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Peucolaus

(35 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] ( P. Díkaios kaì Sōtḗr/'the righteous one and deliverer'; Middle Indian Peukalaüsa). Indo-Greek King of Gandhāra (Gandaritis), beginning of 1st cent. BC, known only from coins. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 106, 309.

Barygaza

(136 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Βαρύγαζα ἐμπόριον; Barýgaza empórion, Ptol. 7,1,62 and Steph. Byz.), harbour town at the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, Old and Middle Indian: Bharukaccha, modern Broach. Peripl. m. rubr. 43-49 provides an extensive report on route and commerce; a coin find confirms his statements on the validity of Indo-Greek coins [1]. B. was the port of Ozene, and its trade links extended to Gandhāra and  Bactria. Probably identical with Βαργόση ( Bargόsē) in Str. 15,1,73. Karttun…

Massaga

(64 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria (Massaka). Capitol city of the Assaceni in modern Swat west of the Indus, Old Indian Maósakāvatī; conquered by Alexander the Great. Hellenistic wall remains were found in excavations of neighbouring sites. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri et al., Bir-Kot-Ghwandai 1990-1992 (Annali. Istituto Universitario Orientale 52, Supplemento 73), 1994.

Xylinepolis

(85 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] One of Alexander [4] the Great's settlements (Plin. HN 6,26,96; perhaps following Onesicritus), where his fleet set off under Nearchus [2] on its coastal voyage westwards; according to [2] identical with Ἀλεξάνδρου λιμήν/ Alexándrou limḗn ('Alexander's port') in Arr. Ind. 21,10 where the western branch of the Indus flows into the Arabian Sea [1. 127]. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 J. André, J. Filliozat (ed.), Pline l'ancien, Histoire naturelle. Livre VI, 2e partie, 1980 (with French transl. and comm.) 2 H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2164-2172.

Namades

(82 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ναμάδης; Namád ēs). River in Gujarāt, rising in the Vindhya mountains (Οὐίνδιον; Ouíndion) and reaching the sea to the east of  Barygaza (Ptol. 7,1,31, briefly also 7,1,65), modern Narmadā. The so-called river Namnadios (Peripl. m.r. 42) [1] is only an emendation by C. Müller (GGM 291) for manuscript Lamnaíos and can hardly be connected with N., although it may be that here, too, the river Narmadā is meant. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 O. Stein, s.v. Ναμάδης, RE 16, 1609.

Xandrames

(129 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ξανδράμης/ Xandrámēs). Indian king (in Diod. Sic. 17,93,2; Latin Agrammes in Curt. 9,2,3; Sacram(es) in the Epitome Mettensis 68), second half of the 4th cent. BC. He was described to Alexander [4] as the most powerful king in the Ganges valley. It is therefore probably Nandrus, the last king of the Nanda dynasty in Indian sources, that is meant (Nandas). The account in Just. Epit. 15,4,12-19 of the fall of Nandrus Chandragupta (Sandracottus; Mauryas), although differing in detail, in general…

Theodamas

(58 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Probably an Indo-Greek king or prince, recorded only in one Kharoṣṭī inscription (known as the Bajaur Seal) as Middle Indian Theudama. It is by no means certain that the reading of the short inscription as "of the king Theodamas" is correct, but the name is certain. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum 2.1, Nr. 3

Bucephala

(99 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ἀλεξάνδρεια Βουκέφαλα; Alexándreia Bouképhala). City on the right bank of the Hydaspes (modern Jhelum), founded by Alexander [4] the Great on the site of the battle with Porus ( Porus) and named after his warhorse  Bucephalus (Arr. Anab. 5,19,4; Curt.). Still known in the early imperial period (Plin. HN; Peripl. m.r.; Ptol.). According to Lamotte mentioned in Buddhist literature as Bhadāśva [1]. Its exact location is disputed. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 É. Lamotte, Alexandre et le …

Indo-Scythians

(59 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (in Chinese sources Yuèzhī) originally a Central Asian people, which migrated west in the 2nd cent. BC. The I. conquered  Graeco-Bactria and later moved to India, where they founded the powerful  Kushan dynasty ( Kanishka). Their Indian kingdom is called Indo-Scythia by Ptolemy and others.  Scythians Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography J. E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw, The Scythian Period, 1949.

