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Metaphor

(2,992 words)

Author(s): Löser, Philipp | Figal, Günter | Mühling, Markus | Mädler, Inken
[German Version] I. Literary Criticism – II. Philosophy – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. History of Art I. Literary Criticism Metaphor (Gk μεταφορά/ metaphorá, “transfer,” from μεταφέρω/ metaphérō, “to transfer”) is a figure of speech in which, by means of a linguistic image, that is, in a figurative sense, reference is made to an object. The semantic analysis of metaphor, its distinction from other tropes, and discussion of the effectiveness and comprehensibility of poetic metaphors are some of the more difficult tasks of literary criticism. Definit…

Melville, Herman

(419 words)

Author(s): Löser, Philipp
[German Version] (Aug 1, 1819, New York – Sep 28, 1891, New York), American writer, whose works were not fully recognized until the 20th century as a point of reference for modernism and postmodernism. On his father's death, Melville had to leave school in 1832. After casual work and travel he signed up in 1840 as an ordinary seaman on a whaler. He lived for four years in the South Seas, returned to the United States in 1844, and processed his experiences in three successful novels: Typee (1846), Omoo (1847), and Mardi (1849). Melville lost his wide public when he turned to the genre …