Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)" )' returned 149 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Mocadene

(93 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μοκαδ(δ)ηνή; Mokad(d)ēnḗ). Region in eastern Lydia along the upper Hermus in Maeonia [1], on the border with Phrygia; its location was established through inscriptions naming places within it ( kṓmē Thermai Theséos, modern Kula Emir Hamamları; mētropóleis Silandus, modern Selendi, and Temenothyrae). It remains doubtful whether to associate Moccadeni, a dḗmos in Asia (incorrectly located in Bithynia in Ptol. Geog. 5,2,18), with Mocadene. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography K. Buresch, Aus Lydien, 1898, 186 with map  J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 2113  Id., s.v.…

Ceramus

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Κέραμος; Kéramos). Town in south-western Caria on the northern coast of the gulf named after C. (Κεράμειος or Κεραμικὸς κόλπος; Kerámeios/ Keramikòs kólpos, sinus Ceramicus; modern Gökova körfezi), removed from the coast by the delta formation of the -- in the end subterranean -- Koca Çay (Str. 14,2,15), modern Kemerdere near Ören (Plin. HN 5,109; Ptol. 5,2,10; Paus. 6,13,3f.). Originally Carian, it was Hellenized from the 6th cent. BC (archaic kouros head, c. 540/530 [1]); in 454/3 BC, it was a member…

Mylasa

(878 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Diadochi and Epigoni | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (τὰ Μύλασα; tà Mýlasa). Main locality of the Cares in the land of Caria, modern Milâs. Place name pre-Greek, ancient cults of Carian Zeus in M. and environs (Hdt. 1,171; Str. 14,2,23). M. participated in the Ionian Revolt under the Carian Heraclides (the son of Ibanollis, tyrant of M.; Hdt. 5,37,121). In the middle of the 5th cent. BC, M. was a membe…

Hiera Kome, Hierocaesarea

(272 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἱερὰ Κώμη; Hierà Kṓmē, Ἱεροκαισάρεια; Hierokaisáreia). Settlement in Lydia on the ancient Pergamon-Sardis road east of the  Hyllus near modern Sazova or Beyova. Hiera Kome (HK) developed around a sanctuary of  Anaetis; this cult, which was introduced under the Persians, was found throughout the Lydian Hermus valley and because of its strangeness (fire worship, Magi priests) was still commented upon by the Greeks in the 2nd cent. AD  (Paus. 5,27,5ff.; 7,6,6). In 201 BC a victim of the …

Castolus

(154 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Καστωλός; Kastōlós). Town (and river?) in Lydia. The ‘plain of C.’ (Καστωλοῦ πεδίον; Kastōloû pedíon) was the perpetual rallying-point for the Persian army when on alert (cf. Cyrus the Younger:Xen. Hell. 1,4,3; Xen. An. 1,1,2; 9,7). The plain cannot be localized with certainty, but should be not far from Sardis, near the Persian royal road: according to inscriptions, possibly the plain of Burçak around Söğüt çayı; C. would then be the modern Bebekli. Formerly independent (Ethnika IG II2 3059; 3233) with fortifications ( tetrapyrgia) around its plain, in imperia…

Mardi

(244 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μάρδοι; Márdoi). Near Eastern tribes in Armenia (Ptol. Geog. 5,12,9), Media and Hyrcania south of the Caspian Sea in the modern Elburz Mountains/northern Iran (Str. 11,13,3), called Amardi here (Str. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. HN 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί/ Amardoí, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Str. 11,8,8; Plin. HN 6,47); also one of the four Persian nomadic tribes (Hdt. 1,125,4) living above the Elymaïs region (Str. 11,13,6; Plin. HN 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) in modern Ansan. Persian M. served in the Achaemenid army (Hdt. 1,84,2…

Lagina

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (τὰ Λάγινα; tà Lágina). Location, north of Stratoniceia, of a sanctuary of the Carian Hecate (modern Leyna, near Turgut); annual Panegyris (Str. 14,2,25; 29), procession with the sacred key, mystery plays, penteteric agons. In 81 BC, it was established as Hekatesia Rhomaea, the right to grant asylum given by the Senate later confirmed by Caesar, Augustus and, in AD 22, Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 3,62,2). Archaeological findings: square, lined by Doric stoai, surrounding a pseudodipteros temple wit…

