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Asea

(119 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine Town in southern  Arcadia, halfway between Megalopolis and  Tegea on the small plateau of Frangovrysi near the sources of the Alpheius and the Eurotas (Str. 8,3,12). The settlement on the acropolis can be traced back from the Neolithic to the Middle Helladic and Hellenistic periods (town walls); in 368/67 BC, it was integrated into the new foundation of Megalopolis; at the time of Pausanias (8,44,3), A. lay in ruins. The settlement of the classical period has not been localized. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E…

Atax

(27 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Coastal river in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Aude. It rises in the Pyrenees, and discharges into the Mediterranean south of Narbo. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Arar

(88 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in  Gallia, earlier called Βρίγουλος ( Brígoulos), later   Sauconna ; the modern Saône (Ps.-Plut. De Fluminibus 6). Rising in the Vosges (according to Str. 4,1,11; 3,2 the Alps; Ptol. 2,10,4 -- confusion with  Isara); navigable from its confluence with the  Dubis, with a remarkably slow current, it formed the border between the  Haedui and the  Sequani (Caes. B Gall. 1,12,1) and joined the  Rhodanus near ad Confluentes, opposite  Lugdunum. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Opelt, A., der Grenzstrom zw. Häduern und Sequanern, in: Gymnasium, 1988, 481-492.

Melangea

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαγγεία/ Melangeía). Town in the territory of Mantinea in Arcadia at the exit of the Climax Pass. Drinking water was led from here to Mantinea. To be found at modern Pikerni (Paus. 8,6,4). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Bibrax

(34 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Oppidum of the Remi, modern Vieux-Laon or Camp de Saint-Thomas (Départment Aisne). Captured by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,6). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Leman, s.v. B., PE, 792.

Melpeia

(44 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cnacion

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνακιών; Knakiṓn). Mentioned only in the ‘Great Rhetra’ (Plut. Lycurgus 6,4, Pelopidas 17,6;  Sparta). Place name in Sparta, later equated to the river Oenus, today's Kelephina (Plut. loc. cit.; Lycoph. 550); not identifiable.…

Asine

(385 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσίνη; Asínē) [German version] [1] Prehistoric settlement in Kastraki This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Important prehistoric settlement from the Early Helladic period, located on the rocky headland of Kastraki c. 8 km south-east of  Nauplia on the bay of Tolon; it was taken to be a town of the Dryopes ( Dryops) (Hdt. 8,73; Paus. 4,8,3; 34,9-12). In around 700 BC, the town was destroyed by  Argos [II 1], but the temple of  Apollo Pythaieus survived. Its inhabitants were resettled in Messenia by …

Baeterrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul Oppidum of the  Volcae Arecomici in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Béziers (Hérault), settled at the latest from 750/650 BC. Since Caesar's time, Colonia Urbs Iulia Septimanorum Baeterrae with veterans of the legio VII (Plin. HN 3,36; Mela 2,75; Str. 4,1,6; Ptol. 2,10,6). B. was the centre of an important road network, and controlled a large and prosperous surrounding area, favoured by the nearby ports of Agatha and Narbo. Its destruction in the course…

Cardamyle

(176 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Καρδαμύλη; Kardamýlē). Spartan perioecic settlement on the western side of the  Taygetus peninsul…

Cebenna mons

(25 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Mountain range in Gallia (modern Cévennes), separating the Arverni from the Helvii (Caes. B Gall. 7,8; 56). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Gerenia

(169 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (In Str. also Γέρηνα; Gérēna, on inscriptions ἁ πόλις τῶν Γερηνῶν, formerly Enópē). Spartan perioecic city on the west side of the Taygetus peninsula, member of the league of  Eleutherolakones during the Imperial period. The location is documented on an inscription (finding-place of a decree with the mention τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Μαχάονος, ‘the sanctuary of Machaon’) near today's Kambos, 15 km south-west of Kalamata, home also to a Mycenaean cupola tomb. The relation…

Cynortium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Epitalium

(50 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιτάλιον; Epitálion). Town in Triphylia on the left bank of the  Alpheius [1]. References: Xen. Hell. 3,2,29; Pol. 4,80; Str. 8,3,12; 8,3,24. Archaeology: significant remains from Roman times. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) …

Icauna

(41 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Left side-arm of the river Seine, modern Yonne, also the name of the river goddess (CIL XIII 2921: dea Icauna, votive inscriptions from Autessiodurum; Vita S. Germani 12, late 5th cent. AD: flumen Ycaunense). …

