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Gallitzin, Amalia

(290 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (princess; b. countess of Schmettau; Aug 28, 1748, Berlin – Apr 27, 1806, Münster), became a court lady in 1766 and married the Russian emissary Duke Dmitry Golicyn in 1768. From 1770 onward, she lived in The Hague, where her meetings with D. Diderot and F. Hemsterhuis made a lasting impression on her. Divorcing her husband in 1775, Gallitzin undertook to raise her children by herself, thereby demonstrating her lack of conformity with the prescribed role of a woman of her time and…

Lo (Loo, Lohe, vom Lohe), Peter

(177 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Petrus; 1530, Elberfeld – Sep 13, 1581, Elberfeld). The son of the teacher Johannes Lo, he was chaplain and a Reformation preacher in Elberfeld after 1552, was banished in 1555, and from 1556 to 1558 served as curate in Mengeringhausen, Waldeck, where he authored a Lutheran essay on the Eucharist. Lo then assumed a wide variety of tasks as adviser to the counts of Waldeck (from Beyenburg and Elberfeld). In 1565, after temporary ¶ arrest, he was commissioned by the duke of Kleve to effect the conversion of imprisoned Anabaptists in the district of Blank…

Martini, Matthias

(157 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (1572, Freienhagen, Waldeck – Jun 21, 1630, Kirchtimke near Bremen). Following education in Korbach and Herborn (Reformed Colleges in Germany), Martini became Nassau-Dillenburg court preacher in 1594; from 1595, also professor in Herborn; 1598, head teacher and adjunct of the town priest in Siegen; 1607, town priest in Emden; from 1610, professor of theology and rector in Bremen. His theology was influenced by C. Olevian among others; his student J. Cocceius later developed his co…

Stolberg, Friedrich Leopold Graf zu

(299 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Nov 7, 1750, [Bad] Bramstedt [then in Denmark] – Dec 5, 1819, Sondermühlen estate, near Melle), grew up in a polyglot environment of Lutheran Pietism at the Copenhagen court. Despite having studied law, he preferred reading classical English, Latin, and Greek literature; in Göttingen he became a member of the Göttingen Grove, writing enthusiastically and spontaneously, in a Romantic religious vein like F.G. Klopstock. As Danish ambassador (1789–1791) and jurist in the service of …

Momma, Wilhelm

(158 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Sep 29, 1642, Hamburg – Sep 9, 1677, Delft), son of a merchant. After studies in Leiden (under J. Cocceius and A. Heidanus), he became minister of the Reformed congregation in Lübeck in 1666. After two years (1674–1676) as minister and professor of theology in Hamm, in June 1676 he gave his inaugural lecture ( De apparationibus Jesu Christi) as professor of theology in Middelburg. His appointment to this position, however, was contested by Prince William II and also by the citizens. In December 1676, he was expressly forbidden to preach…

Stolberg

(263 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[English Version] Stolberg, Friedrich Leopold Graf zu (7.11.1750 [Bad] Bramstedt – 5.12.1819 Gut Sondermühlen bei Melle). Mehrsprachig wuchs S. (luth.-pietistisch geprägt) am Kopenhagener Hof auf. Trotz eines Jurastudiums las er bevorzugt engl., lat. und griech. klassische Lit. und wurde in Göttingen – begeistert, spontan, wie F.G. Klopstock romantisch-rel. dichtend – Genosse im »Hainbund«. Als dänischer Gesandter (1789–1791) und Jurist in oldenburgisch-lübischem Dienst (v.a. in Eutin) kam S. in Konta…

Teschemacher

(135 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[English Version] (Teschenmacher, Techenmacher), Werner (13.9.1590 Elberfeld – 2.4.1638 Xanten). Ref. erzogen, erwies sich der Bürgermeisterssohn nach Studium der Theol. in Herborn, Burgsteinfurt und Heidelberg sowie Pfarrdienst in Grevenbroich (1611), Sittard (1613) und Elberfeld (1615) als Hofprediger im Dienst der brandenburgischen Regierung in Kleve (1617) und später in Emmerich (1623) als hochbegabter, konsequenter Sachwalter der Anliegen der Reformierten am Niederrhein angesichts gegenreformat…

Fürstenberg, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm

(286 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (baron von; Aug 7, 1729, Schloß Herdringen near Arnsberg – Sep 16, 1810, Münster) became capitular in Münster and Paderborn in 1756 and was ordained sub-deacon; from 1763 to 1780, as minister of the archbishop of Cologne, Maximilian Friedrich, he administered the diocese of Münster almost single-handedly; from 1780 to 1807, he was the vicar general of Maximilian Franz, archbishop of Cologne, in Münster. Fürstenberg endeavored to separate the bishopric of Münster from the personal …

Kevelaer

(185 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] Kevelaer, a small town on the left bank of the Lower Rhine (diocese of Münster) and the most important place of pilgrimage (Pilgrimage/Places of pilgrimage: III, 2) for northwestern Germany and the Netherlands (more than 800,000 visitors a year. Highlights: the bikers' pilgrimage, the nativity market, the pope's visit in 1987). In the Gnadenkapelle (Chapel of mercy; erected in 1654), a copy of the miraculous image from Luxembourg depicting the Maria consolatrix afflictorum ( Our Lady, Consoler of the Afflicted) is venerated; it was set up in 1642 following a…