Cenchreus

(175 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κέγχρειος, Κέγχριος; Kénchreios, Kénchrios, Cenchreus). Stream south-west of Ephesus (Alexander Aetolus fr. 2 Powell; Str. 14,1,20; Paus. 7,5,10; Tac. Ann. 3,61,1), modern Arvalia Çayı (not the Değirmen dere, but cf.[1]); it rises at Mount Solmissus (modern Agadağ), and before its sedimentation flowed into the bay of the Caystrus, nowadays from the left into the  Caystrus [1] itself. The C. ran through the Ortygia, the grove in which Leto allegedly gave birth to Apollo and Artemis (S…

Arconnesus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀρκόννησος; Arkónnēsos). ‘Guardian island’ (according to Str. 14,12,16; Steph. Byz. s.v.A.). Long-stretched-out island off the coast of  Caria, which protects the harbour bay of  Halicarnassus and which was fortified in ancient times; modern Kara Ada. During the siege by Alexander the Great in 334 BC, the Persians retreated to A. (Arr. Anab. 1,23,3 Ἀκρόνησος). Plin. HN 5,133 [1. 257] mistakenly placed  Ceramus on this island. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. Winkler, R. König, C. Plinius Secundus d.Ä., Naturkunde (Lat.-Ger.), book 5, 1993. Trav…

Temenothyrae

(108 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τημενοθύραι/ Tēmenothýrai, also: Τημένου Θύραι/ Tēménou Thýrai). City in the highlands of eastern Lydia (cf. Paus. 1,35,7) on the border with northwestern Phrygia (Phryges) in Mocadene on an old overland route, probably a station on the Persian Royal Road, near modern Uşak. The indigenous form of the name ( -t(h)yra(i)) suggests that T. was an old Lydian settlement, according to inscriptions and coins (only 1st-3rd centuries AD) it was temporarily also named Flaviopolis; in late Antiquity it was part of the province of Phrygia Pacatiane (Hierocles, S…

Apollonis

(239 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum | Education / Culture (Ἀπολλωνίς; Apollōnís). City in northern  Lydia, equidistant at 300 stadia from  Pergamum and  Sardeis (Str. 300; c. 53 km). Founded at the end of the 3rd cent. BC (on the site of an earlier settlement?) by  Attalus I, and named after his wife Apollonis; ruins in Palamut Kalesi, 22 km north-west of  Thyateira. According to inscriptions and coins,   synoikismos was still taking place under Eumenes II, c. 194 BC, and later; ‘Macedonians’ of Seleucid origin figured amongst the colonists.…

Thyatira

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture (Θυάτειρα/ Thyáteira, present-day Akhisar). City in northern Lydia in the valley of the central Lycus [18] on the road from Sardis to Pergamum, 57 km north-east of Magnesia [3]. In 281 BC Seleucus [2] I moved Macedonian military colonists to T., it was occupied by Attalus [4] I in 216 (Pol. 5,77,7), threatened by Philippus [7] V in 201 (Pol. 16,1,7), probably recaptured by Antiochus [5] III in 198 and in 190 by Eume…

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Xystis

(115 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ξυστίς/ Xystís). City in northwestern Caria (Cares IV.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ξ.), like Orthosia [1], Euhippe (at modern Dalama), Coscinus or Coscina (at modern Mount Arı near Dalama) and other places (Plin. HN. 5,109) between the Harpasus [1] and the Marsyas [4], left-bank tributaries of the Maeander [2], modern Körteke. Archaeology: a mountain fortress, presumably of the Leleges (cf. Str 7,7,2; 13,1,59), with pre-Classical and Mediaeval walling. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. J. A. Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, 61 G 3  E…

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Tymnus

(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Marathus(s)a

(63 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαραθοῦσσα; Marathoûssa, ‘fennel island’). The most southerly of the islands off Clazomenae in the south west of the Gulf of Smyrna, modern Hekim or Çiçek Islands. Few remains. Evidence: Thuc. 8,31,3; Str. 14,1,36; Plin. HN 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (ed.), C. Plinius Secundus der Ältere, Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (commentary).

