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Methylium

(67 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μεθύλιον; Methýlion). Town in western Thessaly, mentioned on coins and in a Delphic list of theorodókoi. Its location can only be approximately identified, between Cierium and Metropolis [4] in the region of Karditsa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 85ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Methylion, RE 15, 1391.

Argissa

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄργισσα; Árgissa). Listed in the ships' catalogue of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738) as the city of the Lapith  Polypoetes, it was equated even in ancient times with the town of Argura (Str. 9,5,19). This was situated about 40 stades ( c. 7 km) east of  Atrax on the river  Peneus. Following the discovery of coins bearing the name of Argura, A. is now localized (as opposed to [1. 99 f.]) on the Gremnos-Magula, c. 7 km west of  Larisa, where traces of settlements have been found, dating back to the Dimini culture ( c. 6000 BC). Following a forcible occupation towards the end o…

Mal(l)oea

(128 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] City in the Thessalian country of Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) in the valley of the Titaresius, identified with the ruin Paliokastro near Sykia. It is mentioned as the neighbouring town of Chyretiae only during the wars at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC and only by Livy: in 199 and 191 M. went over to the Aetolian side and was won back by Philip V (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4) who had to give it back to Perrhaebia in 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). In 171 BC M. surrendered to king Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) and soon afterwards was conquered by the Roman army and plundered (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch,…

Narthacium

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ναρθάκιον; Narthákion). Mountain and city in the Othrys mountain range located in the Thessalian region of Achaea Phthiotis. It was at Mount N. , the Xerovouni Avaritsis (1022 m), that, in 394 BC, Agesilaus [2] defeated the Thessalians, who were pursuing him as he retreated from Persia (Xen. Hell. 4,3,9; Plut. Agesilaus 16,5). The city of N. has been localized by inscriptions (middle of the 2nd cent. BC: IG IX 2, 89-91; ArchE 1927/8, 122f.) in the remains of a city (approx. 880 m)…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Melitaea

(273 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία; Melitaía, Meliteía). Town of Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of Mount Othrys, its location near Avaritsa (officially modern M.) is confirmed epigraphically. The migrating Thessalians moved the earlier town of Pyrrha from the valley of the Enipeus to its historical location as M. (Strab. 9,5,6). Brasidas stayed there in 426 BC (Thucyd. 4,78,1). One of the two hieromnḗmones of Achaea Phthiotis generally came from M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). M. was a stronghold of the Greeks in the Lamian War (Diod. 18,15,1). From approx. 2…

Titarus

(102 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίταρος/ Títaros). A mountain chain (Eust. in Hom. Il. 1,192,20; Str. 7a,1,14 f.; 9,5,20: Titárion; modern Sapkas, up to 1890 m elevation) between Mount Olympus [1] in the east and Mount Cambunia in the west, forming a natural boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. The T. was the northern border of Perrhaebic Tripolis [1] and gave its name to one of the main rivers of the small region, Titaresius (Hom. Il. 2,751-755; location uncertain); today the name is officially applied to the whole river (in Antiquity also Europus/Xerias) up to the Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwi…

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …

Myrmidones

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μυρμιδόνες/ Myrmidónes). People who lived in the old Thessalian region of Phthia (the future Achaea Phthiotis). According to Homer they were the subjects of king Peleus (Hom. Il. 21,188f.), and then of king Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 3,188); as followers of Achilles [1] they took part in the Trojan War with 50 ships (Hom. Il. 2, 683ff.). Their neighbours were the  Hellenes of Hellas (Hom. Il. 9,382; Hom. Od. 11,496). A doubt has recently been raised whether their capital city (on the s…

Lapathus

(49 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λαπαθοῦς; Lapathoûs). Small fortress in southern Olympus [1] above the Tempe valley near Condylum, near modern Hagios Elias, also called Charax. L. is mentioned because of the Roman troop movements in 169 BC (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Xynias

(58 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνιάς; Xynías). Lake in a caldera of the Othrys (approximately 5  km × 7 km in size, up to 5 m in depth), named after the city of Xyniae on its southeastern shore, drained to the north, called Ezeros in the Middle Ages, and today dried up. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 159 f.

