Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)" )' returned 22 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Golasecca culture

(265 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Chronologically, the Golasecca culture (GC) encompasses the 12th to the 4th cents. BC, with the proto-GC (12th-11th cents. BC) regarded as the first stage that was still Bronze Age; spatially the GC stretches from the source region of the Ticino via Lago Maggiore and Lago di Como to the Po. This culture which can mainly be understood through tomb inventories is divided up into three groups that initially all favoured cremation. The western group with the important necropoleis Sest…

Este Culture

(241 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Este culture is applied broadly to the Iron Age population group of the Veneti in the period between 1000 und 300 BC (chronological table in  Golasecca culture), whose material legacy from the area between the Po, Lake Garda, the north-eastern arc of the Alps and the Adriatic indicates a relatively homogeneous group at a similar stage of development. The name is taken from the necropoleis of the most important settlement of the early period, today's Este. Other centres we…

Terramare culture

(182 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Bronze Age culture in the Po valley, characterised by earth mounds with dark nutrient-rich soil containing the remains of TC settlements and used in modern times as fertiliser. The range of the TC is delineated by modern Emilia and Veneto. In time, it encompassed the middle (16th-14th cents. BC) and late (13th-12th cents. BC) Bronze Age. Few settlements have been examined to date; better known find locations are Poviglio, Tabina and Castione dei Marchesi. The finds show rectangula…

Ausonian Culture

(296 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The term Ausonian Culture is used to describe the culture of the Liparian Islands and the north-east of Sicily during the Late Bronze Age and at the end of the Bronze Age. The name is a reference to Auson, the father of the mythical founder Liparus (Diod. Sic. 5,7,5-6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,22,3). The Italian mainland origins of the  Ausones are generally accepted on account of the similarities between archaeological finds from their culture with those from the Subappenine cultur…

Visentium

(248 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria City in southern Etruria on the southwestern shore of Lacus Volsiniensis (Lago di Bolsena), modern Monte Bisenzio. The course of the city wall, an aqueduct, shore fortifications and wall remains interpreted as grain stores are the only memorials to Roman V. ( municipium; tribus Sabatina). The city is more important for information it offers on the Etruscan and above all the early Italian Iron Age. Expansive necropoleis (e.g. Olmo Bello, Polledrara, San Bernardino) with rich gr…

Villanova Culture

(470 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The VC is among the most significant Iron Age cultural phenomena of early Italy (9th cent. until the last quarter of the 8th cent. BC). The subdivisions are not uniform across the whole area of the VC, but there is general progress from an early phase ( c. 900-820 BC), through a transitional phase ( c. 820-770) to an end phase ( c. 770-730). The core area of the VC proper covers ancient Etruria (Etrusci, Etruria), northern Latium and Tuscany, by the early phase there were already advances across the crest of the Apennines northwards into the…

Novilara

(220 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture | Italy, languages The modern town of N. is about 7 km south of Pesaro on the Adriatic. It is likely that the site corresponds to that of the ancient (Picene) settlement, although unambiguous traces of settlement have yet to be found. Better known are the finds from the necropoleis. Of barely 300 investigated graves there are the older ones, beginning in the 8th cent. BC, mostly from the Molaroni necropolis, whereas the more recent…

Pantalica

(235 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture The ancient settlement of P. lies in the hinterland of Syracusae (Sicily). The plateau of approximately 8 ha in area is naturally protected by deeply incised valleys, and is connected with the surrounding area only by a narrow saddle. It may be identical with the pre-Greek Hybla [2]. All that survives of the ancient settlement are the remains of the so-called anáktoron, considered to be the seat of the ruler of P. In addition to living spaces, this building also contained a bronze worksh…

Tolfa

(213 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] The T. mountain zone lies between the modern towns of Civitavecchia and Bracciano, about 70 km to the north of Rome. On the evidence of the rich hoard finds of Coste del Marano and Monte Rovello and the settlements of Luni sul Mignone, Monte Rovello and several necropoleis it first flourished at the end of the Bronze Age (12th-10th cents. BC). By contrast, it is not until the Etruscan period (from the 7th cent. BC) that there seems to have been a further intensive phase of settlem…