Chryse

(64 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Χρυσῆ χερρόνησος; Chrysê cherrónēsos). South-west Asian Peninsula (Peripl. m. r. 63; Ptol. 7,2,5, etc.), Lat. Promunturium Chryse (Plin. HN 6,20,55), probably on the modern Malacca Peninsula; cf. Sanskrit Suvarṇabhūmi ‘Land of Gold’ and Suvarṇadvı̄pa ‘Island of Gold’ in south-west Asia. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese. Studies in the historical geography of the Malay Peninsula before A.D. 1500, 1961.

Taprobane

(343 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ταπροβάνη/ Taprobánē). The most common name for the island of Ceylon from the time of Onesicritus (in Str. 15,1,17 and Plin. HN 6,81) and Megasthenes (Plin. HN 6, 81) onwards, Ancient Indian Tāmraparṇi, Middle Indian Tambapaṇṇi. The unrealistic geographical ideas of Antiquity, which are probably based on Eratosthenes [2], are noteworthy: in all Greek and Latin sources T. is much larger than in reality and extends far to the west. Nevertheless, in Ptolemaeus [65] for instance, who devotes a whole chapter to T. (7,4…

Musicanus

(111 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μουσικανός/ Mousikanós). Indian king of the people of the same name ( Musicani) on the lower reaches of the Indus (Onesicritus in Str. 15,1,21f.; Arr. Anab. 6,15,5-17,2, also briefly Curt. 9,8,8-10). People have often tried to link the name wit the ancient Indian tribal name Mūṣika; however, they originated not in the north west, but in the south of India. M. had initially submitted to Alexander [4] the Great and had been received cordially, but after a failed revolt he was condemned to death. Onesicritus depicts his kingdom as a utopia steeped in Cynical philosophy. …

Zabii

(173 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ζάβιοι/ Zábioi). Indian people according to Nonnus, Dion. 26,65 (who goes back to the Bassariká of Dionysius [32]). Their territory was probably in northwestern India, neighbouring the Dardae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Δάρδαι/ Dárdai), but is not identifiable [1]. Attempts to make a comparison between the information in Nonnus (and Dionysius) and Indian realities remain tenuous (already [2], later e.g. [3], [4]; see also [5]). Rather, it is a matter of a Greek literary reflection of a mythical India, which only acci…

Abissareans

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Called Abhisāra in Old Indian, a mountain people of northern Pakistan (Megasthenes at Arr. Ind. 4,12), on the Soanos river, an eastern tributary of the Indus River (nowadays called Sohan or Suwan [1. 1100 f.]), with King  Abisares. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 G. Wirth, O. by Hinüber, (ed. and trans.) Arrian, Der Alexanderzug - Indische Geschichte, 1985.

Muziris

(145 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with | Mauryas (Μουζιρίς; Mouzirís). Sea port on the south-western coast of India in modern Kerala; the Indian Muciri of the Tamil Sangam poems [1]. Both Greek and Tamil sources describe M. as one of the most important southern Indian port and trading cities. An important trading route to the eastern coast of India originated from M. A papyrus deed (PVindob. 40822) from Egypt reports of a loan that was granted in M. [2]. Because of the unsteadiness of the coast, its exact location remains unknown. I…

India

(1,809 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] I. Name Old Indian Sindhu as the name for the Indus river, is attested (with Iranian h) as Hindu in the ancient Persian inscriptions; from this came Greek Ἰνδός ( Indōs; with the Ionian loss of h) for the river and then Ἰνδική ( Indikḗ) for the country. The Latin terms are Indus and India. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) [German version] II. Early relationships Whilst relationships between north-western I. and Mesopotamia go back to the 3rd millennium BC, I. became known in Greece only in the late 6th cent. through Scylax (FGrH 709), who visited …

Apollodotus

(78 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Name of two Indo-Greek kings. The first, who is mentioned in literary sources (Peripl. M. Rubr. 47, Just. Epit. Prologue B. 41), ruled in Paropamisadae around 180-160 BC; the second, who is known only from coins, ruled about 100 years later in the Punjab. The legends on the coins minted under both of them generally read ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ / maharajasa apaladatasa tratarasa. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Bopearachchi, 62-64, 188-194 (Appendix I), 135 f., 346-355 (Appendix II).