Cypaera

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κύπαιρα; Kýpaira). Neighbouring town of Xyniae in south-western Achaea Phthiotis on the border with Dolopia, near modern Palaia Giannitsu (not near modern Makryrrachi, formerly Kaitsa). For 363 BC a temple donation from C. is noted in Delphi (Syll.3 239 B 12). From the end of the 3rd cent. C. belonged to the League of the Aetolians who conquered it back in 198 BC from its short-term possession by the Macedonians (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géograph…

Phalanna

(105 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (ἡ Φάλαννα; hē Phálanna). City in Perrhaebia in Thessaly (Perrhaebi) in a fertile area, scanty remains on the flat Magula Kastri, 3 km to the east of Tirnavos. Own coin minting in the 4th century BC (HN 305). P. provided Delphi with hieromnḗmones and treasurers several times. In 171 BC P. was a site of battles between Romans and Macedonians (Liv. 42,54,6; 65,1). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography R. Scheer, s.v. Ph., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 532  B. Lenk, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 1617-1620  F. Stählin, Da…

Crannon

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Κραννών). City in the Thessalian Tetras Pelasgiotis, located through findings on inscriptions at c. 22 km south-west of  Larisa [2]. Settled since Neolithic times, it bore the place name of Ephyra since the Mycenaean period (Str. 8,3,5). From no later than the 6th cent. BC on, C., home of the Scopadae family, belonged to the eight most important Thessalian cities. In the early 4th cent., it was ruled by the tyrant Deinias of Pherae, and in…

Apidanus

(195 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀπιδανός; Apidanós). One of the major rivers of the western Thessalian plain, the modern Pharsalitis. Rising from streams near  Pharsalus (the originally abundant basin in front of the ancient city wall has been dry since an earthquake in 1954), it flows in a northerly direction through  Phthiotis and Thessaliotis ( Thessalians), receiving from the west the Cuarius, present-day Sophatidikos, the Onochonus, present-day Karabalis/Kallentsis, as well as the Pamisus, present-day Bliur…

Pherae

(464 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Φέραι; Phérai). City east of Thessalian Pelasgiotis (Thessalians) at a place that was continually settled from the Neolithic period onwards because of its favourable position on the south-western bank of the Boebe and on the abundant spring, of Hypereia (Plin. HN 4,20). The oldest known sanctuary of P. to date, dedicated to the principal goddess, Artemis Enodia, da…

Thetideion

(86 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θετίδειον; Thetídeion). Sanctuary to Thetis in the territory of Pharsalus. Shortly before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC the Roman and Macedonian armies camped near there (Pol. 18,20; Liv. 33,6,10). The location is problematic: the area near Dasolophos (formerly Bekides), on the basis of the route of the march, and the lands around modern Thetidion (formerly Alchami), because of ancient remains, are possibilities. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-C. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 205-207  F. Stählin, s. v. Th., RE…

Glaphyrae

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γλαφύραι; Glaphýrai). The catalogue of ships of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,711ff.) mentions the town together with  Boebe and  Iolcus. Its mythological founder was Glaphyros, son of Magnes and father of Boibos. In historical time, the ethnic term Γλαφυρεύς ( Glaphyreús) is documented for officials from  Demetrias [1]. Therefore, it can be assumed that G. existed until the Hellenistic period, although Str. 9,15,5 does not mention G. at the Synoikismos for Demetrias. The exact location of G. at the southern bank of the former Boebe Lake is not certain. Kramolisch, Herwig (E…

Iton

(378 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Ἴτων; ho/hē Ítōn, Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). One of the oldest Greek cities, within the Thessalian core territory of Tetras Thessaliotis (Str. 9,5,14) in the valley of the Curalios/Cuarius, a right tributary of the  Peneius. Within its territory was the Thessalian tribal sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Str. 9,5,17). Because of an erroneous distance given by Strabo (9,5,8), the city and its sanctuary were thought to be near  Halus (Achaea Phthiotis) [1; 2; 3], but excavations near modern Philia have verified their location c. 16 km south-east of Karditsa and c. 10 km upriver o…

Ctimenae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κτιμεναί; Ktimenaí). Capital of the  Dolopes in the vicinity of Lake Xynias, probably near today's Cydonia and not today's Ktimenai (formerly Anodranitsa). Conquered in 198 BC by the Aetolians allied with Rome (Liv. 32,13,10); thereafter Angeia was the capital of the Dolopes. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48ff. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 148f.

Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…

Thaumaci

(168 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θαυμακοί/ Thaumakoí). City in Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of the Othrys mountains, on one of the most important routes to Thessaly. Remains of walls and ceramic finds suggest an origin in the 4th cent. BC; the first literary sources refer to events in the 3rd cent. BC, when T. was part of the Aetolian League. T. is mentioned several times in the military conflicts between the Romans, the Aetolians and Philippus [7] V shortly after 200 BC (Liv. 32,4,1-7; 32,4,13; 36,14,…

Angeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀγγείαι; Angeíai). Town in south-east  Pindus within the settlement area of the  Dolopes, probably close to the modern Rentina. From the 2nd cent. BC, A. outmatched the main town of  Ctimenae in importance. In the course of the Second Macedonian War, it was captured by the  Aetolians in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,10), but continued to exist (cf. Syll.3 692,10 of 130 BC). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La retraite de Philippe V. en 198 et l'incursion étolienne en Thessalie, in: BCH 52, 1928, 445 f. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, …