Sala Consilina

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] Modern town in the Vallo di Diano (province of Salerno, Lucania) whose ancient name was not transmitted. Its fame is due to the necropolis with more than 1,500 tombs from the Early Historical Period (10th to the 6th cents. BC) located to the north west and south east of the town; the location of the corresponding settlement has yet to be determined. The inventories of the tombs as well as the so-called Waffengrab suggest an elite of leading families, esp. due to the absence of princely graves with magnificent and prestigious furnishings. As was the ca…

Pantalica

(204 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Villanova-Kultur Die ant. Siedlung von P. liegt im Hinterland von Syrakusai (Sizilien). Das Plateau von ca. 8 ha Größe wird durch tief eingeschnittene Täler auf natürliche Weise geschützt und ist nur durch einen schmalen Sattel mit dem Umland verbunden. Vielleicht handelt es sich um das vorgriech. Hybla [2]. Von der ant. Siedlung sind nur die Reste des sog. anáktoron erhalten, das als Sitz des Herrschers von P. angesehen wird. In diesem Gebäude befand sich neben Wohnräumen auch eine Werkstatt z…

Ausonische Kultur

(221 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Als A.K. wird die spät- und endbronzezeitliche Kultur der Liparischen Inseln und Nordostsiziliens bezeichnet. Der Name bezieht sich auf Auson, den Vater des mythischen Gründers Liparos (Diod. 5,7,5-6; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,22,3). Die Herkunft der Ausones vom it. Festland ist durch die Verwandtschaft ihres Fundgutes mit dem der subapenninischen Kultur allg. anerkannt. Die Phase “Ausonio A” (Anf. 13.-11.Jh. v.Chr.) setzte als offensichtlich kriegerische Inbesitznahme der Liparischen Inseln ein. Die zerstörten Siedlungsplätze der bisherigen Einwohner ( facies …

Sala Consilina

(184 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Mod. Ortschaft im Vallo di Diano (Prov. Salerno, Lucania), deren ant. Name nicht überl. ist. Ihre Bekanntheit verdankt sie den Nekropolen mit mehr als 1500 Gräbern frühgesch. Zeit (10. bis 6. Jh. v. Chr.), die im NW und SO des Ortes liegen; die Lage der zugehörigen Siedlung ist noch nicht gesichert. Reiche Grabinventare und sog. Waffengräber lassen auf eine Elite führender Familien schließen, zumal “Fürstengräber” mit prunkvoller und prestigeträchtiger Ausstattung fehlen. S. C. stand wie Pontecagnano der Villanova-Kultur nahe, i…

Novilara

(176 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Italien, Sprachen | Villanova-Kultur Der moderne Ort N. liegt etwa 7 km südl. von Pesaro an der Adria. Die Lage entspricht wahrscheinlich derjenigen der ant. (picenischen) Siedlung, obwohl eindeutige Siedlungsspuren bislang fehlen. Bekannter sind die Funde aus den Nekropolen. Von knapp 300 erforschten Gräbern stammen die älteren, beginnend im 8. Jh.v.Chr., vorwiegend aus der Molaroni-Nekropole, während die jüngeren Bestattungen aus der Servic…

Estekultur

(195 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Der Begriff E. umschreibt weitgehend die eisenzeitliche Bevölkerungsgruppe der Veneter in der Zeit zwischen 1000 und 300 v.Chr. (Chronologietabelle bei Golasecca-Kultur), deren materielle Hinterlassenschaft aus der Zone zwischen Po, Gardasee, dem nordöstl. Alpenbogen und der Adria eine relativ homogene Gruppe mit ähnlicher Entwicklung dokumentiert. Die Benennung erfolgte nach den Nekropolen der wichtigsten Siedlung der Frühzeit, dem heutigen Este. Weitere Zentren befanden sich in…

