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Lydia

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Λυδία; Lydía). [German version] I. Geography Region in western Asia Minor; its southern border with Caria is formed by the Mes(s)ogis and the Maeander, its eastern border with Phrygia by the confluence of the Lycus [18] and the Maeander, the upper course of the Hermus [2] and the Dindymus mountains (modern Murat Dağı) and its northern border with Mysia by the Caicus [1]) and the Temnus (Demirci Dağı) and mountain ranges further west. Aeolis and Ionia are offshore in the west, sharing with L. the clim…

Stratoniceia

(611 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] City on the upper Caicus This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum (Στρατονίκεια/ Stratoníkeia, Στρατονίκη/ Stratoníkē, Latin Stratonice). City on the upper Caïcus near modern Siledik. Possibly a Seleucid polis foundation (named after Stratonice [3]), from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC under Pergamum. It was probably here - not in S. [2] - that Aristonicus [4] was taken prisoner by Perperna [3] in 130 BC (Eutr. 4,20,2; Oros. 5,10,5). In the first half of the 2nd cent. AD, S. had sympolity (Sy…

Caystru pedion

(201 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River plain of the Caystrus (Καΰστρου/Καΰστριον πεδίον; Kaÿ́strou/ Kaÿ́strion pedion). River plain of the  Caystrus [1] from the plain of Kilbis on the upper course of the river (Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, Str. 13,4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Assos) to the west; on its middle or rather lower course was the Ἄσιος λειμών ( Ásios leimṓn; ‘Asian meadow’) with flocks of wild geese, cranes, and swans (Hom. Il. 2,461; Cic. Orat. 163; Str. 14,1,45). Mount Tmolus afforded a view on the surrounding plains, including the Caystrou pedion (CP) (Str. 13,4,5…

Idrias

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰδριάς; Idriás). Mountainous region in Caria with the Marsyas valley east of Mylasa (Hdt. 5,118; Str. 14,5,23), with the like-named Carian city. Its allegedly older name, Chrysaoris (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.; s.v. Chrysaoris), is also attributed to the city of Stratoniceia and its countryside (Paus. 5,21,10), probably in the sense that I. lay in an area where the villages had joined together in the Carian league of Chrysaoreis around the sanctuary of Zeus Chrysaoreus; the city of Strat…

Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Curupedion

(72 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κούρου or Κόρου πεδίον). Plain in Lydia north of Magnesia on the Sipylos, east of the confluence of the Hyllus [4] and the Hermos [2] (Str. 13,4,5; 13), where Lysimachus was defeated in 281 BC by Seleucus (Porphyrius FGrH 260 F 3,8), and Antiochus [5] III was defeated in 190 BC by the Romans (Liv. 37,37-39). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography H. Bengtson, Griech. Gesch., 51977, 389, see n. 4, 481.

Silandus

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Σίλανδος/ Sílandos). City in eastern Lydia, at a northern tributary of the Hermus [2] (e.g. river god Hermus in coin images). Under Domitianus [1] (AD 81-96) S. became a civitas , issuing coins (until Severus [2] Alexander); at the same time Mocadene was divided into the territories of the cities of S. and Temenothyrae, the two cities then being called mētropóleis. S. was near modern Kara Selendi (to the west of Selendi). Bishops of S. took part in the Councils of Nicaea in 325 and Cha…

Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Calynda

(248 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (τὰ Κάλυνδα; tà Kálynda). Settlement on the south-western coast of Asia Minor, taken as being part of Caria as well as Lycia, 60 stades inland from the coast on the Axon (modern Kargın çayı) east of the  Indus [2] (Hdt. 1,172; Str. 14,2,2; Plin. HN 5,103; Ptol. 5,3,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. C.). In 480 BC, it was under the rule of  Damasithymus (Hdt. 8,87f.), in the middle of the 5th cent. a member of the  Delian League (as Klaÿnda); Ptolemaic in the 3rd cent. In 166 BC, C. was subordinate to  Caunus [2…

Myndus

(497 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μύνδος; Mýndos). City in southwestern Asia Minor on the western coast of the peninsula stretching from  Halicarnassus to M., modern Gümüşlük. Its predecessor was a fortified highland settlement of the Leleges (Old ‘M.’, Plin. HN 5,107) on Mount Boz (3.5 km to the south). In the 5th cent. BC, M. was a member of the Delian League. In about 360, the town was abandoned or relocated to a harbour protected by foothills. The refoundation, probably under  Maussollus, was simultaneously connected with a synoikismós of six settlements around Halicar…