Sophytes

(101 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σωπείθης; Sōpeíthēs). Indian king in the Punjab to the east of the Cathaei, allied with Alexander [4] (Arr. Anab. 6,2,2; Str. 15,1,30; Diod. Sic. 17,91; Curt. 9,1, 24-30). His land is described very positively, to some extent idealised. There is particularly frequent mention of the fearless dogs he presented to Alexander. The ancient identification of S. with the Old Indo-Iranian Saubhūti is quite uncertain, and that with the prince Sophytes (recorded only numismatically) is certainly mistaken [1. 60-72]. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 R. B. White…

Patala

(116 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states | India, trade with | Mauryas (τὰ Πάταλα; tà Pátala). City and military base of Alexander [4] the Great at the mouth of the Indus, probably Pātāla in Old Indian (Arr. Anab. 5,4,1; Arr. Ind. 2,6; Str. 15,1,33 among others). The name was also used for the entire region and later also for the island of Patalene (Ptol. 7,1,55), but the city is never mentioned again. In P.'s place, Barabara became the …

Oxydracae

(220 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ὀξυδράκαι; Oxydrákai). Indian ethnic group in the Punjab, organized as an 'aristocratic republic'; together with the Malli, subjugated by Alexander [4] the Great in ferocious battles. The name has not been passed down to us in a uniform manner: aside from Oxydrákai in Arr. Anab. 5,22; 6,11 und from time to time, they are called Sydrákai in Str. 15,1,8, Diod. Sic. 17,98 and Arr. Ind. 4, Sudracae in Curt. 9,4,15, Sydraci in Plin. HN 6,25,92, Sugambri in Justin. 12,9,3, and Oxidragae in the Epitome Mettensis 78. In ancient Indian lists of Punjab peoples, those …

Nandas

(138 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian dynasty in Magadha (approx. modern Bihār) on the Ganges, toppled by Chandragupta Maurya (Mauryas) late in the 4th cent. BC. In the Alexander histories, Indian allies told of the great military power of the Nandas who may thus have contributed to the mutiny on the Hyphasis. A legendary tale of the end of the Nandas is found in Indian sources and in Justin (15,4,16 according to Pomp. Trog.; [1]). Though different in many details, all sources agree on the low origins and unpopularity of the Nandas (including Curt. 9,2,6f.). India Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliograph…

Sandracottus

(181 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Arr. Anab. 5,6,2: Σανδράκοττος/ Sandrákottos, Str. 15,1,36: Σανδρόκοττος/ Sandrókottos, Plut. Alexander 62: Ἀνδράκοττος/ Andrákottos, Just. Epit. 15,4: Sandracottus, Old Indo-Iranian Tschandragupta). Indian king ( c. 320-298 BC) of the Mauryan Dynasty, king of the Prasii and founder of the Mauryan Empire (Mauryas with map). In Indian sources, his life is connected with legends, and parts of a S. legend are also found in Justin (15,4). He concluded a peace with Seleucus following a conflict of which no d…

Nahapāna

(101 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian king of the Kṣatrapa dynasty, who ruled in and around Gujarāt in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD and was then deposed by the Sātavāhana king Gautamīputra Sātakarṇi. He has often been identified with the king Manbanes(-nus?) of Barygaza in Peripl. m.r. 41 (most recently in [1], but the question remains uncertain, latest critique in [2]). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 J. Cribb, Numismatic Evidence for the Date of the Periplus, in: D.W. McDowall (ed.), Indian Numismatics, History, Art and Culture, 1992, 131-145 2 G. Fussman, Le Périple et l'histoire poli…

Dachinabades

(59 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Region of India to the south of  Barygaza, with the cities of Paithana and Tagara. Mentioned only in Peripl. m.r. 50f., where δάχανος has also been correctly explained as the Indian word for south, Old Indian dakṣiṇa. Probably following Middle Indian Dakkhiṇābadha (Old Indian dakṣiṇāpatha) as a term for the Indian peninsula. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Imaon

