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Tynnichos

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τύννιχος) aus Chalkis (Euboia). Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. (?), Komponist eines in Delphi vielgesungenen Paians (Plat. Ion 534d), den laut einer Anekdote sogar Aischylos allem, was er selbst hätte dichten können, voranstellte (Porph. de abstinentia animalium 2,18 p. 148 Nauck). Käppel, Lutz Bibliography L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 359  I. Rutherford, Pindar's Paeans, 2001, 28.

Uranos

(367 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Οὐρανός, lat. Uranus). Göttliche Personifikation des Himmels, von Hesiod (theog. 126-128) als myth. Figur behandelt. U. wird von Gaia, der Erde, ohne zeugenden Vater geboren, ‘damit er sie völlig umhülle und den Göttern ein fester Sitz sei für ewig’ (ebd.). U. zeugt daraufhin mit Gaia die Uraniones (ebd. 424; 486), und zwar die Titanen, u. a. Kronos, den Vater des Zeus. U. ist damit Ahnherr der Götter (ebd. 44 f.; 105 f.). Auch Kyklopen und Hekatoncheires (ebd. 132-152) stammen vo…

Urmensch

(348 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] Die griech.-röm. Antike kannte einen U. im Sinne der jüd.-christl. Adam-und-Eva-Gesch. nicht. Einen ersten Ansatzpunkt liefert der bei Hes. erg. 109-200 überl. Weltaltermythos: Während des goldenen, silbernen, ehernen, heroischen und des (derzeitigen) eisernen Zeitalters habe es verschiedene Menschengeschlechter gegeben, die (bis auf das letzte) jeweils vom nächsten abgelöst wurden. Während die ersten beiden noch eher übermenschlich-utopische Züge tragen, erscheint das dritte Ges…

Typhoeus, Typhon

(471 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τυφωεύς, Τυφών; auch Τυφάων/ Typháōn, Τυφώς/ Typhṓs). Riesiges myth. Ungeheuer, nach Hesiod Abkomme des Tartaros und der Gaia, mit hundert Drachenköpfen (die Feuer speien) und Schlangenfüßen (zu bildl. Darstellungen: [1]), von Gaia nach dem Untergang der Titanen als Gegenherrscher zu Zeus eingesetzt, jedoch von diesem besiegt und in den Tartaros gestürzt; seitdem wirkt er in Stürmen und Vulkanausbrüchen (Hes. theog. 820-880). Mit Echidna zeugt er weitere Ungeheuer als Nachkommen: Orth…

Thaletas

(127 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Θαλήτας, bei manchen Autoren fälschlich “Thales”: z. B. Paus, 1,14,4; Plut. Lykurgos 4), Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. aus Gortyn (Kreta). Er war in Sparta an verschiedenen musikalischen Reformen in der Generation nach Terpandros zusammen mit Xenodamos von Kythera, Xenokritos von Lokroi und anderen beteiligt (Plut. de musica 9,1134b-c). Wie diese war er Komponist von Paianen (Plut. l.c.) bzw. von hyporchḗmata (schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). Spätere Musiktheorie schrieb ihm die Einführung paionischer und kretischer Rhyt…

Xenodamos

(104 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Ξενόδαμος). Griech. Chorlyriker des 7. Jh. v. Chr. aus Kythera. Er war in Sparta an verschiedenen musikalischen Reformen in der Generation nach Terpandros zusammen mit Thaletas und Xenokritos [1] von Lokroi beteiligt (Plut. de musica 9,1134b-c). Wie diese war er Komponist von Paianen (Plut. ebd.), die in der Ant. auch als hyporchḗmata ( hypórchēma ) klassifiziert wurden (Plut. l.c.; [1. 82], vgl. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Ders., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5…

Trophonios

(528 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Τροφώνιος, auch Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Heros des boiotischen Lebadeia, Stiefsohn oder Bruder des Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508); als Eltern werden genannt: Apollon und Epikaste (Paus. l.c.; schol. Aristoph. l.c.); Zeus und Iokaste (schol. Aristoph. l.c.); Valens/Ischys und Koronis [1] (Cic. nat. deor. 3,56); Erigonos (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f. etc.). Kinder: Alkandros [1] und Herkyra. Der Mythos kennt T. und Agamedes als berühmte Baumeister, und zwar des ersten Apollontempels von Delphoi (Hom. h. 3,295-297…

