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(248 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[English Version] Sabatier, Paul (3.8.1858 Saint-Michel-de-Chabrillanoux – 4.3.1928 Straßburg), prot. Theologe und Historiker. Der Sohn eines ref. Pfarrers studierte ab 1880 in Paris ev. Theol. Angeregt durch die Arbeiten seines Lehrers E. Renan widmete er sich ab 1884 der Erforschung des Lebens und Wirkens des Franziskus von Assisi. Von 1885 bis 1889 bekleidete S. eine Vikarsstelle in Straßburg; als die dt. Behörden ihn aufforderten, die dt. Staatsangehörigkeit anzunehmen oder das Elsaß zu verlass…

Cultural History

(434 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] The composite term cultural history can be first identified in the second half of the 18th century (Johann Christoph Adelung; Hermann Dietrich Hegewisch; Karl Ludwig Heinrich Pölitz). Authors of historical works appropriated the term in order to refer programmatically to the expansion of the subject of history beyond court and church concerns to the scopes of experience of middle class life (such as commerce, transportation, education, etc.). As …


(775 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] I Following a standard definition by J. Schumpeter, the term “imperialism” (from Lat. imperium, “dominion,” “empire”) refers in general to “the objectless disposition of a state to engage in violent expansion without ascertainable limits” (see II below). In this sense, one may always speak of imperialism when a state configures its relations to other states or societies in terms of the continuing expansion of its territorial dominion without restrictions of time or purpose. This general definition contrasts with a narrower conception of imperialism as …

Sabatier, Paul

(268 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1858, Saint-Michel-de-Chabrillanoux – Mar 4, 1928, Strasbourg), Protestant theologian and historian. The son of a Reformed pastor, Sabatier began his study of Protestant theology in Paris in 1880. Inspired by the works of E. Renan, his teacher, he dedicated himself after 1884 to exploring the life and impact of Francis of Assisi. From 1885 to 1889 he served as an assistant minister in Straßburg, then a German city; when the German authorities demanded that he either adopt …

Lamennais, Hugues Félicité Robert de

(193 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (or La Mennais; Jun 19, 1782, Saint Malo – Feb 27, 1854, Paris), Catholic priest and theological and political writer. Lamennais, whose father was a ship-owner ennobled by Louis XVI, was ordained priest in 1816 without a theological education. In the spirit of French traditionalism, ¶ as a teacher and writer he initially attacked Gallicanism (France, Theology in). In 1830 he founded the daily L'Avenir, whose campaign for freedom of belief and conscience soon made it the voice of liberal Catholicism in France. Lamennais's criticism of the inner…

Middle Class

(378 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] The term middle class first appeared in English in the mid-18th century; its German equivalent, Mittelstand, had been in use a century before, but did not enter sociopolitical usage as a term for the social strata between the nobility and clergy on the one hand and the working class on the other until the second half of the 18th century. The term thus signals the transition of the estates-based society of the early modern period to 19th-century class society. It was used in the 19th century in contrast to bourgeoisie and proletariat as a collective te…

Nipperdey, Thomas

(257 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1927, Cologne –Jun 14, 1992, Munich), historian, son of the first president of the federal labor court. After studying philosophy, and gaining a doctorate with a thesis on positivity and Christianity in Hegel’s early writings, Nipperdey turned to history, under the influence of Theodor Schieder at the University of Cologne. As ¶ assistant at the Max Planck Institute of History in Göttingen he gained his Habilitation in 1961 with a work on the organization of German parties before 1918. In 1963, Nipperdey was appointed professor at the Te…

Pastor, Ludwig von

(230 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] Freiherr v. Camperfelden (Jan 31, 1854, Aachen – Sep 29, 1928, Innsbruck), Catholic historian and diplomat. After the early death of his Protestant father, he converted to Catholicism, his mother’s faith; attending the Gymnasium in Frankfurt, he was influence by the Catholic historiography of J. Janssen. After studying history in Leuven, Bonn, Berlin, and Vienna, he received his doctorate in 1887 from Graz. In 1881 he gained his Habilitation at Innsbruck, where he was appointed associate professor in 1886 and full professor in 1887. In 1901 he was…

Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy

(332 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (Count of; Oct 17, 1760, Paris – May 19, 1825, Paris), French social theorist. Born to an impoverished noble family, during the French Revolution (which he supported) Saint-Simon took part in the American Revolutionary War. Afterwards land speculation quickly brought him wealth, which he lost totally in the following years. With the support of his two secretaries, the historian Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry (1795–1856) and A. Comte, who later pioneered scientific Positivism, be…


(215 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[English Version] Nipperdey, Thomas (27.10.1927 Köln – 14.6.1992 München), Historiker. Der Sohn des ersten Präsidenten des Bundesarbeitsgerichts wandte sich nach dem Studium der Philos. und einer Promotion über »Positivität und Christentum in Hegels Jugendschriften« unter dem Einfluß von Theodor Schieder an der Universität Köln der Geschichtswiss. zu. Als Assistent am Max-Planck-Institut für Gesch. (Göttingen) habilitierte er sich 1961 mit einer Arbeit über »Die Organisation der dt. Parteien vor 19…


(302 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[English Version] Saint-Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de (17.10.1760 Paris – 19.5.1825 ebd.), franz. Sozialtheoretiker. Aus einem verarmten franz. Adelsgeschlecht stammend, gelangte S.-S. nach Teilnahme am amer. Unabhängigkeitskrieg während der Französischen Revolution, mit der er sympathisierte, durch Bodenspekulationen schnell zu Reichtum, den er jedoch in den Jahren darauf wieder vollständig verlor. Mit Unterstützung seiner beiden Sekretäre, des Historikers Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry (1…


(196 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[English Version] Pastor, Ludwig, Frhr.v.Camperfelden (31.1.1854 Aachen – 29.9.1928 Innsbruck), kath. Historiker und Diplomat. Nach dem frühen Tod seines prot. Vaters trat P. zum kath. Bekenntnis seiner Mutter über und geriet am Frankfurter Gymnasium unter den Einfluß der kath. Geschichtsdeutung von J. Janssen. Nach dem Studium der Geschichtswiss. in Löwen, Bonn, Berlin und Wien wurde P. 1878 in Graz promoviert. 1881 habilitierte er sich in Innsbruck, wo er 1886 zum a.o. Prof. und 1887 zum o. Prof.…

Le Roy, Edouard

(191 words)

Author(s): Kracht, Klaus Große
[German Version] (Jun 18, 1870, Paris – Nov 9, 1954, Paris), mathematician and philosopher. After studying at the École Normale Supérieure, he began to teach at various grammar schools in Paris in 1919, and in the same year he became a member of the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques. In 1921, he followed H. Bergson at the Collège de France, and in 1945 he became a member of the Académie Française. On the foundation of a philosophy of religion based on a pragmatic philosophy of life, and …