Lydia

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Λυδία; Lydía). [German version] I. Geography Region in western Asia Minor; its southern border with Caria is formed by the Mes(s)ogis and the Maeander, its eastern border with Phrygia by the confluence of the Lycus [18] and the Maeander, the upper course of the Hermus [2] and the Dindymus mountains (modern Murat Dağı) and its northern border with Mysia by the Caicus [1]) and the Temnus (Demirci Dağı) and mountain ranges further west. Aeolis and Ionia are offshore in the west, sharing with L. the clim…

Stratoniceia

(611 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] City on the upper Caicus This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum (Στρατονίκεια/ Stratoníkeia, Στρατονίκη/ Stratoníkē, Latin Stratonice). City on the upper Caïcus near modern Siledik. Possibly a Seleucid polis foundation (named after Stratonice [3]), from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC under Pergamum. It was probably here - not in S. [2] - that Aristonicus [4] was taken prisoner by Perperna [3] in 130 BC (Eutr. 4,20,2; Oros. 5,10,5). In the first half of the 2nd cent. AD, S. had sympolity (Sy…

Labraunda, Labranda

(254 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα). Ort und Heiligtum des karischen Zeus Stratios (auch Labraundos) auf einem südl. Ausläufer des Latmos; über eine heilige Straße mit Mylasa verbunden, dem es mit der späteren Siedlung als kṓmē angehörte (Strab. 14,2,23). ON und Name des Gottes sind vorgriech. Die Doppelaxt ( lábrys) von L. galt als von den Amazonen bzw. den lyd. Heraklidenkönigen übernommen (Plut. qu. Gr. 45). Die Kultstatue ( xóanon ) mit der geschulterten lábrys ist auf Mz. des 4. Jh.v.Chr. dargestellt. Das Heiligtum war zentraler Tagungsort des alten karisch…

Mardoi

(207 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μάρδοι). Vorderasiat. Stämme in Armenia (Ptol. 5,12,9), Media bzw. Hyrkania südl. des Kaspischen Meeres im h. Elburz-Gebirge/Nordiran (Strab. 11,13,3), hier Amardoi gen. (Strab. 11,6,1; 7,1; Plin. nat. 6,36; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀμαρδοί, s.v. Μ.), in Margiane (Strab. 11,8,8; Plin. nat. 6,47); auch einer der vier pers. Nomadenstämme (Hdt. 1,125,4) oberhalb der Elymaïs (Strab. 11,13,6; Plin. nat. 6,134; Arr. Ind. 40,6) im h. Ansan. Pers. M. dienten im Achaimenidenheer (Hdt. 1,84,2; Ai…

Marathus(s)a

(54 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[English version] (Μαραθοῦσσα, “Fenchelinsel”). Südlichste der Inseln vor Klazomenai im SW des Golfs von Smyrna, h. Hekim bzw. Çiçek adaları. Geringe Reste. Belegstellen: Thuk. 8,31,3; Strab. 14,1,36; Plin. nat. 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (Hrsg.), C. Plinius Secundus d.Ä., Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (Komm.).

Massabatae

(68 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μασσαβάται/ Massabátai, Μεσσαβάται/ Messabátai, Latin Messabatae). Inhabitants of the region of Massabatice (Μασσαβατική/ Massabatikḗ, Μεσ(σ)αβατική/ Mes(s)abatikḗ), which was named after them, in southern Media or northern Elymaeis (Str. 11,13,6; 16,1,18; Plin. HN 6,134), or - less likely - south of the Elymaeis region in the northernmost part of Persis (Ptol. 6,4,3; cf. Plin. HN 6,135). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. N. Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, 1984, 89.