Themis

(474 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Θέμις, wörtl. “Recht”, “hl. Satzung”). Griech. Göttin bzw. göttl. Personifikation des altgeheiligten Rechts (vgl. dagegen Dike [1]); sie steht für die traditionelle Ordnung der Dinge, sei es, daß diese auf menschlicher Konvention beruht (so z. B. Hom. Od. 14,56, wo es um die richtige Behandlung von Fremden geht), sei es auf der Natur selbst (so z. B. Hom. Od. 9,130 von der “Natur der Frau”). Wichtig ist sie im Zusammenhang der ordnungsgemäßen Einberufung von Versammlungen (vgl. Hom. Il. 20,4 f. etc.). Urspr. bedeutet th. verm. “was niedergelegt wurde”, im M…

Uroboros

(177 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[English version] (Οὐροβόρος). Schlange, die sich in den eigenen Schwanz beißt, als Symbol häufig von den ant. Alchemisten verwendet; sie erscheint aber auch mehrfach in den griech.-äg. Zauberpapyri (PGM 7, col. 17; vgl. PGM 1,145 f.; 12,203 f.; 12,274 f.; 36,184). Sie repräsentiert die Einheit aller Mächte und Vorgänge im Kosmos. Indem man eine Sache genau untersucht, erkennt man alles: Der Makrokosmos spiegelt sich im Mikrokosmos. Die Formel, die das Symbol erklärt, soll offenbar den Grundsatz a…

Chaeremon

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] A Stoic philosopher and Egyptian priest of the 1st century ce, Chaeremon was probably a grammar teacher in Alexandria before becoming the tutor of the later emperor Nero in 49 ce. Chaeremon is the author of a grammatical essay on hieroglyphs ( Hieroglyphica), of an astrological treatise, and of a stoicizing work on Egyptian history ( Aigyptiakḗ historía). The latter was less a historical account than a mytholo¶ gizing description of the ancient Egyptian priesthood as the perfect embodiment of Stoic ideals. Lutz Käppel Bibliography Fragments: F. Jacoby, ed., Die Fragme…

Eudaimonia,

(644 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] from Greek εὐδαιμονία, meaning “happiness, bliss” (Lat. beatitudo). Originally a religious concept ( eudaímōn, “having a good daimon,” “blessed by God”; cf. Euripides, Orestes 667), it was often used in the sense of having great material wealth, and only entered the vocabulary of philosophical ethics in the 6th/5th century bce. The pre-Socratics were the first to strip the term of its material connotations and used the concept of eudaimonía to describe a good inner disposition of the human soul (cf. Democritus in: Vorsokratiker 68 B 77, …

Hesiod

(543 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 700 bce), the oldest Greek poet of whom there is authentic information concerning his person. His father, a merchant, was forced to leave the Aeolian city of Cyme and settled down in Boeotian Ascra (Hes. Erga kai hemerai [ Erga] 635–640). After his death, an inheritance dispute broke out between Hesiod and his brother Perses ( Erga 35–39). A first prize in a poetry contest in Chalcis is also documented ( Erga 650–659). Tradition attributes the following works to Hesiod's authorship: Theogonia ( Theogony), Erga kai hemerai ( Works and Days), and the Aspis ( Shield). Signi…

Daimon

(283 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] Greek δαίμων, may be etymologically related to δαίω “disperse” (i.e. the fateless?); originally “divine being, divine power” (= ϑεός, “god”) (Hom. Iliad 1.222 etc.), but already in Hes. Erga 121–126 it referred to the “soul of a deceased person.” The two concepts fuse in the image of daimons as punishing avengers (souls of the ¶ murdered execute vengeance as daimons). The concept of the “personal” daimon that influences the fate of the individual appeared from the 6th century bce (Theognis 161–164, Heraclitus 22 B 119 D.-K., Pindarus, Olympia 13.28, 105, Sophoc. Trachin…