(16 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Greek name of the Himalaya, old Indian Himavān,  Emodus. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Prasii

(123 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Πράσιοι/ Prásioi; Lat. Prasii). People in eastern India on the lower reaches of the Ganges in modern Bihār, Old Indian p rāchya, 'the Easterners' (e.g. in the Mahābhārata). Situated in their territory wasPalimbothra, the capital of the kingdom of Maurya (Mauryas). The first information about the P. comes from the Alexander historians (Diod. Sic. 17,93, Curt. 9,2,3); from the time of Megasthenes (in Str. 15,1,36), they were considered to be the most powerful people in India. Their territory was known as Πρασιακή/ Prasiakḗ (Ael. NA 17,39, Ptol. 7,1,53). Many pas…

Larice

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian region in Gujarāt, bordering on Indo-Scythia in the west, with the capital Ozene (Ptol. 7,1,62f., see also Peripl. m.r. 41 (Ariake) and Ptol. 7,1,4f.). The name is obviously related to Old Indian Lāṭa, South Gujarāt. In this country the famous harbour town of Barygaza was situated. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. L., RE 12, 837f.

Heliocles

(97 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (called Díkaios, Middle Indian Heliyakriya). Greek king of Bactria in the 2nd cent. BC, attested only by his coins. According to Tarn [1] son of Eucratides I and the last Greek king of Bactria, overthrown by nomads in 141/128. Narain [2] and Bopearachchi [3] differentiate between two H.s on numismatic grounds. The second was supposedly a son of the first and ruled in the south of the Hindu Kush. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 2 A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1958 3 Bopearachchi, 74-76, 222-225 (H. I.), 9…

Yamunā

(80 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The largest tributary of the Ganges; Iomanes in Arr. Ind. 8,5 (Ἰωμάνης/ Iōmánēs, Var. Ἰωβάρης/ Iōbárēs) and Plin. HN 6,21,63; 6,22,69; 6,23,73; Διαμούνας/ Diamoúnas in Ptol. 7,1,29 (probably from Prakrit Jamunā), perhaps identical to the Οἰδάνης/ Oidánēs of Artemidorus (in Str. 15,1,72). The river rises in the western Himalayas and joins with the Ganges at Allahabad. Between the Y. in the west and the Ganges in the east is the Doab, the ancient heartland of Aryan India. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Nallura

(45 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ναλλοῦρα; Nalloûra). City in the interior of Limyrice in Southern India (Ptol. 7.1.85). There are several cities in Southern India with the Dravidian name Nallūr; exact identification does not appear possible. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Stein, s.v. Ναλλοῦρα, RE 16, 1608.

Ai Khanum

(154 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Ruined city in northern Afghanistan at the confluence of the rivers Amu Darja ( Araxes) and Koktscha. It was most likely founded by Alexander himself, probably  Alexandria [12]. A. was a Greek polis with temples, gymnasium, theatre, and an acropolis with Greek monumental and tomb inscriptions [1]; among the findings were numerous ostraka containing business records [2], the remains of two literary papyri [3], Hellenistic, Iranian, Indian, and Indo-Greek coins. It was the capital o…

Cophen

(38 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Κωφήν; Kōphḗn: Arr.; Κώφης/ Kṓphēs: Diod., Dionys Per., Str.; Cophes: Plin. HN). Western tributary of the river  Indus [1], old Indian Kubhā, today's Kabul. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography K. Karttunen, India and the Hellenistic World, 1997, 112.

Nagadiba

(68 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ναγαδίβα; Nagadíba). [German version] [1] Coastal city on Taprobane Coastal city on Taprobane (modern Sri Lanka); Ptol. 7,4,7. It seems obvious to identify it with the Middle Indian Nāgadīpa ‘Island of serpents’, but no city with this name is known. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D.P.M. Weerakkody, Taprobanê, 1997, 85ff. [German version] [2] Island near Taprobane One of the numerous islands near Taprobane, Ptol. 7,4,13. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Sinae

