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Dolopes

(387 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δόλοπες; Dólopes). The D. were the south-western neighbours of the Thessalians, possibly split off from them during their immigration and driven out of the plains. Their area of settlement ─ without access to the coast ─ lay between Achaea Phthiotis in the east, Spercheus valley in the south, Epirus in the west and the central Pindus, a mountainous country, very sparsely settled then as now and, since the southern Pindus has a strong north-south folding, passable only in that dire…

Tricca

(162 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Τρίκκα/ Tríkka). Capital of Hestiaeotis in western Thessaly, on the Lethaeus (modern Trikkalinos), which flows from the Chasia Mountains. T. is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of origin of the Asclepius cult (Hom. Il. 2,729-733). In the Classical period T. was already minting its own coins (HN 310). T. became Macedonian after 352 BC (Diod. Sic. 18,56,5; Pelinna), was Aetolian for a time at the end of the 3rd cent. and was won back by Thessaly in 186/5…

Ormenium, Orminium

(247 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀρμένιον/ Orménion, Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion). According to the context in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), Orménion was the residence of Eurypylus [1] and was situated in western Thessaliotis, but it was already abandoned in historic times and has not been located up to the present day. The historic township of Ormínion was in Magnesia [1] and, around 290 BC, it was incorporated into the newly established Demetrias [1], but it continued to exist as a kṓmē (Str. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion; Plin. HN 4,32). Despite the geographic difference to t…

Nessonis limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νεσσωνὶς λίμνη; Ness ōnìs límnē). Silted-up lake, to the north-east of Larisa [3] in Thessalian Pelasgiotis, formerly fed primarily by the Peneius, today dried out. Ancient authors were interested in the fluctuations in its water level and its connection with the Boibe to the south (Str. 9,5,20). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. N., RE 17, 79f.

Condylum

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κόνδυλον; Kóndylon). Fortification in the southern Olympus on a bypass around the valley of the Tempe that runs through  Gonnus, probably to be equated with Gonnocondylus, and located near modern Tsurba-Mandria. When Philip V released Perrhaebia in 196 BC, he kept C. with the place name Olympias until 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). A garrison of Perseus was stationed in C. in 169 BC during the Third Macedonian War. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Amphanae

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀμφαναί; Amphanaí). Town on the narrow coastal strip of the Pelasgiotis ( Pelasgians) near Cape Pyrrha, modern Angistri. According to its foundation myth already existing in the pre-Thessalian period, A. was later outstripped by the Thessalian town of  Pagasae. Most recent reference from the middle of the 4th cent. BC (FGrH 115 Theopompus fr. 54); its cultic tradition continued in  Demetrias. In contrast with older studies it is no longer localized on Mount Soros, but to the south of it in the ru…

Menelais

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μενελαΐς; Menelaḯs). Town in Dolopia ( Dolopes) reclaimed as formerly Macedonian by Philip V in 185 BC (Liv. 39,26,1). M. may have been on the northern slopes of Mount Itamos, where there is a ruin near Kasthanaia. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Gyrton(e)

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γυρτών[η]; Gyrtṓn[ē]). Lapithae from G. appear both in the Argonaut legend ( Argonautae; Apoll. Rhod. 1,57) and in The Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738). The town originally belonged to Perrhaebia, but in historical times was an important place of the Thessalian Pelasgiotis. In 431 BC among the Thessalian reinforcement troops for Athens there was also a contingent from G. (Thuc. 2,22). In 215 at the behest of Philip V at least 60 Gyrtonians became citizens of the neighbouring  Larisa (IG IX 2, 517). In 191 a…

Olizon

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλιζών; Olizṓn) is mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad as belonging to Philoctetes (Hom. Il. 2,717). Demetrius [2] incorporated O. into the newly founded Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Strab. 9,5,15). O. was in the southern part of Magnesia [1], opposite Artemisium in Euboea (Plut. Themistocles 8,2). O. is identified with Paliokastro to the east of the village of Lavko on the Trikkeri peninsula and was probably populated until the late Imperial period (IG IX 2, 1217-1221, unnamed). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Lenk, s.v. O., RE 17, 2484  TI…