Ezekiel the Tragedian

(263 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] was a Hellenistic Jew, presumably from Alexandria, who authored a Greek tragedy, Exagoge ( The Exodus, i.e. from Egypt) following Exod 1–15 (LXX) sometime after 240 bce but surely before 100 ce. The extant fragments (a total of 269 verses) represent the largest ¶ preserved portion of Greek tragedy after Euripides and, simultaneously, the largest preserved portion of Judeo-Hellenistic poetry. The following scenes have been preserved: 1. Moses reports about his fate to this poin…

Euripides

(423 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 485/484 bce, Salamis – 407/406, Pella). With Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides was the third great tragedian of classical Greece. Historically reliable information about his life is scanty. He was probably the son of a landowner and a mother from a distinguished family. In Athens he is said to have been a pupil of the Sophists Anaxagoras, Prodicus, and Protagoras, as well as being a friend of Socrates. He first appeared as a tragedian in 455 bce. He went on to produce 92 plays. In his old age, he finally left Athens for the co…

Pholus

(70 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόλος, Latin Pholus). One of the Centaurs, son of Silenus (Silens) and a Nymph. When Heracles [1] is being entertained with wine by P., the other Centaurs attack them; Heracles repels them with poisoned arrows, by which P. is also wounded and he dies (Stesich. PMGF S 19 = 181 p. 162; Theoc. 7,149; Diod. Sic. 4,12,3ff.; Verg. G. 2,456; Verg. Aen. 8,294). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Phobos

(122 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόβος/ Phóbos, Latin Pavor ). Personification of terror, esp. terror in war (cf. Aesch. Sept. 45); therefore, along with his brother Deimos, son of Ares and Aphrodite (Hes. Sc. 195f., 463f.). The brothers are found in Homer in connection with their father's chariot (Hom. Il. 4,440f.; 13,299f.; 15,119f.); they appear on the shield of Agamemnon together with Gorgo [1] (Hom. Il. 11,36f.), P. alone appears on the aegis of Athena (Hom. Il. 5,739) and of Heracles [1] (He…

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Orthopolis

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρθόπολις/ Orthópolis). Son of Plemnaeus, the mythical king of Sicyon (Paus. 2,5,8). Demeter, in disguise as a wet nurse, saved his life (cf  Demophon [1], Triptolemus). According to Euseb. Chronicon 394 he was the twelfth king of Sicyon. Augustinus (Civ. 18,8) dates his reign to the birth of Moses. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Munichus, Munitus

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούνυχος/ Moúnychos, Μούνιχος/ Moúnichos, also Μόνιχος/ Mónichos, Μούνιτος/ Moúnitos). [German version] [1] Hero of Attica Hero of Attica, son of Pantades, eponym of the harbour of Munichia in Piraeus (Eur. Hipp. 761-763). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I1] M. (Munitus): son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I 1], brought up by his grandmother Aethra; died of a snake bite after the fall of Troy (Euphorion fr. 58 Powell), perhaps identical with M. [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Molossians Later sour…

Pasithea

(86 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πασιθέα; Pasithéa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 246). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Charites (Graces) One of the Charites (Graces), promised in marriage by Hera to Hypnos (Sleep) in exchange for putting Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,267ff.; Paus. 9,35,4); in Nonnus (Nonn. Dion. 15,91; 31,121; 31,186; 33,40; 47,278), daughter of Dionysus and Hera, wife of Hypnos (cf. also Catull. 63,43; Anth. Pal. 9,517). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Menesthius

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μενέσθιος; Menésthios). [German version] [1] Boeotian at Troy Son of Areithous and Philomedusa, from Ame in Boeotia, killed in Paris in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 7,9; Tzetz. ad Hom. Il. 132). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Myrmidonian, a general of Achilles Myrmidonian, one of Achilles's generals in the Trojan War, son of Polydora and the river god Spercheus or the giant Pelor (Hom. Il. 16,173; Str. 9,433; Apollod. 3,168 with various genealogical and matrimonial variations for Polydora). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polyctor