Olymus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ὄλυμος/ Ólymos or Ὄλυμον/ Ólymon?). City in Caria north-west of Mylasa; known only from inscriptions. In the 5th cent. BC, member of the Delian League ( Hýlimos); in the 3rd/2nd cents., O. merged with Mylasa in sympoliteía . A temple of Apollo and Artemis survives at modern Kafaca, 8 km north-west of Milâs. The inscriptions (end of 2nd cent.  - 70s of 1st cent. BC) very often relate to the selling or leasing of temple land and provide information about a privileged class constituted by the desce…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Caystrus

(224 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[German version] [1] River in Lydia River in Lydia (Καΰστριος; Kaÿ́strios: Hom. Il. 2,461; Hdt. 5,100; Κάϋστρος; Káÿstros: Str. 13,3,2; Arr. Anab. 5,6,4; Mela 1,88), modern Küçük Menderes (‘Little Maeander’); it rises on the southern slopes of Mount Tmolus above Coloë (modern Keles near Kiraz); it flows through the plain of Kilbis, then through the  Caystrou pedion [1], absorbs from the right tributaries from Mount Tmolus, from the left those from the Mesogis mountains (modern Cevizli dağı) (Plin. HN 5,115), and…

Telandrus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (Τήλανδρος; Tḗlandros). City in the border region of Caria (Cares) and Lycia (Lycii) on the River Glaucus (Plin. HN 5,101;  Quint. Smyrn. 4,7); hardly to be correctly located in the ruin sites of modern Nif on the upper River Nif  (ancient Glaucus?), rather, as a member of the Delian League, to be found near the coast: the Telandrii, who were included in the tribute lists for the years 453/2-425/4 BC ( Phóros C.; cf. ATL 1, 555), probably inhabited the island of Telandria (modern Tersane) o…

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Klannudda

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κλαννούδδα/ Klannoúdda; Tab. Peut. 9,4: Clanudda). City in eastern Lydia, c. 55 km east-north-east of Philadelphia [1], north of the Persian royal road. K. is probably the site of ruins at Hacet Kalesi near Kışla, where Hellenistic wall-ruins were identified, on the north-west edge of the plain of İnay (ancient Náïs). Coins in the 2nd/1st cents. BC ( Klannoudda; [1]; HN 650). K. was probably established as a Seleucid fortress, like neighbouring Blaundos, 15 km to the south, and absorbed by it at the start of the Roman Imperial period. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliogr…

Halicarnassus

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Dark Ages | Alexander | Ionic | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Pompeius | Delian League | Education / Culture (Ἁλικαρνασσός; Halikarnassós). [German version] I. Location Coastal city in the south of  Caria on the Gulf of Ceramus, modern Bodrum. The plan of the city (Str. 14,2,16; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἁ.; Vitr. De arch. 2,8,10-14) resembled the seating arrangement of a theatre: a circular harbour bay, the ‘enclosed harbour’ (λιμὴν κλειστός, Ps.-Scyl. 98a), framed on both sides by …

Gerga

(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…

Harpasus

(314 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Ἅρπασος; Hárpasos). [German version] [1] Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria Southern tributary of the Maeander in Caria (Plin. HN 2,210; 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,15; Quint. Smyrn. 10,141-146; Steph. Byz. s.v. H.), modern Akçay, narrow like a canyon along its middle course, today with a dam further south (Kemer dam). Old Ionian settlement area, ruins of ancient settlements near its banks (e.g. Neapolis, Harpasa, modern Arpaz near Esenköy). In the summer of 228 BC,  Attalus [4] I beat Antiochus  Hierax at t…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Antioch

(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…

Carura

(190 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(τὰ Κάρουρα; tà Károura). [German version] [1] City in SW Asia Minor Town in south-western Asia Minor on the upper course of the  Maeander at the border between Caria and Phrygia (Str. 12,8,17; 14,2,29), near the modern Sarayköy. Thanks to its hot springs, C. was an ancient health resort; a medical school (in the tradition of  Herophilus [1]) was based near the sanctuary of Men Karu (Str. 12,8,20), halfway between C. and Laodicea [4] (2nd/1st cents. BC). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography Miller, 726 W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, 49 Ramsay 1, 164; 16…

Callipolis

(459 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Treidler, Hans (Berlin) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Et al.
(Καλλίπολις; Kallípolis). [German version] [1] Place in Caria Place in Caria (Arr. Anab. 2,5,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Callipolis), its location disputed: either near the modern Gelibolu, south of the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf (ancient and medieval remains, no finds indicating a settlement),or east of it, 10 km inland, near Duran Çiftlik (remains of an ancient sanctuary and a church; the associated settlement about 1.5 km east of Kızılkaya, stone-cist tombs on the eastern side of the mound). C. was unde…