Scotussa

(125 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σκοτοῦσσα/ Skotoûssa). City in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, about 20 km to the west of Pherae at modern Skotoússa. (earlier Supli; Cynoscephalae). Attested by finds, remains and myth as very ancient, its first period of prosperity came to an end when the population was massacred by Alexander [15] of Pherae in 367 BC (Diod. 15,75,1; Paus. 6,5,2 f.). S. was not insignificant under Macedonian rule (Pol. 18,20,2-6; Liv. 33,6,8), and in the Thessalian League after 197 (Liv. 36,9,3). After …

Casthanaea

(97 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κασθαναία; Kasthanaía). Near C. (‘village’, Str. 9,5,22) on the Magnesian east coast, the Persian fleet foundered in a storm in 480 BC (Hdt. 7,188;  Persian War). In around 290 BC, C. was included in the synoikismós following the foundation of  Demetrias [1]. Coins were minted at the time Constantine (coin finds). C. is equated with the as yet hardly investigated ruins near the modern Keramidion. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 310 W. K. Pritchett, Xerxes' Fleet at the ‘Ovens’, in: AJA 47, 1963, 1ff. F. …

Tisaeum

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίσαιον; Tísaion). Mountain in the south of Magnesia [1] (modern Bardzochia, 644 m elevation); today, the whole of the east-west part of the peninsula is called T. The Argonauts passed by this mountain (Apoll. Rhod. 1,568 ff.). There was a temple to Diana Tisaea there (Val. Fl. 2,7) and a station for signalling by fire to Demetrias [1] (Pol. 10,42,7; Liv. 28,5,17). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 1467.

Sycurium

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Συκύριον; Sykýrion). Place in the Dotium region at the western end of the Tempe valley, used by Perseus [2] as a permanent camp for actions against the Roman army in the third of the Macedonian Wars, in 171 BC (Liv. 42,54; 62; 64; 67). The location is uncertain, the assignment of the name to modern S. (formerly Makrokeserli) is arbitrary. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. Sykyrion, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 644f.

Hypata

(352 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ὑπάτα; Hypáta). Capital of the Aenianes (HN 296), not shown to have existed before the 5th or beginning of the 4th cent. BC, situated on a terrace cut off by ravines above the Spercheus valley on the northern slope of Mount Oete ( Oetaei, Oete), modern Hypate. The fates of city and tribe largely coincide (references [1; 2; 3]), Macedonian rule began around 344, and following the interlude of the Lamian War, the rule was replaced by the Aetolian League from c. 273. In the year 191  Acilius [I 10] ravaged t…

Ortha, Orthe

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὄρθα/ Órtha, Ὄρθη/ Órthē). There were possibly two places with this name in Thessalia. [German version] [1] Place in Perrhaibia According to the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,739), O., with Elone and Olosson, was part of the region of the Polypoetes and therefore situated in Perrhaibia (Perrhaebi). Various ruins at Elasson are identified as O. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] Town in southern Thessalia There are Hellenistic coins with the legend ΟΡΘ(Ι)ΕΩΝ/ ORTH(I)EŌN (HN 303), and a list of theorodoci in Delphi from the beginning of the 2nd…

Homole, Homolium

(210 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὁμόλη, Ὁμόλιον; Homólē, Homólion). Mountain at the northern end of the Thessalian  Ossa. At the outflow of the Peneius from the  Tempe Valley lay a town of the same name on the slope (not by the sea, Str. 9,5,22), attested to be above modern Omolion (formerly Laspochori). H. was the northernmost town of  Magnesia and so of Greece. H. overlooked the river crossing to lower Macedonia (Liv. 42,38,10; remains of a bridge about 1 km north of Omolion). Finds attest to settlement since anc…

Methylium

(67 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μεθύλιον; Methýlion). Town in western Thessaly, mentioned on coins and in a Delphic list of theorodókoi. Its location can only be approximately identified, between Cierium and Metropolis [4] in the region of Karditsa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 85ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Methylion, RE 15, 1391.

