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Subjektivismus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[English Version] Subjektivismus, religionsphilosophisch und ethisch. S. ist unverkennbar ein polemischer Begriff, dem ein theoriepolit. Zug anhaftet. Der Ausdruck setzt den Aufstieg des Subjektivitätsparadigmas in der modernen Philosophie (: III.,2.) voraus. Der mit ihm artikulierte Vorwurf bloß subjektiven Wissens gründet in der Erkenntnistheorie (: II.) und wirkt von dort aus auch in die Ethik, die Religionsphilosophie und Theol. sowie in die Ästhetik hinein. Wer ihn gebraucht, erhebt Anspruch auf…

Subjectivism

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] Subjectivism is unmistakably a polemical term, and is associated with political theory. It presupposes the rise of subjectivity as a paradigm in modern philosophy (III, 2). The charge of purely subjective knowledge it articulates is grounded in epistemology (II), whence it found its way into ethics, philosophy of religion, and theology, as well as aesthetics. Whoever uses it lays claim to a superior form of knowledge, which must be able to say in turn how it relates to the subjectivity that is inescapable in all forms of knowledge. The term subjectivism allows old and …

Dialectical Theology

(3,189 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Name – II. History – III. Concept – IV. Positions – V. Phases – VI. Significance I. Name “Dialectical theology” refers to the theological movement stimulated and represented by K. Barth, E. Thurneysen, F. Gogarten, R. Bultmann and E. Brunner between 1919 and…

Grisar, Hartmann

(410 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1845, Koblenz – Feb 25, 1935, Innsbruck), SJ, was professor of church history in Innsbruck (1871–1895), then an independent scholar active primarily in Rome, after 1902 in Munich and after 1902 in Innsbruck. He was a leading representative of the Catholic interpretation of Luther in the first third of the 20th century. After Grisar's involvement in Vatican I in Rome, he was an emphatic proponent of the papal claim to primacy. His highly detailed studies on the trial of Ga…

A priori, Religious

(1,139 words)

Author(s): Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] The concept of religious a priori was shaped, in analogy to the terminology of I. Kant, by E. Troeltsch in 1904. He attempted, by means of the insights of consciousness theory, to ascertain the value of religion according to the goals of objective conceptions of religion. This attempt involved a point of contact with Kant's doctrine, but also a profound difference from it. As Kant understood it, a priori are those structures of consciousness that form the basis equally for the categorical con…

Verstand

(1,376 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Korsch, Dietrich
[English Version] I. Philosophisch In der traditionellen Erkenntnislehre (Erkenntnistheorie) wird der V. vorwiegend als ein intuitives Vermögen gedacht (griech. n̆ου˜ς/noús, lat. intellectus), teilweise in Abgrenzung zur Vernunft als diskursivem Vermögen. Durch ihn werden letzte Prinzipien bzw. einfache Sachverhalte direkt erfaßt, so daß die Bewegung der Erkenntnis sachlich und begründungslogisch zum Abschluß gelangt (Arist.e.N. 1143af.). Diese Dimension eines in sich vollendeten und direkten Erfassens der Wahrheit dient auch als Maßstab für das V…

Self-consciousness (Self-awareness)

(2,248 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy Self-consciousness (or self-awareness) is knowledge of one’s own states, wishes, and intentions, together with assessment of one’s own person (II) in relationship to others. An essential element of self-consciousness is reflection, i.e. the ability to relate to one’s own states, wishes, and intentions, to the embeddedness of one’s own life in situations, and to the course of one’s own life. Thus self-consciousness is neither immediate knowledge nor a special case of consciousness (II…

Intellect

(1,610 words)

Author(s): Steinmann, Michael | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics I. Philosophy In the traditional doctrine of cognition (Epistemology), the intellect is primarily viewed as an intuitive capacity (Gk νοῦς/ nous, Lat. intellectus), partly in demarcation from reason as a discursive capacity. The intellect enables a person to attain direct insight into last principles or simple facts, so that the process of cognition is brought to a close logically and rationally (Arist. Eth. Nic. 1143af.). This dimension of grasping the truth…

Immediacy

(819 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Ever since Aristotle, immediacy has been placed on a par with the highest concept of judgment (syllogism) and of evaluation (self-evidence), the principle of a first cause and that of a presuppositionless beginning. The theoretical enhancement of the subject's immediate self-awareness proposed by R. Descartes as the secure foundation of philosophical knowledge was further emphasized by early Idealism. For J.G. Fichte and F.W.J. Sch…

Selbstbewußtsein

(2,123 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Korsch, Dietrich
[English Version] I. Philosophisch S. ist die Kenntnis eigener Zustände, Wünsche und Absichten sowie die Schätzung der eigenen Person (: II.) im Zusammenhang mit anderen. Zum S. gehört wesentlich Reflexion, d.h. die Fähigkeit, sich auf eigene Zustände, Wünsche und Absichten, auf die Eingebundenheit des eigenen Lebens in Situationen sowie auf den Verlauf des eigenen Lebens zu beziehen. So ist das S. weder ein unmittelbares Wissen noch ein Sonderfall des Bewußtseins (: III.) von in der Welt begegnend…

Unmittelbarkeit

(754 words)

Author(s): Hühn, Lore | Korsch, Dietrich
[English Version] I. Philosophisch Seit Aristoteles wird U. mit dem obersten Begriff des Urteilens (Syllogismus; Urteil) und dem des Wertens (Evidenz), dem Prinzip des Ersten und dem des voraussetzungslosen Anfangs auf eine Ebene gestellt. Die bei R. Descartes angelegte prinzipientheoretische Aufwertung der unmittelbaren Selbstgewißheit des Ich als dem sicheren Fundament philos. Wissens erfährt in der frühidealistischen Philos. eine folgenreiche Zuspitzung. U. und Unbedingtheit (Unbedingte, das) …

Dialectics

(1,311 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Wolfgang | Dierken, Jörg | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Philosophy In philosophy, the concept of dialectics serves to characterize various types of thought which share the tendency to seek out contradictions or other oppositions and render them fruitful for cognition. Dialectics takes contradictions as the occasion to develop viewpoints as conditions under which the contra…

Body and Soul

(4,458 words)

Author(s): Wilke, Annette | Korsch, Dietrich | Schütt, Hans-Peter | Seiferlein, Alfred | Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy of Religion and Historical Theology – III. Philosophy – IV. Dogmatics – V. Practical Theology – VI. Ethics I. Religious Studies Perceptions of animate and inanimate nature, dreams, ecstasy, trance, and death, as well as sickness and physical sensation, and finally self-reflection and self-transcendence have led to highly diverse models for interpreting …