428/1431, Stein, near Pforzheim – Mar 12, 1496, Basel). Heynlin, a scholar broadly trained in philosophy and theology, combined traditional Scholastic positions and methods with a modern humanistic sensibility. He studied in Erfurt, Leipzig, Louvain, and finally in Paris, where he became rector of the university in 1469 and received the degree of Dr.theol. in 1472. In Paris he established the first printing-press. Fro…

Sattler, Michael

(280 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1490, Staufen im Breisgau – May 20, 1527, Rottenburg am Neckar), a leading figure among the early Anabaptists in southwest Germany; in 1527 he wrote the Schleitheim Articles, an early Reformation confession (of faith) (III, 3) and church order (I, 2). Before joining the Reformation c. 1524, he had lived as a Benedictine in the abbey of St. Peter in the Black Forest, where he had recently been prior. In 1525 he joined the Anabaptists in Zürich, had himself rebaptized, and in No…

Reublin, Wilhelm

(285 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Röubli; c. 1484, Rottenburg am Neckar – 1559 or later). From 1525 to 1531, Reublin was a leading figure among the Anabaptists in southwest Germany, Switzerland, and Moravia; he influenced B. Hubmaier and M. Sattler. He studied at Freiburg im Breisgau and Tübingen, earned a master’s degree, and in 1521 was appointed parish priest of Sankt Alban’s in Basel. On account of his inflammatory preaching of the Reformation, he was expelled in 1522 and went to Witikon (Canton Zürich), wher…

Keßler, Johannes

(204 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Lat. Ahenarius; c. 1502/1503, Sankt Gallen – Mar 7, 1574, Sankt Gallen). Keßler, born into a poor family, studied in Basel, where he was taught by Erasmus of Rotterdam, and from 1522 in Wittenberg, where he was taught by Luther and Melanchthon. Deliberately rejecting ordination and making his living as a saddler in Sankt Gallen, in 1524 he began his work for the Reformation by delivering open lectures on the Bible, which he called Lesinen. He also taught languages at the Latin school. He married in 1525. J. v. Watt's closest coworker, he became the lea…

Utenheim, Christoph von

(182 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1450 in Straßburg [Strasbourg] – Mar 16, 1527, Porrentruy, canton of Jura), a Humanist, was rector of the University of Basel in 1473/1474 and bishop of Basel from 1502 to 1527. He had studied theology and canon law at Basel and Erfurt. He devoted himself to church reform, convoking a synod in 1503 and commissioning J. Wimpfeling to draw up statutes to govern the activities of clerics and to provide for regular synods. The reform foundered on the resistance of the cathedral ch…

Hemmerli, Felix

(189 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Latinized: Malleolus; Sep 11, 1388 or 1389, Zürich – 1458 [?], Lucerne [?]), canonist, priest (ordained 1430) and author. Hemmerli studied church law in Erfurt and Bologna and earned a doctoral degree in 1424. After 1412, he was a canon in Zürich and became cantor in 1428. He also held benefices in Solothurn and Zofingen. He participated in the Councils of Constance and Basel and promoted church reforms, on account of which an attempt on his life was made in 1439. In over 40 work…

Fricker, Johann Ludwig

(178 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1729, Stuttgart – Sep 13, 1766, Dettingen unter Teck). As a student of F.C. Oetinger, Fricker was a major exponent of Pietism in Württemberg. He already came under the influence of Pietism during his theological studies at Tübingen (1749–1752). He undertook extended educational travels, e.g. to Moravia and Hungary. He tutored in Amsterdam and visited England in 1757/58, where he came into contact with Methodism (Methodists). In 1760, he met S. Collenbusch and G. Tersteege…

Beurlin, Jakob

(201 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (1520, Dornstetten – Oct 28, 1561, Paris). While a student at Tübingen (matriculation 1533, baccalaureate 1537, M.A. 1541), he became a supporter of the Reformers' teaching. From 1546 to 1553 he served as pastor in Derendingen, near Tübingen (1549 in Sulz am Neckar). Upon graduation in 1551, he became professor of theology at Tübingen. The subjects he lectured on included Melanchthon's Loci, John, Hebrews, Romans, and 1 John. He served temporarily as rector and after 1557 as vice chancellor. …

Pirkheimer

(469 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. C(h)aritas. (baptized Barbara; Mar 21, 1467, Eichstätt – Aug 19, 1532, Nuremberg), abbess (from 1503) of the Clarissene convent in Nuremberg and an outstanding female figure (Women: IV, 2) of the Reformation period. The daughter of a patrician Nuremberg family, she entered the convent in 1479 to be educated and then took her vows, probably in 1483. She mastered Latin, read theological works, and corresponded with several Humanists. In 1525, when the Reformation carried the day i…

Kronberg, Hartmuth von

(183 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (1488, Oppenheim? – Aug 7, 1549, Kronberg im Taunus). An imperial knight related to Franz v. Sickingen and acquainted with Ulrich v. Hutten, Kronberg was definitively won over to the Reformation by Luther in Worms (1521). From 1521 to 1523, he wrote open letters (distributed as pamphlets) advocating the Reformation, to the emperor and pope among others, and helped implement the Reformation in Frankfurt am Main in 1522. He was placed under the imperial ban in 1522 because of his pa…