Pactolus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Πακτωλός/ Paktōlós). River in Lydia, originates at the Tmolus mountianrange (Boz Dağları), flows through Sardis and into the Hermus [2]; modern-day Sart Çayı. It was famous for the electron and gold dust washed out near the source (Hdt. 1,93,1; 5,101,2; Plin. HN 5,110), to which the Mermnad kings (Mermnadae) owed their legendary wealth (Archil. fr. 22 D.; Hdt. 6,125). Smelteries were located on the P. in Sardis. By the 1st cent. BC the gold of the P. was exhausted, it seems (Str. 13,1,23; 4,5). Quartz sand containing gold was also found in neighbouring streams. Kaletsch, …

Mausoleum

(600 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαυσ(σ)ωλεῖον; Maus(s)ōleîon; Lat. mausoleum). Monumental tomb for the satrap Maussollus of Caria (died 353 BC) and his wife Artemisia [2] (died 351 BC) near the city of Halicarnassus in Lycia, probably only completed during the time of Alexander. It was counted as one of the Wonders of the World and became eponymous for a standard type of representative funerary architecture. Modern archaeology has focused much on the monument, which was frequently discussed and described in ancient literature (Str. 14,656 ff.; Diod. Sic. 16,45; Plin. HN 36, 30-31 and passim). Scan…

Mastaura

(117 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Μάσταυρα; Mástaura). Town in Lydia on the southern slopes of the Mes(s)ogis (Str. 14,1,47; Plin. HN 5,120; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Anth. Pal. 11,230, with a pun on the place-name), ruins to the north of Nazilli. From the Roman period, municipal institutions and cults are known from inscriptions and coins. In Christian times an episcopal see, it was represented at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Calchedon (451) (Hierocles, Synekdemos 659,8; Not. episc. 1,101; 3,21; 7,91; 8,108; 9,15; 10,156). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensb…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Cares, Caria

(3,236 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Κᾶρες, Καρία; Kâres, Karía). [German version] I. Geography Tribe and region in south-western Asia Minor, its borders defined in the north by the Maeander and the mountain ranges of Mycale and Mesogis, and in the east by the Salbacus range; the Carian south coast stretches from the Triopic promontory to the bay of Telmessus (Str. 14,2,1; Liv. 37,16). Along its western coast -- characterized by gulfs and long stretched-out peninsulas -- lay the following towns which initially still belonged to Ionia:  Mi…

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Tabae

(179 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τάβαι/ Tábai). City in southeastern Caria, in the south of the Plain of T. (Ταβηνὸν πεδίον/ Tabēnòn pedíon, cf. Str. 12,8,13) on a rocky elevation near modern Kale. From the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC onwards, T. had the constitution of a polis (before 269/8: [1. 321 no. 1]). In 189 BC T. capitulated to Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,13,11-13) and after 167 was a 'friend and ally' of Rome (IG XIV 695-696b). T.'s autonomy was confirmed by Rome in 81 BC in thanks for its loyalty in the First Mithridatic War, its territor…

Alabanda

(368 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (Ἀλάβανδα; Alábanda). C. 40 km south of the  Maeander valley in the middle Carian plain ( Caria) of Çine, its most important location in antiquity, on two hills lying close together (Str. 14, 2, 26) and in the subsequent plain to the north, on the left bank of the  Marsyas, today Araphisar. First mentioned in 480 BC (city tyrant Aridolis in Greek captivity: Hdt. 7,195 -- unclear how the news at Hdt. 8,136 is to be reconciled with …

Caryanda

(172 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (τὰ Καρύανδα; tà Karýanda). Carian (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 242; Scyl. FGrH 709 T 1f.) harbour town between Myndus and Bargylia (Str. 14,2,20), south of the modern Güllük körfezi, originally on an offshore island (Salih adası?), later relocated to the mainland. C. was a member of the  Delian League and home of the seafarer (Hdt. 4,44,1) and geographer  Scylax. On Salih adası, remains of a walled settlement have been found; the mainland settlement of C., incorporated into  Myndus in the 3rd cent. BC, should be located not far from Salih adası near…

Mocadene

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή; Mokad(d)ēnḗ). Region in eastern Lydia along the upper Hermus in Maeonia [1], on the border with Phrygia; its location was established through inscriptions naming places within it ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, modern Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandus, modern Selendi, and Temenothyrae). It remains doubtful whether to associate Moccadeni, a dḗmos in Asia (incorrectly located in Bithynia in Ptol. Geog. 5,2,18), with Mocadene. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 with map  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Id., s.v.…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Mylasa