Golaseccakultur

(218 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] Die G. umfaßt zeitlich das 12. bis 4. Jh. v.Chr., wobei die Proto-G. (12.-11. Jh. v.Chr.) als erste, noch brz. Stufe betrachtet wird, und reicht räumlich vom Quellgebiet des Ticino über Lago Maggiore und Lago di Como bis zum Po. Diese hauptsächlich über Grabinventare faßbare Kultur wird aufgeteilt in drei Gruppen, die zunächst alle die Brandbestattung bevorzugten. Die westl. Gruppe mit den wichtigen Nekropolen Sesto Calende und Castelletto Ticino beim namengebenden Fundort Golase…

Hoard finds

(754 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[German version] I. Celto-Germanic area In central Europe from the Byzantine period onwards, hoard finds (HF; storage, treasure, safekeeping, mass, hidden finds, etc.) primarily of metal objects (copper, bronze, iron, precious metals) are an important archaeological group of finds. The diversity of terms reflects the breadth of the discussion of the importance of the HF. The various contexts of the finds, e.g. solid ground, moors, rivers, special places (rocks, crevices, caves, transport routes, etc.…

Situla

(484 words)

Author(s): Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Italic, Celtic and Germanic Bucket-shaped vessel, as a rule metal, for the carrying and short-term holding of liquids. The shape is generally conical, with flat shoulders and a wide opening, on which a carrying handle was often also fixed with eyelets. The bottom, body and rim were mostly fashioned separately, then riveted together. In Etruria situlae are recorded from the 9th cent. BC onwards and were widely distributed there from the Orientalising Period on. Situlae had far greate…

Hortfunde

(639 words)

Author(s): Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen)
[English version] I. Keltisch-germanischer Bereich In Mitteleuropa bilden von der Brz. an H. (Depot-, Schatz-, Verwahr-, Massen-, Versteckfunde usw.) v.a. von Metallobjekten (Kupfer, Br., Eisen, Edelmetalle) eine wichtige arch. Fundgruppe. Die Vielzahl der Bezeichnungen spiegelt die Breite der Diskussion um die Bed. der H. Als Indizien für die Funktion gelten sowohl die verschiedenartigen Fundplatzsituationen, wie z.B. fester Boden, Moore, Flüsse, besondere Plätze (Felsen, Spalten, Höhlen, Verkehrswe…

Metallurgy

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Metal extraction Metals are extracted from ores (smelting). Precious metals: gold, silver, elektron; base metals: copper, tin, lead, iron. The beginnings of metallurgy can be found in mineralogically favourable regions, particularly near the (copper-)ore deposits of Anatolia. Elements of pyrotechnology have been identified in aceramic neolithic settlements of the early 7th millennium BC, in particular products of metallurgy based on the smelting of copper ore. The…

Metallurgie

(2,593 words)

Author(s): Wartke, Ralf-B. (Berlin) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel)
I. Alter Orient [English version] A. Metallgewinnung Metalle (= Met.) werden aus Erzen gewonnen (Verhüttung); Edel-Met.: Gold, Silber, Elektron; Grund-Met.: Kupfer, Zinn, Blei, Eisen. Der Anfang der M. dürfte in mineralogisch günstigen Regionen, vornehmlich in der Nähe der (Kupfer-)Erzlagerstätten Anatoliens zu suchen sein. Elemente der Pyrotechnologie sind schon aus akeramisch-neolithischen Siedlungen des frühen 7. Jt.v.Chr. nachweisbar, insbes. Produkte eines aus Kupfererz erschmolzenen Met. Durch Sc…

Weapons

(2,508 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter, Arnulf (Berlin) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Kohler, Christoph (Bad Krozingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Weapons were among the earliest artefacts fashioned by humans and their ancestors. Stone arrowheads and blades were the first recognizable weapons in the ancient Near East into the Neolithic Period ( c. 10000 BC). From the 4th millennium BC, weapons were depicted on roll seals and stelae in scenes of warfare or hunting. Of maces suitable for close combat, generally only the heads (of stone or metal) survive. One exception is the deposit at the Chalcolithic find site of Naḥal Mišmār in P…
▲   Back to top   ▲