Peirasia

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Πειρασία; Peirasía). A city in the northeast of Thessaliotis (Thessalians, Thessalia), with ruins on the isolated 313 m high limestone mountain of Strongylovuno south of the modern Vlochós on the left bank of the Enipeus [2]. It was identified with the Homeric Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον), and was allied with Athens in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,22,3 with schol.). Its contributions for the Delphic temple in 359/7 BC are attested in inscriptions (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ancient remains: three concentric polygonal city walls with more …

Aenianes

(603 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Αἰνιᾶνες; Ainiânes). Small tribe, related to the  Myrmidones and the Achaeans of  Phthia, originally settled in the vicinity of the  Perrhaebi at the river Titaresius and in the surrounding plains, then driven south by the Thessalians advancing from the north; in historical times, they settled in the Aenis region in the upper valley of the Spercheus between the Dolopes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, the  Malieis and the  Oetaei (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; further sources [1; 2]). Th…

Myrae

(53 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μύραι/ Mýrai, Scyl. 65; or to be corrected to Εὐρέα[ι]/ Euréa[i]? Cf. [1]). Town in the north of the peninsula of Magnesia [1], south of Homole, location unknown. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography     1 J.A.W. Warren, Two Notes on Thessalian Coins, in: NC 7,1, 1961, 1-8. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 1089.

Limnaeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λιμναῖον; Limnaîon, Latin Limnaeum). In 191 BC, the Romans and Philip V marched through eastern Thessaly to drive out Antiochus III and the Athamanians. During the siege of Pelinna, Philip also attacked L. which did not surrender until the Roman cavalry appeared (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). There is a lack of other information. L. has recently been localized near Vlochos above the swampy confluence region of the rivers Enipeus [2] and Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J. Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Othrys

(166 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὄθρυς/ Óthrys). Range of mountains, c. 85 km long and 45 km wide, between the Malian Gulf and the Spercheus valley on one side and Thessalia on the other. The O. consists of several chains of mountains (slate, lime) and predominantly has the character of a low mountain range. To the south it falls of steeply in a straight edge, but to the north it is more structured. The greatest elevation is Yerakovouni (1726 m). Politically the region was part of Achaea Phthiotis (Achaei). The great…

Hypata

(352 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Ὑπάτα; Hypáta). Capital of the Aenianes (HN 296), not shown to have existed before the 5th or beginning of the 4th cent. BC, situated on a terrace cut off by ravines above the Spercheus valley on the northern slope of Mount Oete ( Oetaei, Oete), modern Hypate. The fates of city and tribe largely coincide (references [1; 2; 3]), Macedonian rule began around 344, and following the interlude of the Lamian War, the rule was replaced by the Aetolian League from c. 273. In the year 191  Acilius [I 10] ravaged t…

Ortha, Orthe

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὄρθα/ Órtha, Ὄρθη/ Órthē). There were possibly two places with this name in Thessalia. [German version] [1] Place in Perrhaibia According to the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,739), O., with Elone and Olosson, was part of the region of the Polypoetes and therefore situated in Perrhaibia (Perrhaebi). Various ruins at Elasson are identified as O. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] Town in southern Thessalia There are Hellenistic coins with the legend ΟΡΘ(Ι)ΕΩΝ/ ORTH(I)EŌN (HN 303), and a list of theorodoci in Delphi from the beginning of the 2nd…

Homole, Homolium

(210 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὁμόλη, Ὁμόλιον; Homólē, Homólion). Mountain at the northern end of the Thessalian  Ossa. At the outflow of the Peneius from the  Tempe Valley lay a town of the same name on the slope (not by the sea, Str. 9,5,22), attested to be above modern Omolion (formerly Laspochori). H. was the northernmost town of  Magnesia and so of Greece. H. overlooked the river crossing to lower Macedonia (Liv. 42,38,10; remains of a bridge about 1 km north of Omolion). Finds attest to settlement since anc…

Dolopes

(387 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Δόλοπες; Dólopes). The D. were the south-western neighbours of the Thessalians, possibly split off from them during their immigration and driven out of the plains. Their area of settlement ─ without access to the coast ─ lay between Achaea Phthiotis in the east, Spercheus valley in the south, Epirus in the west and the central Pindus, a mountainous country, very sparsely settled then as now and, since the southern Pindus has a strong north-south folding, passable only in that dire…

Tricca

(162 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Τρίκκα/ Tríkka). Capital of Hestiaeotis in western Thessaly, on the Lethaeus (modern Trikkalinos), which flows from the Chasia Mountains. T. is mentioned in the Iliad as the place of origin of the Asclepius cult (Hom. Il. 2,729-733). In the Classical period T. was already minting its own coins (HN 310). T. became Macedonian after 352 BC (Diod. Sic. 18,56,5; Pelinna), was Aetolian for a time at the end of the 3rd cent. and was won back by Thessaly in 186/5…

