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Paeum

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παῖον; Paîon). Small town with well-preserved acropolis wall in western Arcadia in the spring- and vegetation-rich dale lying across the Ladon and Erymanthus valleys, modern Paleokastro, 400 m to the east of modern Neon Paos. In the early period P. was an independent polis (Hdt. 6,127), later it belonged to Cleitor and in the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD) it was desolate (8,23,9). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Arcadia, EAA 2. Suppl. vol. 1, 1994, 332  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11 (1986), 1990, 148f.  Jost, 45  Pritchet…

Mesatis

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσάτις; Mesátis). One of three communities or regions from which the city of Patrae in Achaea was founded. M. had a cult of Dionysus. It was possibly the hilly country to the east and north of Patrae, at the modern Ano Sychaina-Voundeni (Paus. 7,18,4-6; 19,1; 21,14). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. D. Rizakis, Achaïe 1. Sources textuelles et histoire régionale (Meletemata 20), 1995, 164.

Carnutes

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annually hold court in a sacred location. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lutecia Parisiorum

(272 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4; 7,57f.; Λουκοτοκία; Loukotokía, Str. 4,3,5; Παρισίων Λουκοτεκία; Parisíōn Loukotekía, Ptol. 2,8,13; Luticia, It. Ant. 366,5f.; Luteci, Tab. Peut. 2,4). Settlement founded in c. 250-200 BC on an island in the Sequana (Seine), where a north-south trading route crosses the river, modern Paris. The river afforded natural protection while the nearby hill of Sainte-Geneviève enabled direct sur…

Cenchreae

(357 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κεγχρεαί; Kenchreaí). [German version] [1] Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea with graves of Argives fallen in the battle at the nearby Hysiae (according to Pausanias in 669/8 BC). C. was on the northern slope of Mount Ctenias opposite Hysiae on the southern side. Not exactly localizable, possibly near the modern Sta Nera, c. 3 km north-east of Achladokambos. The ‘Pyramid of C.’ at the exit of the valley further towards the north-east above t…

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Archaic and Classic…

Arausio

(185 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis (cf. Liv. Ep. 67: 105 BC site of the Roman defeat in battle against the  Cimbri; Ptol. 2,10,8); the modern Orange. Shortly after 36 BC veterans of   legio II. founded the colonia Firma Iulia Secundanorum Arausio (CIL XII 3203), 7 km east of the  Rhodanus and south of the Aigues. 6th-cent. BC traces of the previous Celtic settlement lie 5 km to the south. A. was one of the main centres of the Cavares (Str. …

Aulerci

(144 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A people in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the Loire and the Seine, that was divided into four partial tribes (Caes. B Gall. 3,17; 7,75; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol.Geog. 2,8): 1. The Cenomani who partly moved to Upper Italy (Liv. 5,35,1) and partly settled around Subdinum (today Le Mans) where they worshipped Mars Mullo [1. 343-348]. 2. The Diablintes/Diablinti, their main settlement was Noviodunum [2. 454-463; 3]. It was not Caesar but probably Ptolemy (Geog. 2,8,7) who cla…

Lessa

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λῆσσα; Lêssa). Village on the Argolian Acte on the border to Epidaurus, presumably near modern Ligurio, with Athena sanctuary. Literary evidence: Paus. 2,25,10; 26,1. Inscriptions: IG IV, 906-912; 1611. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Frickenhaus, W. Müller, Aus der Argolis, in: MDAI(A) 36, 1911, 30 R. L. Scranton, The Pottery from the Pyramids, in: Hesperia 7, 1938, 537.

Andecavi

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe in  Gallia Lugdunensis (on the lower Loire) with the main town of Iuliomagus (modern Angers sur la Maine; Caes. B Gall. 2,35,3; 3,7,2; 7,4,6: Andes; Plin. HN 4,107 and Oros. 6,8,7: Andicavi). In the Gallic rebellion of AD 21 under the leadership of  Iulius Sacrovir, they were the first to fight, together with the  Turoni, but were soon overpowered (Tac. Ann. 3,41). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Blanchard-Lemée et al., Recueil général des mosaïques de Gaule 2,4, 1991 M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Geronthrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones, near modern Geraki, still inhabited in the Imperial period and thus even named in Hierocles (Synekdemos 647,9). Paus. 3,22,6f. mentions a temple of Ares with a grove, an agora with a fountain house and a temple of Apollo on the acropolis. Further evidence: Steph. Byz. s.v. Γεράνθραι; Geránthrai; IG V 1, 1110-1141. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Helvii