Maeonia

(372 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαιονία; Maionía, Latin Maeonia). [German version] [1] Area in Lydia Area in Lydia around the Gygaia Limne, at the foot of Tmolus (Hom. Il. 3,401, cf. 2,864ff.; 10,431); primarily understood as the oldest country or tribal name (Μηίονες/ Mēíones, Hdt. 1,7; 7,74; Diod. Sic. 4,31,5; Dion. Hal. 1,27,1; Plin. HN 5,110). Originally, M. comprised the Catacecaumene [1] (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,11) with the border region of Phrygia (Plin. HN 5,146; Ptol. 5,2,16), the valley of the Cogamus river (modern Alaşehir Çayı), the area around Sardes (Pl…

Euromus

(375 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Εὔρωμος; Eurōmos). Town in the Carian interior (Str. 14,1,8; 2,22; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.; Plin. HN 5,109), 22 km south of the former Gulf of Latmia (the modern Bafa or Çamiçi gölü), 3 km south of Selimiye at the northern end of the Mylasa plateau; today's Ayaklı. In the 5th cent. as H(K)yromos a member of the  Delian League. The town was probably not called E., often also Eúropos, until after the 4th cent. BC. Sympolitically linked with its περιπόλιοι ( peripólioi, ‘neighbouring towns’…

Termera

(276 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Τέρμερα/ Térmera). City of the Leleges in Caria (Cares IV.) on the southwestern coast of the Halicarnassus peninsula (Str. 14,2,18; incorrect location: Plin. HN 5,107) at modern Asarlık. The Lelegean bandit Termerus is named as eponymous founder (Schol. Eur. Rhes. 509; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.); his ravaging and his removal by Heracles [1] (Plut. Theseus 11) are the origin of the expression 'Termeran evil', when an evil-doer is given a …

Sardis

(3,784 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Writing | Theatre | Byzantium | Christianity | Xenophon | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Rome | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Σάρδεις/ Sárdeis, Lat. Sardis). [German version] I. Location and name City set at the opening of the valley of the Pactolus into that of the Hermus [2] as it broadens into the Sardian Plain. Centre of th…

Mes(s)ogis

(88 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μεσ(σ)ωγίς; Mes(s)ōgís). Central range of a chain of mountains stretching westwards from near Celaenae in southwestern Phrygia to the Mycale, and reaching heights of over 1,600 m (Strab. 13,4,12f.), modern Aydın Mountains, the watershed between the Cayster and the Maeander [2], originally the frontier between Lydia and Caria (Ptol. 5,2,15). The best wines of the M. was said to be from grapes grow on Mount Aroma (Strab. 14,1,47; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄρωμα). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography J. Keil, s.v. M., RE 15, 1100ff. Magie, 783.

Icarian Sea

(235 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἰκάριος πόντος; Ikários póntos). Southeastern part of the Aegean Sea, from Samos to Mykonos (Plin. HN 4,51) respectively from Icarus, with Corassiae (Corseae, modern Fourni) and Samos, via Patmos, Leros and Kalymnos to Kos (Str. 10,5,13). References: Hom. Il. 2,145 (Ἰκάριος πόντος); Sen. Hercules Oetaeus 694; Auson. epist. 23 ( Icarius pontus); Ov. Fast. 4,283; 566; Plin. HN 4,68; 6,215 ( Icarium); Hdt. 6,96; Str. 2,5,21; Ptol. 5,2,1-6; 17,2; Diod. Sic. 4,77,6 (Ἰκάριον πέλαγος); Claud. in Eutropium 2,265 ( Icarium pelagus). The Icarian Sea (IS) breaks on the …

Telmissus

(205 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τελμισσός/ Telmissós; by-form Τελμεσσός/ Telmessós: Syll.3 1047,7 f.). City in Caria (Cares) at modern Gürece, about 11 km (Polemon FHG 3, 128 Fr. 35) to the west of Halicarnassus, for the expansion of which T. had to relinquish part of its population c. 361 BC (Callisthenes FGrH 124 F 25; Plin. HN 5,107). With its Apollo sanctuary, still famous in the Roman Imperial period (HN 619), T. formed the League of the Telmisseis [1. 377-380]. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC T. was entirely absorbed into Halicarnassus. On…