(72 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύκτωρ/ Polýktōr). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of Ithaca In Hom. Od. 17,207 an inhabitant of Ithaca who took part in the building of the city well. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Peisander, a suitor of Penelope Father of Peisander [4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Myrmidon Myrmidon; in Hom. Il. 24,397 Hermes pretends in a conversation with  Priamus to be the latter's seventh son. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Podaleirius

(210 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδαλείριος; Podaleírios). Son of Asclepius and Epione, brother of Machaon, and like him a heroic or divine physician (Hom. Il. 11,833; cf. ibid. 2,731). He is mentioned among the suitors of Helen [1]  (Apollod. 3,131). In the cyclic epics he heals Philoctetes (Apollod. epit. 4,8; cf. Soph. Phil. 1333), diagnoses the madness of Ajax [1] and is finally cast away in Caria, where he founds Syrnus (Apollod. epit. 6,2; 6,18; Paus. 3,26,10). Apart from that, like Asclepius's other child…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Proetus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Προῖτος/ Proîtos, Lat. Proetus). Mythical king of Argos (Hom. Il. 6,157; Pind. Nem. 10,77), or Tiryns (Apollod. 2,25; Schol. Eur. Or. 965), son of Tersander and father of Maera [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 170b), more commonly however son of Abas [1] and Aglaea (Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Paus. 2,16,2; Apollod. 2,24 f.). P.' conflict with his twin brother Acrisius originates as early as their time in the womb (Apollod. 2,24 f.) or after P. has seduced Acrisius' daughter Danae (Apollod. 2,34 f…

Prosymnus

(168 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πρόσυμνος/ Prós(h)ymnos; Prosumnus in Arnob. 5,28, wrongly Pól(h)ymnos in Paus. 2,37,5). Deity in the retinue of Dionysus. P. showed the god the entrance to the underworld at Lerna, when Dionysus wished to bring his mother Semele back from Hades (Paus. ibid.). The broader myth places P. in a homoerotic relationship with Dionysus: in Clem. Al. Protreptikos 2,34 (cf. Arnob. 5,28), P. promises to reveal the way if the god acquiesces to carnal pleasures. The latter agrees to do so on his re…

Phronime

(106 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φρονίμη; Phronímē). Daughter of Etearchus, the mythical king of Oaxus in Crete, and his first wife; mother of Battus [1], the mythical founder of Cyrene. Hdt. 4,154f. tells her story evidently according to a Cyrenian source: on the basis of a slander by his second wife, Etearchus hands his daughter over to the merchant Themison to be drowned. He does throw her into water in accordance with his promise, but pulls her out again. In Thera Polymnestus takes her as a concubine and fathers Battus with her. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography W. Aly, Volksmärchen, Sage und Novel…

Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Pontos

(37 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόντος; Póntos). Greek personification of the sea (cf. Oceanus, Uranus), born of Ge/Gaia without spouse (Hes. Theog. 132); with her, P. fathered Ceto, Eurybia, Nereus, Phorcys and Thaumas (ibid. 233-239). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oeneus

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰνεύς/ Oineús). Mythological king of Calydon [3], son of Porthaon (Hom. Il. 14,115ff.) and Euryte (Apollod. 1,63; the whole family tree in Apollod. 1,64); children: Toxeus, Meleager [1], Deianira, Gorge (through the latter, O. was father of Tydeus). He was ousted by his brother Agrius [1]. Originally, O. may have been a wine god common to all Greeks, later replaced by Dionysus. He was often depicted in vase pictures as a wine god [1]. Numerous tragedians wrote (lost) tragedies entitled O. [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 E. Stasinopoulou-Kakarouga, s.v. O. …

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

First man

(404 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Graeco-Roman antiquity had no conception of a 'first man' in the sense of the Judaeo-Christian myth of Adam and Eve. The first point of comparison appears with the myth of the Ages of Man in Hes. Op. 109-200. According to this, there were various races of men during the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and (present) Iron Ages (Period, Era), each of which (except the last) was superseded by the next. While the first two demonstrated characteristics that were rather superhuman and uto…