(140 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( Elvii, Elvi or Ilvi, Caes. B Civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Str. 4,2,1). Celtic tribe of people whose area (modern Dép. Ardèche) on the right bank of the Rhône in the north bordered on the Segusiavi, in the west on the Vellavii and Gabali and in the south on the Volcae Arecomici. The Cevennes separated them from the Arverni (Caes. B Gall. 7,8). In 52 BC in the war against Vercingetorix they were on the side of Caesar. In the new division of the province under Augustus they were attached to Aqui…

Boiae

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Βοιαί; Boiaí). One of the most prosperous cities of the  Eleutherolakones on the western coast of the Parnon peninsula in the bay of Vatica. Unremarkable archaeological ruins (especially from the Roman period) at today's Neapolis. Pol. 5,19; Str. 8,5,2; Paus. 3,22,11-13. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, Promenades en Laconie, in: DHA 15,1, 1989, 89-93 D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania Guida della Grecia. III. La Laconia, 1991, 270f.

Esuvii

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Esubii). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the lower Seine and the Loire. Caesar (Gall. 2,34; 3,7; 5,24; 5,53) mentions it as one of the tribes of Aremorica (Bretagne) between the Coriosolites and the Aulerci in the area of Sées (Orne). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cyparissia

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυπαρισσία; Kyparissía). [German version] [1] Town on the Messenian west coast This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea Town on the Messenian west coast and the location of the modern town of the same name with a few remains mostly from Roman times; parts of the wall of the acropolis below a medieval castle. Aside from Pylos and Methone, the harbour of C. with its good connection to the upper Pamisus Valley was considered the only significant Messenian access to the sea. C. is already mentioned in the Pylos Tablets and is in any case identical to Κυπαρισσήεις ( Kypar…

Cabillon(n)um

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Town by the Arar in Gallia Lugdunensis, today Chalon-sur-Saône. As a river port of the Haedui, C. was of economic importance until the conquest by the Romans. Literary sources: Caes. B Gall. 7,42; 7,90; Str. 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,8,12. In later times, station of the classis Ararica. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bonnamour, s.v. Cabillon(n)um, PE, 179f. Grenier 2, 1934, 562-564.

Gytheumium

(346 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Caesar | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones (Γύθ(ε)ιον; Gýth(e)ion). Laconian perioikoi town on the north-western coast of the innermost Laconian gulf in a relatively protected position with good communications links. In the historical period the main harbour for  Sparta ( c. 45 km from G.), forti fied, with shipyards and an artificially laid out harbour (in the Bronze Age the naval bases of the region were Las and Helus). Evidence: Scyl. 46; Xen. Hell. 1,4,11; 6,…

Alesia

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum   Oppidum of the  Mandubii in  Gallia Celtica, today Alise-Sainte-Reine (Côte-d'Or). A. took up a plateau of c. 80 hectares with remarkable natural protection on Mont Auxois (Mons Alisiensis). In 52 BC  Vercingetorix was besieged here by Caesar and despite the intervention of relief troops had to capitulate (Caes. B Gall. 7,68-90). A. continued to exist as a Gallo-Roman centre dur…

Marganeis

(125 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μαργανεῖς/ Marganeîs). Small community west of Olympia in the plain north of the Alpheius between the modern villages of Phloka and Strephi, dependent on Elis as períoikoi . Exact location unknown. In the war of the Spartans against Elis in 401 BC on the Spartan side (Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; Diod. Sic. 15,77,4, Μάργανα/ Márgana), in the peace of 400 BC autonomous (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), in 294 in the battle at Nemea again on the side of the Spartans (Xen. Hell. 4,2,16), but claimed by Elis (Xen. Hell. 6,5,2). Last mentioned in 364 BC as an…