(112 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σῖναι; Sînai). People in eastern Asia (Ptol. 1,17,5 and several times in Ptol. 7,3) with capital Thínai, Latin Thinae (Ptol. 7,3,6, Peripl. m. r. 64); also a term for southern China, which people visited by sea, whereas northern and eastern China were approached by way of the central-Asian caravan routes and was known as Serica, the land of the Seres , or the 'Silk Land'. S. and Serica were never associated with one another. The name S. is from the name of the Chinese Qín dynasty (3rd cent. BC), probably by way of the Old Indian Cīna. China Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliogra…

Calliena

(87 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 52f., an empórion on the west coast of India close to what is now Bombay, Sanskrit Kalyāṇa. C. was established by the elder Saraganes as an important commercial harbour; under Sandanes in the 1st cent. AD it was abandoned in favour of  Barygaza. Also attested in Cosmas [2] Indikopleustes as Calliana (11,16; 11,22). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986.

Gandaridae

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] also Gangaridae. Mentioned in accounts of Alexander's campaign ( Alexander [4], with map) and in Megasthenes as a powerful people in India. They lived east of the  Prasii on the lower Ganges. Also mentioned in Ptol. 7,1,81. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography D. C. Sircar, Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, 213ff.

Bazira

(67 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander (Βάζιρα; Bázira). Town in north-western Pakistan, on the river Swat between the Indus and the Hindu Kush, captured and fortified by  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab.). Probably near Bīr-kōt̥-Ġundai, where Hellenistic walls, pottery and graffiti have been found. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri, in: A. Gail, G. Mevissen (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1991, 1993, 339-348.

Assaceni

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indian people in today's Swat, west of the Indus, with capital Massaga, subjugated by Alexander (Arr. Anab. 4, 23ff.; Ind. 1,1). Called Aspagani by Plin. HN and in Pāli called Assaka, from Old Indian aśva-/Iranian aspa ‘horse’. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. v. Hinüber, Arrian. Der Alexanderzug -- Indische Gesch., ed. and translation by G. Wirth, O. v. Hinüber, 1985, 1081f.

Archebius

(24 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Graeco-Indian king of the 1st cent. BC, only documented from coins, Middle Indian Arkhebiya. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110-112, 319-324.

Taxiles

(285 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ταξίλης/ Taxílēs). King of Taxila, who ruled over a broad and fertile plain between the Indus and the Hydaspes; his neighbours were Abisares in the north and Porus [3] in the east. His father already had allied with Alexander [4] by letter (Diod. Sic. 17,86,4; Curt. 8,12,4 f.; see also Arr. Anab. 4,22,6), and the young king approved the alliance when Alexander stayed with him as a guest for some time in the spring of 326 BC (Arr. Anab. 5,3,5 f.; 5,8,2 f.; Diod. Sic. 17,86,4-7; Plu…

Antialcidas

(55 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Indo-Greek king sometime around 100 BC. No literary evidence, but mentioned in an Indian Brāhmī insription (Besnagar inscription; by his envoy, Heliodorus of Taxila), and named on Greek-Bactrian and Indo-Greek coins with the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΑΛΚΙΔΟΥ / maharajasa jayadharasa aṃtialkidasa. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Bopearachchi, Monnaies Greco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, 1991, 95-97, 271-288.

Maniolai nesoi

(116 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μανιόλαι νῆσοι; Manióloi nêsoi). An archipelago off the coast of India, beyond the Ganges (Ptol. 7,2,31). Otherwise attested in Greek literature only in Pseudo- Palladius ( Perí tōn tēs Indíēs ethnṓn 1,5), but located by him in the vicinity of Ceylon (perhaps the Maldives or in the dangerous waters around the southern tip of India). Later often mentioned by Arabs, Persians and others. From the time of Ptolemy it was believed that these islands were so magnetic that they pulled the iron nails out of ships. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. Μανιό…

Sagala

(120 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Σάγαλα/ Ságala, Ptol. 7,1,46; Old Indian Śākala, Middle Indian Sāgala). City in the Punjab east of Hydaspes, the capital city of the Indo-Greek king Menander [6] in Pāli Milindapañha. S. with its rectangular, probably Hellenistic city plan, was also called Euthydemia or Euthymedia, according to Ptol. l.c.. The city is also known in ancient Indo-Iranian literature (Mahābhārata etc.) and was visited in the 7th cent. AD by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. Its exact location is not known (perhap…