Grumbach, Argula von

(154 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (b. von Stauf; 1492, Burg Ehrenfels, Beratzhausen – 1554, Zeilitzheim/Schweinfurt or after 1563, Köfering?) lived in Dietfurt/Altmühl and was the most important female pamphlet author in the Reformation (Pamphlets of the Reformation). When the University of Ingolstadt disciplined Arsacius Seehofer for holding Lutheran ideas in 1523, she wrote eight letters in which she attacked Catholics, motivated by the “universal priesthood” and with appeal to the Bible. She printed a total of …

Bora, Katharina von

(164 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jan 29, 1499, Lippendorf near Leipzig – Dec 20, 1552, Torgau). This daughter of an impoverished noble was reared in the Augustinian nunnery of Brehna and then in the Cistercian nunnery of Marienthon in Nimbschen where she took her vows in 1515. On Easter night in 1523, she fled and arrived at Wittenberg. On Jun 13, 1525, she married Luther, to …

Schelhorn, Johann Georg

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1694, Memmingen – Mar 31, 1773, Memmingen) served as a teacher, Lutheran pastor, and librarian in Memmingen; he was a significant 18th-century scholar and a productive author (some 40 works), but is scarcely noticed by researchers. From 1712 on he studied at Jena and Altdorf, returning to Memmingen in 1718; there he was appointed librarian and deputy rector in 1725. In 1732 he became pastor of Buxach and Hart, near Memmingen, in 1734 municipal preacher, and in 1753 superintendent. He wrote on literary and ecclesiastical history (e.g. Amoenitates literariae, 14 …

Platter, Thomas

(177 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Feb 10, 1499, Grächen, Switzerland – Jan 26, 1582, near Basel). Following the death of his father, Platter spent his childhood as a shepherd. He acquired an education through travel (Ulm, Munich, Passau, Schlettstadt), and through contacts with Humanists such as Paulus Summermatter (died 1511) and Johann Sapidus (1490–1561). Around 1523, Platter became an adherent of the Reformation in Zürich under O. Myconius. On the occasion of the Disputation of Baden (Aargau) in 1526, he supp…

Thumm, Theodor

(159 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Thummius; Nov 8, 1586, Hausen an der Zaber [Brackenheim] – Oct 20, 1630, Tübingen), served as pastor and dean in Stuttgart and Kirchheim/Teck; in 1618 he became professor of theology at Tübingen, where he served several times as dean of the faculty and three times as rector. He devoted himself to controversial theology, with polemics against Jesuits, Calvinists, and followers of V. Weigel. The same purpose was served by his dogmatic compendium Synopsis praecipuorum articulorum fidei, nostro seculo maxime controversorum (1625, 21626, repr. 1704). Thumm played …

Bengel, Johann Albrecht

(578 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1687, Winnenden – Nov 2, 1752, Stuttgart). The teacher, pastor, and later prelate and consistorial councilor is the most important Württembergian Pietist of the 18th century. His contributions to exegesis and to New Testament text criticism and his chiliastic theory (Millenarianism) are significant. He exer…

Brenz, Johannes

(527 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jun 24, 1499, Weil der Stadt – Sep 11, 1570, Stuttgart). As the reformer of the imperial free city of Schwäbisch Hall and revitalizer of Protestantism in the duchy of Württemberg after the Augsburg Interim, Brenz played a leading role in the Lutheran Reformation in southern Germany. As a theologian, he made importa…

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Schappeler, Christoph

(306 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (or Schepler, Latinized: Sertorious; 1472 St. Gall – Aug 25, 1551, St. Gall), Reformer of the imperial city of Memmingen, who played a role in the Peasants’ War. He studied and taught from 1498 to 1503 and from 1505 to 1510 in Leipzig (not Vienna), receiving his M.A. in 1501 and his licentiate from the theological faculty in 1510 (no doctorate in theology or law). From 1503 to 1505 and from 1510 to 1513 he worked in St. Gall as a teacher and then as a preacher in Memmingen, where …

Bolsec, Hieronymus Hermes

(83 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (died c. 1584/1585). The Reformation-minded former Carmelite from Paris went in 1550 as a doctor to Geneva. Arrested because of his criticism of Calvin's doctrine of predestination, he was expelled from Geneva in 1551 and later from Bern and Lausanne. His polemical biography of Calvin, written in 1577, influenced French Catholicism into the 20th century. Martin H. Jung Bibliography F. Pfeilschifter, Das Calvinbild bei Bolsec, 1983 P. C. Holtrop, The Bolsec Controversy on Predestination, 2 vols., 1993.