Bura

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Natural catastrophes | Oracles (Βοῦρα; Boûra). One of the 12 cities of Achaea. Hill settlement (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41), 40 stades from the sea (Str. 8,7,5). Destroyed by an earthquake in 373 BC, B. continued to exist, however, and had temples and sanctuaries at the time of Paus. (7.25.8f.). Two locations are discussed: the villages of Kastro [1; 2; 3] and Mamusia [4] on either side of the Buraïkos. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 133-140 2 Id., Neue Pelopo…

Oetylus

(147 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Οἴτυλος/ Oítylos). Town, present-day Otylon (Itylon), on the eastern bank of the Messenian Gulf by the deep harbour bay hórmos limeníu (ὅρμος λιμενίου) and 7.5 km to the north of Areopoli on the west coast of Mani (Hom. Il. 2,585; Str. 8,4,4: Βοίτυλος/ Boítylos; Paus. 25,10; 26,1; Ptol. 3,16,22: Βοίτυλα/ Boítyla; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ο., here also Βοίτυλος/ Boítylos). In the Classical period it was a Laconic town of períoikoi . From the time of Augustus it was one of the 18 m…

Parrhasia, Parrhasii

(111 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παρρασία/ Parrhasía, Παρράσιοι/ Parrhásioi). Settlement area of the largest Arcadian sub-tribe in West-Arcadia (Hom. Il. 2,608; Str. 8,8,1; Diod. Sic. 15,72,4). The pan-Arcadian sanctuary of Zeus was located in P., on the Lycaeum (Pind. O. 9,143). In the 2nd cent. AD (Paus. 8,27,4; 38,3), P. referred only to the western part of the plain of Megalopolis, with the hill country stretching from the west . Originally, however, the P. stretched further to the south and west (Thuc. 5,33,1; Xen. Hell. 7,1,28). The independence of P. ended with its in…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Meldi

(141 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People of Gallia Lugdunensis on the lower Matrona (Strab. 4,3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,11). The capital was Iatinon (Ἰάτινον, Ptol. 2,8,15; = Fixtinnum, Tab. Peut. 2,4), later called civitas Meldorum (Not. Galliarum 4,7) or Meldis (Ven. Fort. 3,27), modern Meaux. In 55/4 BC, Caesar had the M. build him ships for the expedition to Britain (Caes. BG 5,5,2); however, there was possibly another people by this name on the sea coast. Archaeological finds: coins.; water pipe. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3023f.; a thea…

Troezen

(689 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Τροιζήν/ Troizḗn only since the 2nd cent. BC and literary; originally Τροζάν/ Trozán, Ionic Τροζήν/ Trozḗn; Lat. Troezen, Troezene, Troezena). [German version] I. Location and history Town on the north coast of the Argolid near present-day T. (formerly Damala) on the northern slope of the Anderes mountain range (present-day Phorbantion). The region of T. encompassed the entire eas…

Decetia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] City of the Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 7,33) in Gallia Lugdunensis, road junction (It. Ant. 367: Decetia; 460: Deccidae; Tab. Peut.: Degetia; Geogr. Rav. 4,26: Dizezeia); today's Decize (Nièvre). CIL 13, 2814-2816. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Autessiodurum

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town of the  Senones in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis (modern Auxerre). A. was located on the left bank of the Yonne (CIL XIII 2920-2939). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Kapps, s.v. A., PE, 128.

Cyphanta

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κύφαντα or Κύφας; Kýphanta or Kýphas). Spartan perioikic polis (  períoikoi ) on the east coast of the  Parnon peninsula with an Asclepius sanctuary, already in ruins at the time of Pausanias, located in the bay with the mod. name of Kyparissi. Documentary evidence: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. HN 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Cleitor

(246 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κλείτωρ, Arcad. Κλήτωρ). North Arcadian town in a small plain surrounded by mountains near modern Carnesi with a river of the same name, c. 3 km west of Kato-Klitoria, 11 km from the sources of the Ladon ( Ladon [2]), with few remains (IG V 2, 367). An important transit area between the eastern plateau and the western mountain regions. C. had no acropolis, the settlement was located in a flat area with only two slightly higher areas.…

Allobroges

(303 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The territory of the A. (‘foreigners’: Schol. Juv. 8,234), in  Gallia Narbonensis, extended in the north up to the Cavares and the  Vocontii, between  Isara,  Rhodanus, lacus Lemannus and  Alpes. The A. are Celts who came late to Gaul; their first appearance is with Pol. 3,49,13 and Liv. 21,31,5 in connection with Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. During the intervention of the Romans requested by Massalia, the A. came, allied with the  Arverni , down the Rhodanus to the Vindelicis amnis (today Sorgue), wher…