Ormenium, Orminium

(247 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀρμένιον/ Orménion, Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion). According to the context in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), Orménion was the residence of Eurypylus [1] and was situated in western Thessaliotis, but it was already abandoned in historic times and has not been located up to the present day. The historic township of Ormínion was in Magnesia [1] and, around 290 BC, it was incorporated into the newly established Demetrias [1], but it continued to exist as a kṓmē (Str. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion; Plin. HN 4,32). Despite the geographic difference to t…

Nessonis limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νεσσωνὶς λίμνη; Ness ōnìs límnē). Silted-up lake, to the north-east of Larisa [3] in Thessalian Pelasgiotis, formerly fed primarily by the Peneius, today dried out. Ancient authors were interested in the fluctuations in its water level and its connection with the Boibe to the south (Str. 9,5,20). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. N., RE 17, 79f.

Condylum

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κόνδυλον; Kóndylon). Fortification in the southern Olympus on a bypass around the valley of the Tempe that runs through  Gonnus, probably to be equated with Gonnocondylus, and located near modern Tsurba-Mandria. When Philip V released Perrhaebia in 196 BC, he kept C. with the place name Olympias until 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). A garrison of Perseus was stationed in C. in 169 BC during the Third Macedonian War. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Amphanae

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀμφαναί; Amphanaí). Town on the narrow coastal strip of the Pelasgiotis ( Pelasgians) near Cape Pyrrha, modern Angistri. According to its foundation myth already existing in the pre-Thessalian period, A. was later outstripped by the Thessalian town of  Pagasae. Most recent reference from the middle of the 4th cent. BC (FGrH 115 Theopompus fr. 54); its cultic tradition continued in  Demetrias. In contrast with older studies it is no longer localized on Mount Soros, but to the south of it in the ru…

Menelais

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μενελαΐς; Menelaḯs). Town in Dolopia ( Dolopes) reclaimed as formerly Macedonian by Philip V in 185 BC (Liv. 39,26,1). M. may have been on the northern slopes of Mount Itamos, where there is a ruin near Kasthanaia. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Gyrton(e)

(205 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γυρτών[η]; Gyrtṓn[ē]). Lapithae from G. appear both in the Argonaut legend ( Argonautae; Apoll. Rhod. 1,57) and in The Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738). The town originally belonged to Perrhaebia, but in historical times was an important place of the Thessalian Pelasgiotis. In 431 BC among the Thessalian reinforcement troops for Athens there was also a contingent from G. (Thuc. 2,22). In 215 at the behest of Philip V at least 60 Gyrtonians became citizens of the neighbouring  Larisa (IG IX 2, 517). In 191 a…

Olizon

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀλιζών; Olizṓn) is mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships in the Iliad as belonging to Philoctetes (Hom. Il. 2,717). Demetrius [2] incorporated O. into the newly founded Demetrias [1] in about 290 BC (Strab. 9,5,15). O. was in the southern part of Magnesia [1], opposite Artemisium in Euboea (Plut. Themistocles 8,2). O. is identified with Paliokastro to the east of the village of Lavko on the Trikkeri peninsula and was probably populated until the late Imperial period (IG IX 2, 1217-1221, unnamed). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Lenk, s.v. O., RE 17, 2484  TI…

Scotussa

(125 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σκοτοῦσσα/ Skotoûssa). City in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, about 20 km to the west of Pherae at modern Skotoússa. (earlier Supli; Cynoscephalae). Attested by finds, remains and myth as very ancient, its first period of prosperity came to an end when the population was massacred by Alexander [15] of Pherae in 367 BC (Diod. 15,75,1; Paus. 6,5,2 f.). S. was not insignificant under Macedonian rule (Pol. 18,20,2-6; Liv. 33,6,8), and in the Thessalian League after 197 (Liv. 36,9,3). After …

Sesklo

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] Village, about 10 km to the north of the Pagasetic Gulf on the threshold of the Plain of Thessaly. The place of settlement, which has been excavated there since 1905, gave its name to a long prehistoric epoch of Greece (6th-4th millennia BC). It had been settled since the pre-ceramic Neolithic, and flourished with up to 3000 inhabitants in the middle Neolithic. Typical of the culture of S. are rectangular houses, a central megaron building and a special pottery (finds in the archa…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Mopsium

(77 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μόψιον; Mópsion). Town and hill in the Thessalian territory of Pelasgiotis. In 171 BC, it served Perseus for a time as an advance base out of the Tempe Valley for attacks on the Romans in the Plain of Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. may possibly be equated with the town ruins at Makrichori, approx. 25 km north west of Larisa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.
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