Paropamisus

(201 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Παροπάμισος/ Paropámisos, Str. 15,1,11; 2,9). Mountain range including the Paropamisadae region (Παροπαμισάδαι/Paropamisádai, Str. 15,2,8ff.). Both names occur in many variants that render identification more difficult [1]. Old Iranian (Avesta) * Parupairisaena (cf. upairisaena in Yasna 10); in the Akkadian version of the Bisutun inscription, Paruparaesanna is used instead of Gandara (Gandaritis) in the Old Persian version [2. DB 1,18]. The mountain range with Taurus, Caucasus, Elburs and Himalaya was regarded as part of the great Asian …

Sangala

(66 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria (Σάγγαλα/ Sángala). Capital and fortress of the Indian Cathaei in the Punjab, to the east of Hydraotes (modern Irāvatī). The city was conquered and destroyed in 326 by Alexander [II 4] the Great after a fierce battle (Arr. Anab. 5,22-24; Polyaenus, Strat. 4,3,30). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s. v. Σάγγαλα, RE 1 A, 1740.

Yavana

(129 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Old Indian; Early Middle Indian yona, yonaka; later also joṉa). The Indian name for the Greeks (most likely from Old Persian yauna) originally described the Iones. The earliest records are from about the 4th and 3rd centuries BC (in the grammarian Pāṉini and king Aśoka), hence in the Mahābhārata it may have been a term for the Indo-Greeks. Later the name receives a more general significance as a term for more distant neighbours, and from about the 7th cent. AD it was used as a name for Arabs and Moslems. In the Tamil literature of southern India, Yavanar is found as a term f…

Mathurā

(187 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
The Old Indian name M. designates two towns. [German version] [1] Indian locality at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganges This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Mauryas The northern M. (also Méthōra/Μέθωρα in Megasthenes fr. 13a apud Arr. Ind. 8,5) in the land of Śūrasena, at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganges. It was an old and important centre of the cult of Kṛsṇa, but also of that of the Indian Heracles; the latter may not, however, be simply identified with Kṛsṇa. Ptol. 7,1,…

Indus Culture

(113 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Prehistoric high culture in the 3rd millennium in northwestern South Asia, from Punjab to Baluchistan and Gujarat, with Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro as the most likely important centres. There was lively overseas trade (a harbour was excavated at Lothal in Gujarat) with Makan (modern Oman),  Dilmun (modern Bahrain), the island of Failaka (now part of Kuwait) and Mesopotamia [1. 107ff.]. The famous Indus script is only attested in the form of very short seal legends; the language on wh…

Peukelaotis

(156 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Graeco-Baktrien | Graeco-Baktrien | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel (Πευκελαῶτις: Arr. an. 4,22,7-8,28,6; auch Πευκελαῖτις: Arr. Ind. 1,8; 4,11; Πευκελαῖτις: Strab. 15,1,27; ferner z.B. Προκλαίς: Ptol. 7,1,44; Ποκλαίς: peripl. m. Eux. 47f.). Stadt in Gandhāra (im h. Pakistan westl. vom Indus; Gandaritis), altindisch Puṣkalavatī, mittelindisch Pukkhalāvatī, griech. Form wohl unter Einfluß von Namen mit Peuko- ( Peukolaos, Peukéstas). P. hatte eine wichtige Lage am alten Han…

Patala

(98 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Alexandros | Graeco-Baktrien | Graeco-Baktrien | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Indienhandel | Mauryas (τὰ Πάταλα). Stadt und Stützpunkt Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. an der Indus-Mündung, wohl altindisch Pātāla (Arr. an. 5,4,1; Arr. Ind. 2,6; Strab. 15,1,33 u.a.). Der Name wurde auch für das gesamte Gebiet gebraucht, später auch für die Insel Patalene (Ptol. 7,1,55), aber die Stadt wird nie mehr erwähnt. Statt dessen war Barabara Zentrum und Hafen des Gebiets, was vielleicht auf der unsteten Natur der Mündung beruht. Kart…
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