Anthea

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἄνθεια; Ántheia). One of the seven towns, belonging to the kingdom of  Pylos on the Messenian Gulf, which, in Hom. Il. 9,151; 293,  Agamemnon offered to  Achilles. Its identification with  Thuria (Str. 8,4,5; Paus. 4,31,1) is supported by many finds there dating from the Mycenaean age. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Hope Simpson, Identifying a Mycenean State, in: ABSA 52, 1957, 231-259 Id., The Seven Cities Offered by Agamemnon to Achilles, in: ABSA 61, 1966, 121-124.

Mesoa

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσόα; Mesóa). Ōbá or kṓmē (‘village’) of Sparta [1. 119]; specifically the urban region south west of the theatre (Str. 8,5,3; Paus. 3,16,9; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μεσσόα). The inscription IG V 1, 515 is a forgery [2]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. F. Jones, Public Organization in Ancient Greece, 1987 2 A. J. S. Spawforth, Fourmontiana. IG V 1, 515: Another Forgery ‘from Amyklai’, in: ABSA 71, 1976, 139-145.

Las

(139 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (ἡ Λᾶς; hē Lâs). Spartan town of períoikoi on the west coast of the Laconian Gulf. Remains of the ancient city (ancient and classical acropolis?) near modern Passava, covered by the Hellenistic and Roman towns. The harbour of L. (Thuc. 8,91; Str. 8,5,4) lay c. 3 km away (modern Bay of Vathy). Indefinite Mycenaean remains. Evidence: Hom. Il. 2,585 (Λάας; Láas); Scyl. 46; Paus. 3,21,7; 24,6f.; Str. 8,5,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λᾶ/ . Inscriptions: IG V 1,1214-1217. Coins: HN, 436. Lafond, …

Aphrodisia

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀφροδισία; Aphrodisía). City on the plain between  Cotyrta and  Boiae, south-east of  Laconice (Ἀφροδιτία; Aphroditía in Thuc. 4,56,1; Ἀφροδισιά; Aphrodisiás in Steph. Byz. s. v.; Paus. 3,22,11; 8,12,8), described itself as having been founded by  Aeneas. Site unknown. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, Promenades en Laconie, in: DHA 15,1, 1989, 89-93 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907/1908, 166.

Matisco

(137 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town in the Provincia Lugdunensis on the Arar River (Saône) in the territory of the Haedui, 70 km north of Lugudunum, modern Mâcon (Saône-et-Loire). There are Celtic remains in the environs as well, e.g. in Varennes-lès-Mâcon. In 52 BC M. was a staging station (Caes. Gall. 7,90,7; 8,4), in the Roman Imperial period it was the starting-point of the road to Augustodunum. A castrum was built in the 4th century AD. Necropolis. Sources: Itin. Anton. 359; Tab. Peut. 2,5 ( Matiscone); Notitia Galliarum 1,5; Geogr. Rav…

Mases

(110 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάσης; Másēs). Location and harbour on the southwestern coast of the Argolid peninsula on the eastern shore of the bay of Koilada, north west of the modern village of Kampo, with few ancient remains. Mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,562; in the historical period it was the port of Hermion(e). References: Str. 8,6,17; Paus. 2,35,11; 36,1f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Eust. in Hom. Il. 288,11. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 240f. M. Jameson, Inscriptions of the Peloponnesos, in: Hesperia 22, 1953, 167f. C. N. Runnels, T. H. van Andel, The …

Chrysorrhoas

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Χρυσορρόας; Chrysorrhóas). River near Troezen that did not dry up even during protracted drought (Paus. 2,31,10). Identical with the modern Gephyraion to the west of the town. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia, 1941, 15.

Lycone

(47 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκώνη; Lykṓnē). Mountain range east of Argus with the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (temple 12.30 × 9.80 m) with a marble statue that is said to be by Polyclitus (Paus. 2,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Kophiniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Ἀργολίδι, in: AD 1888, 205.