Colonides

(80 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (αἱ Κολωνίδες). Town (or ‘village’, κώμη, Plut. Philopoemen 18,3) on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf near present-day Kaphirio [1] or possibly Vunaria (evidence of settlement) [2]. Minted coins during the Severian dynasty. References: Paus. 4,34,8; 12; Ptol. 3,16,7 (Κολώη). Inscription: IG V 1,1402-1404; SEG 11,996f. Coins: HN 432f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)…

Caryae

(213 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρύαι; Karýai). [German version] [1] Arcadian settlement Arcadian settlement (χωρίον) on the southern shore of the lake of Pheneus (Paus. 8,13,6; 14,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Settlement in NW-Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Settlement in the north-western Parnon range, on Sparta's north-eastern border with Ar…

Mastramela

(105 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Town of the Salluvii (Gallia Narbonensis) beside a lagoon of the same name (now Étang de Berre) or on an elevation rising above it between Rhodanus…

Etanna

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Civitas of the Allobroges in Gallia Narbonensis on the left bank of the Rhône, statio on the Vienne-Geneva road (Tab. Peut.). Identified with Yenne or Etain near Yenne. Flourished from the 2nd to 6th cents. AD. Inscriptions: CIL 12,305. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Dufournet, Le réseau routier gallo-romain de Vienne à Genève et la…

Pictones

(275 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Πίκτονες; Píktones). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, afterwards Aquitania, to the south of the lower Liger (Caes. B Gall. 3,11,5; 7,4,6; 75,3; 8,26,1; Plin. HN 4,108; 17,47; Str. 4,2,1; Ptol. 2,7,6), in the modern départements Vendée [1], Deux-Sèvres [2] and Vienne [3]. The P., known from the 2nd cent. AD as Pictavi (CIL XIII 7297; Notitia Galliarum 13,6; Amm. Marc. 15,11,13), were neighboured by the Namnetes on the north-west, the Bituriges Cubi on the east, the Lemovices on the south east and the Santones on the south west. In 56 BC,…

Lycaea

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Λύκαια; Lýkaia). Name of two towns in northwestern Arcadia, both also attested in the form of the name Λυκόα/ Lykóa, belonging to Megale Polis. [German version] [1] L. in the region of the Maenalii L. in the region of the Maenalii in the upper reaches of the Helisson (Paus. 8,3,4; 27,3; 30,1; 36,7), possibly identifiable with Palaiokastro between Arachova and Karteroli in the southeast of the plain of Davia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. in the region of the Parrhasii L. in the region of the Parrhasii on the northern slope of the Lycaeum west of the confluenc…

Rhodanus

(260 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥοδανός/ Rhodanós). The biggest and, at 812 km, the second longest river in Gaul (Gallia), modern Rhône, with an extremely fertile drainage basin of 99,000 km2, navigable up to and above Lugdunum (for an unsuccessful attempt to connect the R. and the Rhenus/Rhine by means of a canal, cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53), an important axis of commerce with trade centres at Massalia (Marseilles), Arelate (Arles) and Lugdunum (Lyon) between the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum) and the interior of Gaul. It rises near the springs of the Rhenus [2] (Str. 4,6,6) in the territory of the Lepontii (Plin. HN 3,135) or in the Alpes Poeninae (Amm. 15,11,16; cf. Pol. 3,47,2-5), flows through the valley of the Vallenses, turns northwest at Octodurus, continues through Lacus Lemanus, in the territory of the Allobroges winds through the western foothills of the Iura, in its southern turn below Lugdunum receives from the right the voluminous Arar and then from the left the Alpine tributaries Isara [1], Druna, Sulga (modern Sorgue) and Druentia, finally disgorging in a number of branches through an extensive delta region into the Mediterranean at Arelate (Pol. 34,10,5; Ptol. 2,10,2: two branches; Artem. in Str. 4,4,8; Plin. HN 3,33: three branches; Avien. Ora maritima 688, there 622-…

Canathus

(51 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάναθος; Kánathos). The spring in which, according to Argive legend, Hera bathed once a year to restore her virginity (Paus. 2,38,2); probably the large spring in the monastery of Hagia Moni, 2 km east of Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography …

Lexovii

(77 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Macareae

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακαρέαι; Makaréai). Town west of Megale Polis, belonging to its region, in the plain to the left of the Alpheius, in ruins at the time of Pausanias (8,3,3; 27,4; 36,9); remains not known. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Neris

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νηρίς/ Nērís). Settlement in the territory of Cynuria [1] in the eastern Peloponnese, possibly at modern Kato Doliana [1. 122-124; 2. 75-79] (Paus. 2,38,6; Stat. Theb. 4,46). …