Castabos

(208 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κάσταβος; Kástabos). Site in the north-west of the Carian Chersonesus (Bozburun Yarımadası) in the hinterland of the Bay of Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü), to the east above ancient Bybassus (the modern Hisarönü) in the Rhodian  Peraea. On the Pazarlık, a ridge of the Eren Dağı, remains of an Ionic peripteros ( c. 300 BC), a small theatre and further structures belonging to the much-visited sanctuary of  Hemithea (Diod. Sic. 5,62 f.), a goddess of healing whose originally Carian cult, traceable back to the end of the 7th cent. BC…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Telandrus

(135 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Delian League (Τήλανδρος; Tḗlandros). City in the border region of Caria (Cares) and Lycia (Lycii) on the River Glaucus (Plin. HN 5,101;  Quint. Smyrn. 4,7); hardly to be correctly located in the ruin sites of modern Nif on the upper River Nif  (ancient Glaucus?), rather, as a member of the Delian League, to be found near the coast: the Telandrii, who were included in the tribute lists for the years 453/2-425/4 BC ( Phóros C.; cf. ATL 1, 555), probably inhabited the island of Telandria (modern Tersane) o…

Labraunda, Labranda

(312 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Λάβραυνδα, Λάβρανδα; Lábraunda, Lábranda). Locality and sanctuary of the Carian Zeus Stratios (also Labrandos), situated on a southern spur of Mt Latmus. Connected by a sacred road to Mylasa, to which it belonged as kṓmē together with the later settlement (Str. 14,2,23). Place name and name of the god are pre-Greek. The double-headed axe ( lábrys) of L. was believed to have been taken over from the Amazons or the Lydian Heraclid kings (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 45). The cult statue ( xóanon ) with the shouldered lábrys is depicted on coins of the 4th cent. BC. The shri…

Klannudda

(134 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Κλαννούδδα/ Klannoúdda; Tab. Peut. 9,4: Clanudda). City in eastern Lydia, c. 55 km east-north-east of Philadelphia [1], north of the Persian royal road. K. is probably the site of ruins at Hacet Kalesi near Kışla, where Hellenistic wall-ruins were identified, on the north-west edge of the plain of İnay (ancient Náïs). Coins in the 2nd/1st cents. BC ( Klannoudda; [1]; HN 650). K. was probably established as a Seleucid fortress, like neighbouring Blaundos, 15 km to the south, and absorbed by it at the start of the Roman Imperial period. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliogr…

Gerga

(269 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γέργα; Gérga). Village in northern  Caria, south-east of Eskiçine on the Marsyas [4], near Incekemer (formerly Gâvurdamları). The name G. (also Gergas, G. kṓmē) is to be found many times in uniquely large clumsy Greek (on one occasion also Latin) letters on boulders, rock stelae hewn in a pyramid shape and idol-like colossal statues (fragmentary) in the vicinity of a small temple (?) built of solid granite blocks, on the temple itself and carved into one of the low well-houses (?). Several parts that h…

Tmolus

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Τμῶλος/ Tmôlos). [German version] [1] Mountain chain in Lydia Mountain chain (up to 2157 m elevation) in Lydia, snow-covered in winter (Hom. Il. 2,866; 20,385), modern Bozdağ. The T. mountains were the source of the Pactolus, which in Antiquity bore auriferous sand; Sardis was on its banks (Plin. HN 5,110). In the T. mountains, vines were cultivated (Str. 14,1,15; Plin. HN 14,74; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,12), they were known for fields of saffron (Verg. G. 1,56; 4,380; Solin. 40,10). The T. were the residence…

Gygaie limne

(281 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Γυγαίη λίμνη; Gygaíē límnē). Lake in Lydia north of  Hermus and of  Sardis, to which in the south adjoin the Lydian royal necropolis (modern Bintepe, ‘Thousand Hills’) with the tomb tumuli of  Alyattes,  Gyges and other princes (Hipponax fr. 42 Masson); possibly called after the ancestors of  Gyges (Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 46) by the same name or a legendary figure. Gygaiae limne (GL) is already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 20,390f.; cf. 2,865), mythographical fantastic stori…