Pheneus

(368 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (ὁ/ἡ Φενεός; ho/hē Pheneós, ethnikon Φενεάτης/ Pheneátēs or Φενικός/ Phenikós). City in Azania in northern Arcadia (Str. 8,8,2; 4; Paus. 8,13,6-22,1; Plin. HN. 4,20f.; 31,54; Diod. Sic. 15,49,5) in the north of a karst basin with no overground outlet drained by swallow-holes into the Ladon [1. 94, 99] where a shallow lake only periodically formed but with at times a catastrophically high water level (cf. Theophr. Hist. p…

Phlius

(569 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia (Φλειοῦς/ Phleioûs, more rarely Φλιοῦς/ Phlioûs, ethnicon Φλειάσιος/ Phleiásios or Φλιάσιος/ Phliásios; Lat. Phleius). Town in northeastern Peloponnese, south west of Corinth (Str. 8,6,24; Paus. 2,13,3-8; Plin. HN 4,13; Ptol. 3,16,16). Today it is still called P., lying c. 2 km to the west of present-day Nemea in the foothills of the Tricaranon (present-day Koutsi) which juts out from the northeast into the alluvia…

Glympeis

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Γλυμπεῖς; Glympeîs; by Paus. 3,22,8 Γλυππία; Glyppía). Cynurian settlement on the boundary of the Argolis with Laconia (Pol. 5,20) in the Parnon mountains, the ruins of Palaeochora near modern Hagios Vasilios. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, De Sparte à la côte orientale du Péloponnèse, in: M. Piérart (ed.), Polydipsion Argos, 1992, 157-170.

Aegira

(364 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Αἴγειρα; Aígeira). Town in  Achaea, c. 1.3 km from the coast (Pol. 4,57,5) and c. 2.2 km from the port of the same name (Paus. 7,26,1), west of the modern village of Derveni. Protected on three sides by steep hills and on the fourth approachable only via a narrow ridge, A. was easy to defend and, at the same time, controlled the coastal road. The hilltop settlement ( c. 416 m), inhabited since the late Mycenaean period (12th cent. BC), was originally called Hyperesia …

Calamae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλάμαι; Kalámai). Settlement in south-east Messenia (κώμη, Paus. 4,31,3; χωρίον, Pol. 5,92,4 for 217 BC). Small hillock with remains of walls, 1 km south of the modern Jannitsa. C. probably extended to a further hillside nearby, where today a chapel of Hagios Vasilios is found. The modern Kalamata (officially Kalamai) corresponds with the ancient Pharae. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 1369f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 180f.

Agatha

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis, colony of  Massalia, within the territory of the  Volcae Arecomici, modern Agde (Str. 4,1,5 f.; Plin. HN 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ἀγάθη; Agáthē, ‘good’), located on the edge of the Hérault-delta on a hillside which has been continually inhabited since ancient times. Because of its location, this seaport was an important safeguard of the trade between the Mediterranean countries and Gallia. In the 5th cent. AD bishop's seat. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography…

Nestane

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νεστάνη/ Nestánē). Fortified village (κώμη/ kṓmē) in the Mantinea region in Arcadia (Theop. FGrH 115 F 175; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 234) on the eastern edge of the plateau on the road to Argos [II 1] by way of the Prinos pass. At the time of Pausanias (8,7,4; 8,1) N. was in ruins; near what is now Nestane (formerly Tsipiana). Remains of the castle wall have been preserved. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography S. and H. Hodkinson, Mantineia and the Mantinike, in: ABSA 76, 1981, 267-269  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11, 1986 (1990), 156f.  Jost, 140.

Os(s)ismi(i)

(127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe (Str. 4,4,1; Plin. HN 4,107; Mela 3,23; Ptol. 2,8,5; Tab. Peut 2,2) in Aremorica (in present-day Brittany; cf. Caes. B Gall. 7,75,4: O. amongst the civitates quae ... Aremoricae appellantur), to the west of the Veneti and Coriosolites, the main town being Vorgium (present-day Carhaix, dépt. Finistère). Subjugated in 58 BC by Caesar's praefectus equitum Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. B. Gall. 2,34,1), they took part in 56 BC in an insurrection of Gallic tribes against Rome (Caes. B. Gall. 3,9,10). After Diocletian's reorgan…
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