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(778 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
1. Term “Supervision” designates a form of professional career counseling. Since conditions and demands are changing so rapidly in many fields, it makes sense as a lifelong learning process. The term itself ¶ arose in industry and government administration (Economy; Bureaucracy). A supervisor sees to it that the necessary tasks are carried out. Social work (Social Education) and psychotherapy then adopted the word, and soon it was recommended for almost every professional field, not just the psychosocial. We find individual supervision, which is oriented to the doctor-pati…

Drive Theory

(328 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] A drive theory attempts, with the aid of the hypothetical construct, “drive,” more precisely to define human behavior, its origin and objectives. For Freudian psychoanalysis, drive theory is central: drives are regarded the “ultimate cause of all activity” (Freud 70); theories of development, disease, therapy and even culture derive from drive theory. For S. Freud, “the entire palette of life's phenomena” results from the “collaboration and opposition of the two basic drives,” eros (Sexuality) and the death drive (Aggression; loc. cit., 71). Freud distinguish…


(218 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] refers to a physical/psychological impulse often experienced as an unconscious compulsion, a tension or a need (associated with mental concepts, the so-called representations of drive), which in turn induces a corresponding behavior directed at resolving the tension, at satisfying the urge. S. Freud understood a drive “as (a) psychological representation of the impulses stemming from within the body that gain access to the soul” (214). It is thus a “boundary concept between the psychological and the somatic” ( loc. cit.). In contrast to instinct, a drive is …

Pastoral Movement

(326 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] The term pastoral movement (Ger. Seelsorgebewegung) denotes a fundamental reorientation of pastoral care in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. The primarily kerygmatic ministry (E. Thurneysen et al.) had clearly sustained a loss of function. Against the background of the social upheavals of the late 1960s, stimuli from the American model of pastoral theology (Clinical pastoral education and training) were adopted. The paradigm of pastoral care as “therapeutic ministry” (Stollberg) replaced “kerygmatic ministry.” The movement is characterized by several fe…


(111 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] The Winfriedbund was founded by Father Gisbert Menge OFM in 1920 as a religious association with its headquarters in Paderborn; its primary purpose was support of converts to the Catholic Church. It received episcopal approval in 1920 and papal approval in 1923. Initially it also had an active publishing program, publishing the journal Die Friedensstadt from 1928 to 1939 and from 1950 to 1952 and Ut omnes unum from 1953 to 1983. As the number of converts decreased, the organization shifted its focus, today using its financial resources primarily …

Scharfenberg, Joachim

(135 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] (May 10, 1927, Kiel – Mar 11, 1996, Neu-Königsförde), theologian and psychoanalyst, professor of practical theology at Kiel from 1971 to 1992. Scharfenberg was one of the pioneers of pastoral psychology in German-speaking Europe. A student of O. Haendler, he received his doctorate in 1958 with a thesis on Blumhardt and pastoral care today; he received his Habilitation from Tübingen in 1968 with a study of S. Freud and his critique of religion as a challenge to Christian faith. Scharfenberg ¶ interpreted psychoanalysis as hermeneutics. Freud’s discovery of lang…

Hospital Chaplain

(379 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] Pastoral care in hospitals (Hospitals; see also Pastoral care of the sick) is primarily the responsibility of hospital chaplains. As early as the late Middle Ages, many large hospitals assigned a priest who had been exempted from parochial duties to deal exclusively with the spiritual and pastoral needs of patients. In the present day, when the care and treatment of the sick has largely shifted to hospitals and more than half the population die in hospital, such a functional pastorate would appear indispensable. A hospital chap-¶ lain is responsible on average for …

Training and Coaching of Pastoral Practitioners

(639 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] I. Until the 1960s, pastoral care was not thought of as something that could be taught and learned; it was not until the empirical turn in practical theology that it became the subject of systematic reflection and was communicable. The rediscovery of psychoanalysis by theology (J. Scharfenberg) and familiarity with American clinical pastoral education (CPE) led to the establishment of various forms of training and continuing education in pastoral care. Pastoral care is a form of ongoing support and guidance within the context of the Christian faith;…

Pastoral Care of the Sick

(709 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] Pastoral care in hospitals is a distinct ministry with specific issues; it should not be thought of as a variant of pastoral ministry in the parish – simply visiting parish members in the hospital. Pastoral care in hospitals includes pastoral counseling of patients and their families, supportive companionship for the seriously ill and the dying, and cooperation with the medical staff and other caregivers, as well as worship services and the sacraments, participa…

Inductive Pastoral Care

(211 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] The term inductive pastoral care was coined to describe the approach to pastoral care of S. Hiltner, a leading American pastoral psychologist and theoretician; it was later extended to represent the methodological approach of the pastoral movement of the 1970s and 80s in Germany as well. In Germany, thanks to the influence of dialectical theology, the theory of pastoral care has usually been derived deductively from a particular concept of proclamation (e.g. E. Thurneysen), but Hiltne…

Rank, Otto

(170 words)

Author(s): Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] (Apr 22, 1884, Vienna – Mar 31, 1939, New York), pupil and secretary of S. Freud; from 1919, editor of the Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse.¶ Rank’s book Das Trauma der Geburt (1924; ET: The Trauma of Birth, 1929) marked the beginning of an estrangement from Freud. In it, Rank develops the thesis that the trauma of birth and the fantasy of returning to the mother’s womb are more important than subsequent traumas, such as the Oedipus complex. His later work acquired speculative philosophical features; he …


(1,054 words)

Author(s): Butz, Norbert | Klessmann, Michael
[German Version] I. Charitable Institutions – II. Social Sciences – III. Practical Theology I. Charitable Institutions Christian antiquity was already familiar with various kinds of “Xenodochium,” such as hospitals for the sick, foundlings, etc. While the independent hospital continued in the Byzantine realm, the Western hospital in the early and High Middle Ages was not an independent institution but it belonged to a monastery or a foundation obligated to receive the poor, pilgrims and the sick. In addition…

Sickness and Healing

(3,297 words)

Author(s): Rütten, Thomas | Neu, Rainer | Ebner, Martin | Kaiser, Jochen-Christoph | Wiesing, Urban | Et al.
[German Version] I. Medicine Sickness and healing are basic phenomena of human life and core concepts of any anthropology. Nevertheless defining them and the relationship between them still raises problems, not least because each is a collective term. There is debate within medicine over whether sickness and healing can be neutral categories, purely descriptive and empirical, with their meaning determined by the evolutionary function of the body and its organs. Other positions, mindful of historical…


(8,171 words)

Author(s): Weßler, Heinz Werner | Barton, John | Klaiber, Walter | Sarot, Marcel | Sparn, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In archaic cultures, the wellbeing of the community is determined by a fatal power that can be influenced by religious rituals but is ultimately incalculable. In the context of advanced early urban cultures, however, there emerged religious worldviews in which universal concepts of order played a central role. In this historical context, a “functioning world order” (Klimkeit) became the structural principle for models explaining the world. The connection between …


(8,720 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Mürmel, Heinz | Halm, Heinz | Fabry, Heinz-Josef | Avemarie, Friedrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. General Suffering is a concept that needs to be approached constructively in comparative religious study as it takes fundamental negative human experiences to a comparative level. On this interpretive level, suffering is understood as one of the fundamental experiences of human life. What people experience as suffering depends on their particular interpretation of the world and hence on their religious system for interpreting the world. The point at which religi…