Saittai

(256 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαΐτται; Saḯttai). Town in eastern Lydia (Maeonia [1]; Ptol. 5,2,21: Σέτται, Σάετται), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, cf. Hyllus [4], c. 12 km on the west) and the Hermus [2]; present-day Sidaskale near İçikler. Representations of the river gods Hyllus and Hermus are found on coins of the Imperial Period . S. was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In AD 124, the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. Cult of the Men Axiottenus. Among others, …

Pactolus

(126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Πακτωλός/ Paktōlós). River in Lydia, originates at the Tmolus mountianrange (Boz Dağları), flows through Sardis and into the Hermus [2]; modern-day Sart Çayı. It was famous for the electron and gold dust washed out near the source (Hdt. 1,93,1; 5,101,2; Plin. HN 5,110), to which the Mermnad kings (Mermnadae) owed their legendary wealth (Archil. fr. 22 D.; Hdt. 6,125). Smelteries were located on the P. in Sardis. By the 1st cent. BC the gold of the P. was exhausted, it seems (Str. 13,1,23; 4,5). Quartz sand containing gold was also found in neighbouring streams. Kaletsch, …

Mastaura

(117 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Μάσταυρα; Mástaura). Town in Lydia on the southern slopes of the Mes(s)ogis (Str. 14,1,47; Plin. HN 5,120; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Anth. Pal. 11,230, with a pun on the place-name), ruins to the north of Nazilli. From the Roman period, municipal institutions and cults are known from inscriptions and coins. In Christian times an episcopal see, it was represented at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Calchedon (451) (Hierocles, Synekdemos 659,8; Not. episc. 1,101; 3,21; 7,91; 8,108; 9,15; 10,156). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensb…

Aperlae

(213 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Lycii, Lycia | Education / Culture (Ἀπέρλαι/ Apérlai). Settlement on the southern coast of Lycia (Lycii, Lycia; Plin. HN. 5,100), in the northeastern corner of a westward opening bay, modern Sıcak İskelesi. In the 5th cent. BC Lycian city coins, in the 1st cent. BC Lycian League minting, and again c. AD 240 (HN 694). In the Roman period A. was the chief town of a sympoliteia of three neighbouring communities in the Lycian League (IGR 3, 692 f.): Apollonia (modern Kılınçlı), Isinda [1] (near…

Sardiane

(110 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σαρδιανή; Sardianḗ). Town territory of Sardis (with map; Str. 13,4,5; cf. Xen. Hell. 3,4,21; Xen. Ages. 1,29). Besides the valley of Pactolus, it included the fertile plain around the middle course of the Hermus [2] (Σαρδιανὸν πεδίον/ Sardianòn pedíon, Hdt. 1,80,1; Plut. Agesilaos 10; Str. loc.cit.), about east of Salihli up to Turgutlu [1. 499, 501], its exact boundaries being unknown. The Roman judicial district of Sardis ( Sardiana iurisdictio, Plin. HN 5, 111) stretched far beyond S., especially towards the east. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 G. …

Karura

(157 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(τὰ Κάρουρα). [English version] [1] Stadt in SW-Kleinasien Stadt in SW-Kleinasien am oberen Maiandros an der Grenze zw. Karia und Phrygia (Strab. 12,8,17; 14,2,29), beim h. Sarayköy. Dank heißer Quellen war K. im Alt. Kurort; eine Ärzteschule (in der Trad. des Herophilos [1]) hatte ihren Sitz am Heiligtum des Men Karu (Strab. 12,8,20), auf halbem Weg zw. K. und Laodikeia [4] (2./1. Jh.v.Chr.). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography Miller, 726  W.M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, 49  Ramsay 1, 164; 168; 374  W. Ruge, s.v. K. (1), RE 10, 2243f. …