Teschemacher, Werner

(173 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Teschenmacher, Techenmacher; Sep 13, 1590, Elberfeld – Apr 2, 1638, Xanten). Teschemacher, the son of a mayor, was brought up in the Reformed Church and studied theology in Herborn, Burgsteinfurt, and Heidelberg. After serving congregations in Grevenbroich (1611), Sittard (1613), and Elberfeld (1615), he was appointed chaplain to the Brandenburg court in Kleve (1617) and later in Emmerich (1623). He proved himself a highly talented, consistent advocate for the interests of the Reformed along the Lower Rhine in the face of an active Counter-Reformation¶ movement.…

Limborch, Philip van

(272 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Jun 19, 1633, Amsterdam – Apr 30, 1712, Amsterdam), studied in Amsterdam at the Remonstrant Seminary (Arminians, Dort, Synod of) and from 1652 in Utrecht. He was decisively influenced by, among others, G. Voetius. He was active as a preacher in Gouda from 1657, and moved to Amsterdam in 1667, where he lectured (from 1668) as professor of theology at the Remonstrant Seminary. In the field of dogmatics, he drew a distinction between fundamental and non-fundamental doctrines; the latter ¶ also included the two natures doctrine (which he understood in a subordin…

Galen, Christoph Bernhard von

(176 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1606, Haus Bisping near Rinkerode – Sep 19, 1678, Ahaus). In 1630, he became cathedral treasurer, on Nov 14, 1650 prince-bishop of Münster, while, from 1661, he served as administrator of Corvey Abbey. Through visitations, regular diocesan synods and the employment of Jesuits for pastoral care and education, Galen promoted the objectives of Counter-Reformation with lasting effect. Militarily, he conquered the city of Münster in 1661, but he was unable to secure territorial gains resulting from clashes with the Netherlands and with Sweden for the long term. Jü…

Hemsterhuis, Franciscus

(234 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen
[German Version] (Frans/François Hemsterhuys; Dec 27, 1721, Franeker, Netherlands – Jul 7, 1790, The Hague). The son of the philologist Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Hemsterhuis studied mathematics, physics and astronomy in Leiden, was an engineer, and an official in the state council of the Netherlands (1755–1780). From 1775, he befriended the duchess of Gallitzin and became her philosophy teacher and correspondent. I. Newton and Socrates had formative influence on Hemsterhuis's philosophical thought. In…

Church discipline

(2,666 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen | Pfister, Ulrich
1. DefinitionDown to the present day, in Protestantism  church  discipline – also  moral disciplinecongregational discipline, “brotherly/sisterly admonition” – has served as a collective term for various measures (in the setting of pastoral care and ecclesiastical oversight) intended to maintain the church’s doctrine and order, and to restore a manner of life that is not contrary to Christian norms. (On questions of discipline in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox churches, see Ecclesiastical law.)The purpose of the church’s disciplinary measures …
Date: 2019-10-14

Kirchenzucht

(2,468 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen | Pfister, Ulrich
1. BegriffUnter dem Begriff K. – auch Kirchendisziplin (Disziplin), Sitten- bzw. Gemeindezucht, »geschwisterliche Ermahnung« – werden im Protestantismus bis zur Gegenwart diverse (im Rahmen der Seelsorge und der kirchlichen Aufsicht ergriffene) Maßnahmen zusammengefasst, die zur Bewahrung der Lehre, zur Einhaltung der kirchl. Ordnung sowie zur Wiederherstellung eines den christl. Normen nicht entgegengesetzten Lebenswandels dienen sollen (zu Fragen der Disziplin in der Römisch-katholischen Kirche und in den Orthodoxen Kirchen vgl. Kirchenrecht).Alle Maßnahmen der…
Date: 2019-11-19

Church Order

(2,797 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen | Schneider, Bernd Christian
1. General1.1. DefinitionUntil well into the 20th century, the term church order always referred only to the legal systems of the churches in the territories of the Holy Roman Empire in which the Reformation had been established, negating any continuation of canon law (Ecclesiastical law). Quite recently the term has also been applied to texts composed between the 2nd and 5th centuries that deal with questions of how life should be ordered in the Christian communities [3].To date there has been no agreed definition of the legal documents called church orders in P…
Date: 2019-10-14

Kirchenordnung

(2,475 words)

Author(s): Kampmann, Jürgen | Schneider, Bernd Christian
1. Allgemein 1.1. BegriffBis ins 20. Jh. bezeichnete der Begriff K. durchgängig nur die kirchlichen (= kirchl.) Rechtsordnungen der Territorien des Alten Reichs, in denen die Reformation durchgeführt und somit eine Fortgeltung des kanonischen Rechts (Kirchenrecht) negiert wurde. In jüngerer Zeit werden auch zwischen dem 2. und dem 5. Jh. verfasste Texte, die sich mit Fragen der Ordnung des Lebens in den christl. Gemeinden befassen, als K. bezeichnet [3].Eine einheitliche Definition der rechtlichen Ordnungen, die in den protest. Kirchen K. genannt werden, fehlt…
Date: 2019-11-19