Argissa

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄργισσα; Árgissa). Listed in the ships' catalogue of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738) as the city of the Lapith  Polypoetes, it was equated even in ancient times with the town of Argura (Str. 9,5,19). This was situated about 40 stades ( c. 7 km) east of  Atrax on the river  Peneus. Following the discovery of coins bearing the name of Argura, A. is now localized (as opposed to [1. 99 f.]) on the Gremnos-Magula, c. 7 km west of  Larisa, where traces of settlements have been found, dating back to the Dimini culture ( c. 6000 BC). Following a forcible occupation towards the end o…

Mal(l)oea

(128 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] City in the Thessalian country of Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) in the valley of the Titaresius, identified with the ruin Paliokastro near Sykia. It is mentioned as the neighbouring town of Chyretiae only during the wars at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC and only by Livy: in 199 and 191 M. went over to the Aetolian side and was won back by Philip V (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4) who had to give it back to Perrhaebia in 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). In 171 BC M. surrendered to king Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) and soon afterwards was conquered by the Roman army and plundered (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch,…

Narthacium

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ναρθάκιον; Narthákion). Mountain and city in the Othrys mountain range located in the Thessalian region of Achaea Phthiotis. It was at Mount N. , the Xerovouni Avaritsis (1022 m), that, in 394 BC, Agesilaus [2] defeated the Thessalians, who were pursuing him as he retreated from Persia (Xen. Hell. 4,3,9; Plut. Agesilaus 16,5). The city of N. has been localized by inscriptions (middle of the 2nd cent. BC: IG IX 2, 89-91; ArchE 1927/8, 122f.) in the remains of a city (approx. 880 m)…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Sesklo

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] Village, about 10 km to the north of the Pagasetic Gulf on the threshold of the Plain of Thessaly. The place of settlement, which has been excavated there since 1905, gave its name to a long prehistoric epoch of Greece (6th-4th millennia BC). It had been settled since the pre-ceramic Neolithic, and flourished with up to 3000 inhabitants in the middle Neolithic. Typical of the culture of S. are rectangular houses, a central megaron building and a special pottery (finds in the archa…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Mopsium

(77 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μόψιον; Mópsion). Town and hill in the Thessalian territory of Pelasgiotis. In 171 BC, it served Perseus for a time as an advance base out of the Tempe Valley for attacks on the Romans in the Plain of Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. may possibly be equated with the town ruins at Makrichori, approx. 25 km north west of Larisa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Thetideion

(86 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θετίδειον; Thetídeion). Sanctuary to Thetis in the territory of Pharsalus. Shortly before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC the Roman and Macedonian armies camped near there (Pol. 18,20; Liv. 33,6,10). The location is problematic: the area near Dasolophos (formerly Bekides), on the basis of the route of the march, and the lands around modern Thetidion (formerly Alchami), because of ancient remains, are possibilities. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-C. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 205-207  F. Stählin, s. v. Th., RE…

Glaphyrae

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γλαφύραι; Glaphýrai). The catalogue of ships of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,711ff.) mentions the town together with  Boebe and  Iolcus. Its mythological founder was Glaphyros, son of Magnes and father of Boibos. In historical time, the ethnic term Γλαφυρεύς ( Glaphyreús) is documented for officials from  Demetrias [1]. Therefore, it can be assumed that G. existed until the Hellenistic period, although Str. 9,15,5 does not mention G. at the Synoikismos for Demetrias. The exact location of G. at the southern bank of the former Boebe Lake is not certain. Kramolisch, Herwig (E…

Iton

(378 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Ἴτων; ho/hē Ítōn, Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). One of the oldest Greek cities, within the Thessalian core territory of Tetras Thessaliotis (Str. 9,5,14) in the valley of the Curalios/Cuarius, a right tributary of the  Peneius. Within its territory was the Thessalian tribal sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Str. 9,5,17). Because of an erroneous distance given by Strabo (9,5,8), the city and its sanctuary were thought to be near  Halus (Achaea Phthiotis) [1; 2; 3], but excavations near modern Philia have verified their location c. 16 km south-east of Karditsa and c. 10 km upriver o…