Iasos

(905 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basel) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἴασος/Ἰάσιος). [English version] [1] mehrere Könige von Argos Könige von Argos: a) Sohn von Argos und Euadne, Vater Agenors (Apollod. 2,3); b) Sohn von Argos und Ismene, Vater der Io (ebd. 2,5); c) Sohn von Triopas, Bruder Agenors, Vater der Io (Paus. 2,16,1). Zingg, Reto (Basel) [English version] [2] Vater der Atalante Arkader, Sohn von Lykurgos und Kleophile, Bruder von Ankaios, Epochos und Amphidamas, Gemahl der Minyas-Tochter Klymene, Vater der Atalante (Hes. theog. 1288; Kall. h. 3,216; Apollod. 3,105; 109). Zingg, Reto (Basel) [English version] [3] Führer der Athener vor …

Kaystru pedion

(175 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] [1] Flußebene des Kaystros (Καΰστρου/Καΰστριον πεδίον). Flußebene des Kaystros [1] von der Ebene Kilbis am Oberlauf des Flusses (Κιλβιανὸν πεδίον, Strab. 13,4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Assos) nach Westen; am Mittel- bzw. Unterlauf liegt die “Asische Aue” (Ἄσιος λειμών) mit Schwärmen von Wildgänsen, Kranichen, Schwänen (Hom. Il. 2,461; Cic. orat. 163; Strab. 14,1,45). Vom Tmolos Blick auf die Ebenen ringsum, auch auf das K.p. (Strab. 13,4,5); von dort absteigend erreicht man das K.p. bei Hypaipa (Strab. 13,4,7f.), nördl. des h. Ödemiş. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bib…

Attaleia

(382 words)

Author(s): Martini, Wolfram (Gießen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ἀττάλεια). [English version] [1] Das h. Antalya Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Christentum | Kleinasien | Limes | Lykioi, Lykia | Pergamon | Pompeius | Zenobia Das h. Antalya; auf einem Felsrücken an der Küste von Pamphylia um 150 v.Chr. von Attalos [5] II. gegr. Hafenstadt (Strab. 14,4,1), die Pompeius 48 v.Chr. auf seiner Flucht aufsuchte (Plut. Pompeius 76; vgl. Ptol. 5,5,2; Acta Apostolorum 14,25). Stadtmauerreste aus attalidischer Zeit, Hadrianstor aus Anlaß des Kaiserbesuchs 130 n.Chr., monumentales Mausoleum (Rundbau auf kubischem Sockel). Martini, Wol…

Kaystros

(207 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
[English version] [1] Fluß in Lydia Fluß in Lydia (Καΰστριος: Hom. Il. 2,461; Hdt. 5,100; Κάϋστρος: Strab. 13,3,2; Arr. an. 5,6,4; Mela 1,88), h. Küçük Menderes (“Kleiner Mäander”); seine Quellen liegen am Südhang des Tmolos oberhalb von Koloë (h. Keles bei Kiraz); er durchfließt die Kilbisebene, dann das Kaystru pedion [1], nimmt rechts vom Tmolos, links von der Mesogis (h. Cevizli dağı) Nebenflüsse auf (Plin. nat. 5,115) und mündete nördl. von Ephesos ins Meer; der K. hat schon im Alt. durch Schlamm…

Kapros

(116 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Κάπρος). [English version] [1] Fluß in Ost-Karia Fluß im oberen Einzugsbereich des Maiandros in Ost-Karia, h. Başlı C̦ayı; fließt östl. nahe an Laodikeia [4] vorbei (Plin. nat. 5,105) und ergießt sich perennierend in den ca. 1,5 km unterhalb der Stadt nach NW zum Maiandros ziehenden Lykos (Strab. 12,8,16; Plin. nat. 2,225). Mz. der Stadt zeigen einen Flußgott mit Legende K. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G.E. Bean, Kleinasien 3, 1974, 259, 263  Magie 2, 785; 986  Miller, 726  Ramsay 1, 35. [English version] [2] Östl. Nebenfluß des Tigris Östl. Nebenfluß des Tigris (Pol…
▲   Back to top   ▲