Heilbrunner, Jakob

(210 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (also: Hailbronner; Aug 15, 1548, Eberdingen – Jun 11, 1618, Bebenhausen), completed theological studies in Tübingen in 1573 and then, like many in his day, went to Austria and served as a pastor in Vienna, Riegersburg (Moravia), and Sitzendorf on the Schmida. In 1575 he became court preacher in Pfalz-Zweibrücken but lost that position in 1580, when the Count Palatine Johann moved from the Lutheran to the Reformed confession. From 1581 to 1585 Heilbrunner was general superintenden…

Platter

(162 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Platter, Thomas (10.2.1499 Grächen, Wallis – 26.1.1582 bei Basel). Nachdem er die Kindheit nach dem Tod des Vaters als Hirte verbracht hatte, bildete sich P. durch Reisen (Ulm, München, Passau, Schlettstadt) und Kontakte zu Humanisten wie Paulus Summermatter (gest.1511) und Johann Sapidus (1490–1561). Um 1523 schloß er sich in Zürich unter O. Myconius der Reformation an. Bei der Disputation von Baden (Aargau) 1526 versorgte er den nicht erschienenen Zwingli mit Nachrichten. 1541 w…

Renato

(167 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Renato, Camillo (Paolo Ricci, Lisia Fileno; um 1500 Sizilien – um 1575 Caspano, Veltlin?), lebte als Franziskaner in Neapel, bekam Probleme mit der Inquisition, wirkte 1538 als Hauslehrer in Bologna, vertrat den Psychopannychismus (Seele), wurde 1540 in Ferrara als »Lutheraner« verurteilt und inhaftiert. 1542 konnte er nach Chiavenna und in das Veltlin fliehen, das von Graubünden regiert wurde, und betätigte sich dort als Lehrer. Als Täufer und Antitrinitarier und wegen spirituali…

Rieger

(297 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] 1.Georg Konrad (7.3.1687 Cannstatt – 16.4.1743 Stuttgart), Repräsentant des württembergischen Pietismus und beliebter Prediger. Der Sohn eines Weingärtners hatte 1704–1710 in Tübingen Theol. studiert und wirkte ab 1721 in Stuttgart, zunächst als Lehrer, 1733–1742 als Pfarrer an St. Leonhard, zuletzt 1742/43 als Pfarrer und Dekan an der Hospitalkirche. Er vf. die Lebensbeschreibung B. Sturms und Predigt-Bde. 1737 versuchte er, den zum Tode verurteilten Hofjuden Joseph Süß Oppenheimer (um 1698–1738) zur christl. Rel. zu bekehren. Martin H. Jung Bibliogra…

Venturini

(241 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Venturini, Karl Heinrich Georg (30.1.1768 Braunschweig – 25.5.1849 ebd.). Der Musikersohn studierte Theol. in Helmstedt (1788–1793) und wurde, von H. Ph.K. Henke geprägt, ein Anhänger des Rationalismus. Zum Lebensunterhalt betätigte er sich als Geschichtsschreiber. Er wirkte von 1794 an als PD (Helmstedt), 1797–1799 als Lehrer (Kopenhagen) und von 1807 an als Pfarrer (Hordorf bei Braunschweig). Von 1844 an lebte er als Privatgelehrter in Schöppenstedt bei Wolfenbüttel. Vergeblich ha…

Sattler

(264 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Sattler, Michael (um 1490 Staufen i.Br. – 20.5.1527 Rottenburg/Neckar), war ein bedeutender Repräsentant der frühen südwestdt. Täufer und vf. 1527 die »Schleitheimer Artikel«, ein frühes Bekenntnis (: III.,3.) und eine frühe Kirchenordnung (: I.,2.) der Reformation. Vor seinem Anschluß an die Reformation um 1524 hatte er als Benediktiner in St. Peter im Schwarzwald gelebt und war zuletzt Prior gewesen. 1525 wandte er sich in Zürich den Täufern zu, ließ sich erneut taufen und nahm …

Schelhorn

(151 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Schelhorn, Johann Georg (8.12.1694 Memmingen – 31.3.1773 ebd.), wirkte als Lehrer, ev. Prediger und Bibliothekar in Memmingen, war ein bedeutender Gelehrter und fruchtbarer Schriftsteller (ca.40 Werke) des 18.Jh., wurde von der Forschung jedoch kaum beachtet. Sch. studierte ab 1712 in Jena und Altdorf, kehrte 1718 nach Memmingen zurück, wurde dort 1725 Bibliothekar und Konrektor, 1732 Pfarrer von Buxach und Hart bei Memmingen, 1734 Stadtprediger und 1753 Superintendent. Er vf. lite…

Sonntag

(153 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[English Version] Sonntag, Karl Gottlob (10.8.1765 Radeberg – 17.7.1827 Riga), war ein dem gemäßigten Rationalismus (: III.) zugeneigter ev. Theologe und wirkte in Livland prägend auf das kirchl. und geistl. Leben. Nach dem Studium in Leipzig 1784–1788 wurde er Rektor der Domschule in Riga, 1791 Oberpastor, 1799 Assessor des livländischen Oberkonsistoriums und 1803 Generalsuperintendent. Er erwarb sich Verdienste durch die Neugestaltung der Liturgie, die Schaffung eines Gesangbuchs, die Förderung de…
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