Halieis

(109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁλιεῖς, Ἁλιαί; Halieîs, Haliaí). Harbour town on the Bay of Porto Cheli in the Argolis, founde…

Darioritum

(82 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Paeum

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παῖον; Paîon). Small town with well-preserved acropolis wall in western Arcadia in the spring- and vegetation-rich dale lying across the Ladon and Erymanthus valleys, modern Paleokastro, 400 m to the east of modern Neon Paos. In the early period P. was an independent

Mesatis

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσάτις; Mesátis). One of three communities or regions from which the city of Patrae in Achaea was founded. M. had a cult of Dionysus. It was possibly the hilly country to the east and north of Patrae, at the modern Ano Sychaina-Voundeni (Paus. 7,18,4-6; 19,1; 21,14). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. D. Rizakis, Achaïe 1. Sources textuelles et histoire régionale (Meletemata 20), 1995, 164.

Carnutes

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annually hold court in a sacred location.…

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lutecia Parisiorum

(272 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4; 7,57f.; Λουκοτοκία; Loukotokía, Str. 4,3,5; Παρισίων Λουκοτεκία; Parisíōn Loukotekía, Ptol. 2,8,13; Luticia, It. Ant. 366,5f.; Luteci, Tab. Peut. 2,4). Settlement founded in c. 250-200 BC on an island in the Sequana (Seine), wh…

Cenchreae

(357 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κεγχρεαί; Kenchreaí). [German version] [1] Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones …

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Archaic and Classic…

Arausio

(185 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Punic Wars Town …

Aulerci

(144 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A people in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the Loire and the Seine, that was divided into four partial tribes (Caes. B Gall. 3,17; 7,75; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol.Geog. 2,8): 1. The Cenomani who partly moved to Upper Italy (Liv. 5,35,1) and partly settled around Subdinum (today Le Mans) where they worshipped Mars Mullo [1. 343-348]. 2. The Diablintes/Diablinti, their main settlement was Noviodunum [2. 454-463; 3]. It was not Caesar but probably Ptolemy (Geog. 2,8,7) who classified them as bel…

Lessa

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λῆσσα; Lêssa). Village on the Argolian Acte on the border to Epidaurus, presumably near modern Ligurio, with Athena sanctuary. Literary evidence: Paus. 2,25,10; 26,1. Inscriptions: IG IV, 906-912; 1611. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Frickenhaus, W. Müller…

Andecavi

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Geronthrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones,…

Helvii

(140 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( Elvii, Elvi or Ilvi, Caes. B Civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Str. 4,2,1). Celtic tribe of people whose area (modern Dép. Ardèche) on the right bank of the Rhône in the north…

Boiae

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Esuvii

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Esubii). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the lower Seine and the Loire. Caesar (Gall. 2,34; 3,7; 5,24; 5,53) mentions it as one of the tribes of Aremorica (Bretagne) between the Coriosolites and the Aulerci in the area of Sées (Orne). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cyparissia

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυπαρισσία; Kyparissía). [German version] [1] Town on the Messenian west coast This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea Town on the Messenian west coast and the location of the modern town of the same name with a few remains mostly from Roman times; parts of the wall of the acropolis below a medieval castle. Aside from Pylos and Methone, the harbour of C. with its good connection to the upper Pamisus Valley was considered the only significant Messenian access to the sea. C. is already mentioned in the Pylos Tablets and is in any case identical to Κυπαρισσήεις ( Kypar…

Cabillon(n)um

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Town by the Arar in Gallia Lugdunensis, today Chalon-sur-Saône. As a river port of the Haedui, C. was of economic importance until the conquest by the Romans. Literary sources: Caes. B Gall. 7,42; 7,90; Str. 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,8,12. In later times, station of the classis Ararica. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bonnamour, s.v. Cabillon(n)um, PE, 179f. Grenier 2, 1934, 562-564.

Gytheumium

(346 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Alesia

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum   Oppidum of the  Mandubii in  Gallia Celtica, today Alise-Sainte-Reine (Côte-d'Or). A. took up a plateau of c. 80 hectares with remarkable natural protection on Mont Auxois (Mons Alisiensis). In 52 BC  Vercingetorix was besieged here by Caesar and despite the intervention of relief troops had to capitulate (Caes. B Gall. 7,68-90). A. continued to exist as a Gallo-Roman centre dur…

Marganeis

(125 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μαργανεῖς/ Marganeîs). Small community west of Olympia in the plain north of the Alpheius between …

Bura

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Natural catastrophes | Oracles (Βοῦρα; Boûra).…

Oetylus

(147 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Οἴτυλος/ Oítylos). Town, present-day Otylon (Itylon), on the eastern …
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