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Adam and Christ

(993 words)

Author(s): Sellin, Gerhard | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. New Testament - II. Dogmatics I. New Testament In 1 Cor 15:21f., 45-49 and Rom 5:12-21, Paul draws a contrast between Adam as the primal, earthly-material human being and Christ as his eschatological, heavenly-spiritual counterpart. 1 Cor 15:45f. indicates that Paul reached this conclusion by performing - within the context of an apocalyptic concept of time and body - an escha…

Pride

(290 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] ( superbia) is considered, in Christian teaching on sin, as the true expression of the sin against God. The finite, limited human being refuses to be content with his human nature. He or she wants to “be like God” (Gen 3:4), wanting to imitate God’s action and even God’s being. Pride can therefore also be described as presumptuous hubris, in which human beings try to misappropriate the divine. In Christian tradition, such striving was traced back to desire ( concupiscentia) (Augustine). Provided this interpretation is detached from fixation on sexuality, it …

Faith and Works

(1,166 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] The determination of the relationship between faith and works lies at the heart of the doctrine of justification. According to Paul, a sinner is justified by faith “apart from works of the law” (Rom 3:28). Luther made this more specific in his translation by saying that a person is justified “ solely by faith, without the works of the law.” The sub…

Christocentrism

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] Christian theology is actually christocentric by nature, as it derives its decisive statements concerning God, humanity, and reality itself from Jesus Christ, the focus of Christian faith (Christology). In him, God determined the salvation of humanity with eschatological validity. All claims of the church to the validity of its cognitive insights regarding God and humanity must therefore be measured in relation to Jesus Christ.…

Word of God

(7,795 words)

Author(s): Prenner, Karl | Levin, Christoph | Hahn, Ferdinand | Krötke, Wolf | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Et al.
[German Version] See …

Dominion/Rule

(1,257 words)

Author(s): Kersting, Wolfgang | Krötke, Wolf | Sigrist, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Dogmatics – III. Sociology, Politics, and Social Ethics I. Philosophy Any systematic political philosophy confronts two fundamental problems: the problem of the justification for dominion and the problem of the limitation of rule. The justification for dominion requires a refutation of anarchism, requires a demonstration that there are good grounds for abandoning the natural condition and for establishing a ruling order at all. These grounds can demonstrate the rational advantages of a life under state protection, as in …

Reality

(1,324 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion Meister Eckhart used a term corresponding to “reality” to translate the Aristotelian ἐνέργεια/ enérgeia (Capacity). According to Aristotle, reality derives its name from working, from having an effect (cf. Metaphysics Θ 1050 a 21ff.). The form that a living being produces or brings about through the power of the soul’s ¶ entelechy, and within the possibilities it aims for, is hence real…

Flesh and Spirit

(2,268 words)

Author(s): Frevel, Christian | Reinmuth, Eckart | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. New Testament – III. Dogmatics I. Old Testament In the writings of the OT, flesh and spirit are fundamental anthropological concepts, far more complementary than antithetical. The groundwork for a flesh/spirit dualism (IV) is partially laid in the OT, but it is not developed. The dualism gradually began to intensify in the intertestamental period under Hellenistic influence. 1. Flesh (usually Heb. בָּשָׂר/ bāśar, less often שְׁאֵר/ še'er) denotes the essential components making up human and animal bodies, often limited to th…

Sin, Guilt, and Forgiveness

(17,599 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf | Hock, Klaus | Grund, Alexandra | Metzner, Rainer | Holze, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology Sin is a human breach of relationship with God. The term is emptied of content if it is used only for moral lapses. Only if a moral transgression in the mundane world is understood as a dimension of human alienation from God can it properly be called sin. The fundamental act of sin is unfaith (Unbelief ). In unfaith we close our eyes to the fact that we owe our existence to God and that he turns to us in love. We resist the idea that he determines our lives totally. Therefore sin can also be understood as disobedience to God’s law (Law and legislation). Sin puts its mark on us as persons in our thinking, feeling, and willing. It is “personal sin” and as such impinges on all our actions and conduct. Our sinful al…

Hiddenness of God

(1,913 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] The hiddenness of God in the world is the reason why certainty of God (Certainty: II, III) can only exist in faith. Were God accessible to us through the senses, as the world is, there would then be no need of faith that rests on that which cannot be seen (Heb 11:2). As long as people are confronted with God in this world, they must also come to terms with the hiddenness of God. This concealment, however, cannot remain absolute, since a certainty of God could never arise if he wer…

Anthropocentrism

(525 words)

Author(s): Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology. – II. Dogmatics I. Fundamental Theology The term anthropocentrism, which originated in theology and philosophy in the second half of the 19th century, designates first of all concentration on human experience as the way to reality in general, as opposed to the “geocentric” metaphysical cosmology of the modern period. In theology it means the comprehension and presentation of all theological matter…

Good Works

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Beltz, Walter | Krötke, Wolf | Ulrich, Hans G.
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Ethics I. Comparative Religion…

Hubris

(901 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Study and History of Religion – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Study and History of Religion Greek ὕβρις, “pride, infringement, maltreatment, outrage.” The etymology of hybris is obscure (the second syllable may be related to βριαρός/ briarós, “s…

Jesus Christ

(19,624 words)

Author(s): Roloff, Jürgen | Pokorný, Petr | Köpf, Ulrich | Lathrop, Gordon W. | Krötke, Wolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Na…

Religious Criticism

(2,242 words)

Author(s): Cancik, Hubert | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Greco-Roman Antiquity 1. Types, topics, argumentation patterns a. Conceptions of gods, myths (Myth and mythology), and cult praxis (Cult/Worship) were the object of reflection, analysis, and criticism from the very beginnings of Greco-Roman culture (Homer, Hesiod). …