Laceria

(80 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λακέρεια; Lakéreia). Settlement on the northern shore of Lake Boebe in Magnesia, only attested in archaic times (Pind. Pyth. 3,58f.); its location - like that of its neighbouring settlement Amyrus - has yet to be established. L. was said to be the home of Coronis, the mother of Asclepius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Le ‘Dotion Pedion’, Lakereia et les origines de Larisa, in: Journal des Savants 1987, 127ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 58f.

Halus

(411 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἅλος; Hálos). The remains of H. lie at the south end of the Κρόκιον πεδίον (Krokion plain) and on the north foot of a foothill of Othrys, where the passage from the Malian Gulf to the Gulf of Pagasae was easy to block, because the coasts were only a few hundred metres apart (today c. 2 km). H. owes its name to the rich saline spring of Amphrysus at the foot of the town hill. Already named in the catalogue of ships in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,682), it was an important Thessalian harbour du…

Pharcadon

(81 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φαρκαδών, Φαρκηδών; Pharkadṓn, Pharkēdṓn). Town in Histiaeotis, a region of Thessaly on the river Peneius, once again named P. (formerly Klokoto or Tsioti). Philippus [7] V. defeated the Aetolians in 199 BC at P. (Liv. 31,41f.). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography L. Darmezin, Sites archéologiques et territoires du massif des Chassia, in: Top. antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 139-155  E. Kirsten, s.v. Pharkadon, RE 19, 1835-1838  H. Kramolisch, s.v. Pharkadon, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 535  Koder/Hild, 238.

Olosson

(137 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλοσσών/ Olossṓn). City of the Perrhaebi (Str. 9,5,19: Ὀλοόσσων/ Oloóssōn), their original capital city, on the northern edge of a plain on the south-western slope of Lower Olympus (cf. Olympus [1]). Continuously settled from the Mycenaean period; according to the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,739: Ὀλοόσσων), it belonged to the territory of Polypoetes [1]. An inscription establishing the boundary with Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591; 101 n.Chr.) has been preserved. The fort (Procop. Aed…

Dotium

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δώτιον πεδίον; Dôtion pedíon). The northern part of the eastern Thessalian plain between river Peneius in the north, the Ossa and Pelion range in the east, Lake Boebe in the south and Lake Nessonis as well as Erimon mountain-range in the west was designated as Dotium. An old road to the  Tempe valley led through the initially densely forested, fertile alluvial land. D. was considered the birthplace of Asclepius (Hom. h. 16). Most of the places known from literature, i.a. a Demeter s…

Atrax

(221 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Apollo (Ἄτραξ; Átrax). City in the Thessalian Pelasgiotis, c. 20 km west of Larisa on the Peneius. Settled since the Mycenaean era (finds of pottery sherds), coins since the 4th cent. BC. A fortress under Macedonian rulership (from 344), played a significant role in the wars from 198 on (Liv. 32,15,8). Since 196 A. often provided strategoi for the new Thessalian Federation as well as its cult envoys to Delphi. Under Justinian the fortification of the upper city was restored, …

Cynoscephalae

(112 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κυνὸς Κεφαλαί; Kynòs Kephalaí, ‘heads of dogs’). Part of the central Thessalian mountain range Chalcodonion (modern Mavrovuni, formerly Karadağ) between Pherae and Scotussa with many limestone rounded hilltops (hence the name). At C. in 364 BC the Thebans under Pelopidas defeated Alexander of Pherae (Plut. Pelopidas 32). In 197 Philip V suffered decisive defeat here against T. Quinctius Flamininus (Pol. 18,20ff.). Antiochus III had the bones of the fallen Macedonians buried in 191 (…