(878 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Diadochi and Epigoni | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (τὰ Μύλασα; tà Mýlasa). Main locality of the Cares in the land of Caria, modern Milâs. Place name pre-Greek, ancient cults of Carian Zeus in M. and environs (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,2,23). M. participated in the Ionian Revolt under the Carian Heraclides (the son of Ibanollis, tyrant of M.; Hdt. 5,37,121). In the middle of the 5th cent. BC, M. was a membe…

Hiera Kome, Hierocaesarea

(272 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη; Hierà Kṓmē, Ἱεροκαισάρεια; Hierokaisáreia). Settlement in Lydia on the ancient Pergamon-Sardis road east of the  Hyllus near modern Sazova or Beyova. Hiera Kome (HK) developed around a sanctuary of  Anaetis; this cult, which was introduced under the Persians, was found throughout the Lydian Hermus valley and because of its strangeness (fire worship, Magi priests) was still commented upon by the Greeks in the 2nd cent. AD  (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). In 201 BC a victim of the …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Mardi

(244 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μάρδοι; Márdoi). Near Eastern tribes in Armenia (Ptol. Geog. 5,12,9), Media and Hyrcania south of the Caspian Sea in the modern Elburz Mountains/northern Iran (Str. 11,13,3), called Amardi here (Str. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. HN 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί/ Amardoí, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Str. 11,8,8; Plin. HN 6,47); also one of the four Persian nomadic tribes (Hdt. 1,125,4) living above the Elymaïs region (Str. 11,13,6; Plin. HN 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) in modern Ansan. Persian M. served in the Achaemenid army (Hdt. 1,84,2…

Magnesia

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία; Magnēsía). [German version] [1] Thessalian coastal region (Ethnicon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnêtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: dat. pl. Μαγνείτεσσι/ Magneítessi 3rd cent. BC). The Thessalian coastal region of Peneius to the Gulf of Pagasae with a narrow peninsula stretching far to the south, which encloses the Gulf of Pagasae in the east and south, filled up completely by the mountains Ossa and Pelion and their foothills. The east coast toward the open sea was without a harbour and feared by sailors; in 480 B…

Lagina

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (τὰ Λάγινα; tà Lágina). Location, north of Stratoniceia, of a sanctuary of the Carian Hecate (modern Leyna, near Turgut); annual Panegyris (Str. 14,2,25; 29), procession with the sacred key, mystery plays, penteteric agons. In 81 BC, it was established as Hekatesia Rhomaea, the right to grant asylum given by the Senate later confirmed by Caesar, Augustus and, in AD 22, Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 3,62,2). Archaeological findings: square, lined by Doric stoai, surrounding a pseudodipteros temple wit…

Cenchreus

(175 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κέγχρειος, Κέγχριος; Kénchreios, Kénchrios, Cenchreus). Stream south-west of Ephesus (Alexander Aetolus fr. 2 Powell; Str. 14,1,20; Paus. 7,5,10; Tac. Ann. 3,61,1), modern Arvalia Çayı (not the Değirmen dere, but cf.[1]); it rises at Mount Solmissus (modern Agadağ), and before its sedimentation flowed into the bay of the Caystrus, nowadays from the left into the  Caystrus [1] itself. The C. ran through the Ortygia, the grove in which Leto allegedly gave birth to Apollo and Artemis (S…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Massabatae

(68 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μασσαβάται/ Massabátai, Μεσσαβάται/ Messabátai, Latin Messabatae). Inhabitants of the region of Massabatice (Μασσαβατική/ Massabatikḗ, Μεσ(σ)αβατική/ Mes(s)abatikḗ), which was named after them, in southern Media or northern Elymaeis (Str. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. HN 6,134), or - less likely - south of the Elymaeis region in the northernmost part of Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; cf. Plin. HN 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Maeonia

(372 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία; Maionía, Latin Maeonia). [German version] [1] Area in Lydia Area in Lydia around the Gygaia Limne, at the foot of Tmolus (Hom. Il. 3,401, cf. 2,864ff.; 10,431); primarily understood as the oldest country or tribal name (Μηίονες/ Mēíones, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. Sic. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. HN 5,110). Originally, M. comprised the Catacecaumene [1] (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) with the border region of Phrygia (Plin. HN 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), the valley of the Cogamus river (modern Alaşehir Çayı), the area around Sardes (Pl…

Caunus

(821 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Καῦνος; Kaûnos). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2], who gains contours chiefly in connection with his twin sister  Byblis. The myths depict various constellations of their incestuous relationship (Parthenius 11). Walde, Christine (Basle) Bibliography S. Jackson, Apollonius of Rhodes: the Cleite and Byblis Suicides, in: SIFC 14, 1997, 48-54. [German version] [2] Coastal town in the border areas between Caria and Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Pe…
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