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Academic Study of Religion

(1,898 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst
Religious Studies and Theology 1. The academic study of religion ( Religionswissenschaft), or religious studies, appeared only in the last third of the nineteenth century. Being of such recent date, and disposing of such a limited number of academic chairs, it is not well established in the public consciousness. Not infrequently, the ‘new’ discipline is confused with Christian theology, and it can easily happen that, when its students are asked what it is they study, they are confronted with the additional…

Racism

(2,031 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch , Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Racism is a political ideology that traces cultural and social differences back to racial causes, thus making them seem natural and unchangeable. In racism’s hierarchical ordering, racists always occupy the highest rank. Everything they declare to be of lesser value is subjected to their rightful rule. Since racism has no scientific basis, it has recourse principally to conventional patterns of prejudice that yield its preconditions and its most important support…

Rassismus

(1,857 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Lohmann, Friedrich | Micksch, Jürgen | Ludwig, Frieder
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich Der R. ist eine polit. Ideologie, die kulturelle und soziale Unterschiede auf rassische Ursachen zurückführt und auf diese Weise als naturgegeben und unveränderlich erscheinen läßt. In der hierarchischen Ordnung des R. nimmt der Rassist stets den obersten Rang ein. Alles von ihm zum Minderwertigen Erklärte unterliegt seinem Herrschaftsanspruch. Da der R. einer wiss. Grundlage entbehrt, bedient er sich vorzugsweise konventioneller Vorurteilsmuster, die …

People and Nationhood

(3,043 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Gertz, Jan Christian | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Grethlein, Christian | Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies People and nationhood are functional political terms that serve to define a collective entity and to incorporate it into a specific context (see III below). Only since the 18th century has it been possible to speak of a German nation as the active subject of its own history. The rupture of the church at the Reformation and the subsequent wars of religion in the 16th and 17th century long prevented the development of an inclusive political or religious identity. It …

Volk/Volkstum

(2,516 words)

Author(s): Junginger, Horst | Gertz, Jan Christian | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Grethlein, Christian | Ustorf, Werner
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichVolk (V.) und Volkstum sind polit. Funktionsbegriffe, die dazu dienen, eine kollektive Einheit abzugrenzen und in einen bestimmten Sinnzusammenhang einzufügen (s.u. III.). Von einem dt. V. als Subjekt seiner Gesch. kann man erst ab dem 18.Jh. sprechen. V.a. die Kirchenspaltung und die darauf folgenden Religionskriege des 16. und 17.Jh. verhinderten die Ausbildung einer übergreifenden polit. oder rel. Identität auf lange Zeit. Ein nationales Zusammenwac…