Medusa

(31 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μέδουσα; Médousa). Mythological monster, one of the three Gorgons (see Gorgo [1]): M. is mortal, whereas her two sisters Sthenno and Euryale are immortal. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Naoclus

(24 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάοκλος; Náoklos). Son of Codrus, led Athenian emigrants to Teos (Paus. 7,3,6). Str. 14,1,3 calls him Nauclus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Lucretia

(223 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Wife of Numa Pompilius Wife of Numa Pompilius, mother of Pompilia, grandmother of Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Plut. Numa 21,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Collatinus Wife of Collatinus. Raped by the Roman prince Sex. Tarquinius, she commits her husband with L. Iunius [I 4] Brutus and P. Valerius to revenge and kills herself. This incident initiates the expulsion of the Tarquinians from Rome and with it the fall of rule by kings (Liv. 1,57-60 [1]; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,64,4-67,4; Ov. Fast.…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Ochimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄχιμος/ Ochimos). Mythological king of Rhodes, the oldest of the Heliadae. His brother Cercaphus married Cydippe [3], the daughter of O., although she was betrothed to another man, and the couple had to flee; following their return Cercaphus became O.'s successor (Hellanicus FGrH 140 F 37; Diod. Sic. 5,56f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ariphron

(112 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sicyon, choral lyricist (performance in Athens: 406/398 BC: IG II2 3092). Writer of a  paean to  Hygiea, famous up to the imperial period in many places. The poem, written in dactylo-epitrites pleaded for assistance from ‘Health’, personified as a deity (not yet genealogically connected with Apollo/Asclepius). It certainly belongs in the context of the Asclepius cult of Epidaurus and Athens [3]. Erroneously associated with  Licymnius [1; 2] by some researchers.  Choral lyrics Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Keyßner, PhW 53, 1933, 1289-1296 2 U. v. Wi…

Nyctimene

(41 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νυκτιμένη/ Nyktiménē). Daughter of Epopeus, the mythological king of Lesbos; after seducing her father (or being raped by her father) she is transformed into an owl by Athena (Ov. Met. 2,590ff.; Hyg. Fab. 204; 253). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pandocus

(74 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πάνδοκος; Pándokos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, wounded by the Telamonian Aias [1] (Hom. Il. 11,490). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Palaestra Father of Palaestra who was loved by Hermes. P. lived at a crossroads and killed the wanderers staying with him, for which he was killed by Hermes at Palaestra's request. The guesthouses are called after him pandokeîa ('accepting everyone'; Serv. Aen. 8,138; EM 647,56). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Menoetes

(54 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μενοίτης; Menoítēs). The mythical herdsman of Hades, who watches his herds on the island Erythea near the entrance of the Underworld. He reports Hercules's theft of one of his cattle to the neighbouring herdsman Geryoneus, but is killed by Hercules in a wrestling match (Apollod. 2,108; 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Uranus

(418 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οὐρανός, Lat. Uranus). Divine personification of the sky, treated by Hesiodus (Theog. 126-128) as a mythical figure. U. is born of Gaia, the earth, without the contribution of a father, 'so that he may wrap her up and the gods have a permanent seat in him' (ibid.). After that, U. begets the Uraniones with Gaia (ibid. 424; 486), namely the Titans, including Kronos, Zeus' father. As a result, U. is the progenitor of the gods (ibid. 44 f.; 105 f.). The Cyclopes and the Hekatoncheires …

Pleisthenes

(204 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πλεισθένης; Pleisthénēs). [German version] [1] Son of Pelops or Atreus, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus Mythical figure from the family of Pelops, often also named as the family's eponym (Aesch. Ag. 1569 etc.): either the son of Pelops and Hippodameia [1] (with Atreus, Thyestes and Pittheus as brothers; schol. Pind. O. 1,144), or the son of Atreus and Cleola born in exile in Macestus (Triphylia), father of Agamemnon and Menelaus [1] (schol. Eur. Or. 4), or husband of Aërope and father by her of Agamemnon and…
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