Cierium

(189 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κιέριον; Kiérion). City in the Thessalian tetras Thessaliotis in the valley of the Cuarius (modern Sophaditikos or Onochonos), founded by invading Thessalians as their main town, north-east of the Boeotian founded town of  Arne [2]; in the following period, they drove the Boeotians back south to their historical seats (Thuc. 1,12,3; Str. 9,5,14). Arne is equated with Makria-Magoula, C. with the ruins on a nearby hill near the modern Pyrgos Kieriou. Near C. was the Thessalian tribal san…

Nelia

(157 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νήλεια; Nḗleia). A town in Magnesia [1], incorporated into Demetrias [1], mentioned only in Str.  9,5,15. Owing to the rare ancient cult of Aphrodite Neleia, evidenced in Iolcus,  the place name, in the sense of ‘City of the Dead (of Iolcus)’ ([2] et al.) has been equated with Pefkakia Magoula, which is situated in the territory of Demetrias (continuously inhabited from the late neolithic period; the classical and more recent layers of settlements were removed as part of the levelling of Demetrias). The place name N. is, …

Spercheius

(174 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σπερχειός/ Spercheiós). River that has formed the basin between Othris and Oete in the south of Thessaly; it rises in the Tymphrestus, and nowadays, after a course of some 75 km, enters the Gulf of Malis south-east of Lamia. In its upper and middle course a typical mountain river, its meandering lower course (up to 50 m wide) has changed frequently since Antiquity, and its mouth become displaced some 14 km to the east (Hdt. 7,198,2; Str. 1,3,20). Its tributaries, some of them stil…

Armenium

(180 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀρμένιον; Arménion). Town in  Thessaly, according to Homer's catalogue of ships located near  Pherae on  L. Boebe (Hom. Il. 2,734: Ὀρμένιον; Orménion); in the Hellenistic period, it was a kome, belonging to  Demetrias (Str. 9,5,15; 18). Its eponymous hero was Armenus, who went to Colchis with  Jason (Str. 11,4,8; 14,12). The ancient settlement is localized north of Pherae (modern Velestino) near the modern villages of Neon Perivalion and Armenion, where a hill (Petra) bearing the remains of Cyclopean…

Celaetha

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κελαίθα; Kelaítha). Town, according to a list of theorodokoi from Delphi from the 2nd cent. BC, located near  Cierium and Metropolis in south-western Thessaly. Probably not identical with the vicus Celathara which the Aetolians seized and plundered in the course of their raid into Dolopia and southern Thessaly in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,12f.). In contrast, Kelaíthra is documented as a Boeotian town ‘near Arne’ (presumably more likely Cierium in Thessaly) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κελαίθρα). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolop…

Antron

(169 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄντρων; Ántrōn). City in  Achaea Phthiotis, on the Malian Gulf opposite  Euboea, on a cliff c. 25 m above the sea, near the modern Fano. Remains of the very old city wall and necropoleis from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods have survived. Homer (Il. 2,697; Hymn. Dem. 491 [1. 181-183]) mentions A. and its  cult of Demeter. In 342 BC  Philippus II made A. a Macedonian possession by means of bribery. In 302 BC A. was captured by  Demetrius. A. evidently remained a Macedonian possession until th…

Tempe

(365 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (τὰ Τέμπη/ tà Témpē, Latin Tempe, Stenae). A gorge, ca. 8 km long, up to 45 m wide and 500 m deep, between Olympus [1] to the north and Ossa [1] to the south, traversed by the Peneius from the Thessalian interior (Thessalians, Thessalia) east to the Aegean Sea; known today as Koiláda Tempón. In Classical Antiquity, the valley, actually formed by erosion, was held to be the result of an earthquake (Hdt. 7,129,4; Plin. HN 4,31). Myth has it that, in this valley, the nymph Daphne [2], while f…

Ctimenae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κτιμεναί; Ktimenaí). Capital of the  Dolopes in the vicinity of Lake Xynias, probably near today's Cydonia and not today's Ktimenai (formerly Anodranitsa). Conquered in 198 BC by the Aetolians allied with Rome (Liv. 32,13,10); thereafter Angeia was the capital of the Dolopes. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 148f.

Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…
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