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Kaddish

(2,000 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
A Kaddish prayer is a short prayer in Hebrew and Aramaic, which has been transmitted in various versions. Besides doxological formulas, it mainly contains petitions for the sanctification of the name of God, the coming of God’s kingdom, and peace. As a prayer commemorating the deceased, it is today considered the prayer for the dead par excellence. …
Date: 2020-05-12

Kaddisch

(1,837 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
Als Kaddisch-Gebet wird ein kurzes Gebet in hebräischer und aramäischer Sprache bezeichnet, das in verschiedenen Versionen überliefert ist. Es enthält neben doxologischen Formeln vor allem Bitten um die Heiligung des Namens, das Kommen der Königsherrschaft Gottes und um Frieden. Als Gebet zum Gedenken an Verstorbene gilt es heute als das Gebet für die Toten schlechthin. 1. Anfänge Die formgeschichtliche Analyse des Textes belegt, dass es sich beim Kaddisch (aram., wörtl. »heilig«) ursprünglich um eine kurze, nach dem Studium der heiligen Schriften gesprochene Doxologie, d. h. ein Preisen der Herrlichkeit Gottes, handelte. Die ursprüngliche Verwendung im Lehrhaus lässt sich auch anhand der ersten Erwähnung der zentralen, meist auf Aramäisch überlieferten doxologischen Kernformel rekonstruieren. Diese Formel, »sein großer Name sei gepriesen«, wurde bereits in einem Midrasch aus dem 3. Jahrhundert d. Z. (Sifre Devarim, 306) mit einer besond…

Job, Testament of

(293 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] The Testament of Job is a pseudepigraphal Jewish work in which the canonical book of Job is retold following the schema of testamentary literature. The text is extant in Greek, Slavonic, and Coptic fragments. The work comprises four sections, framed by a prologue in which Job (Jobab) assembles his children and an epilogue (52–53) describing the ascent of Job's soul to heaven. After an account of Job's pagan past, his future sufferings as a punishment for destroying a pagan idol are r…

Blessing and Curse

(3,866 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Lehnardt, Andreas | Fitzgerald, John T. | Greiner, Dorothea | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. N…

Megillot

(487 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] (Heb. for “scrolls”). The plural Megillot is an artificial designation for the five books Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Qohelet, and Esther, which belong to the third part of the Old Testament ( Ketuvim, Writings; Old Testament, Bible: II, 2), but which did not yet form a unit at the time of canonization; only from the 10th century were the writings grouped together following the Pentateuch and according to the order in which they were used liturgically (see EJ IV, 1971, 829f.). In b. B.Bat. 14b the Megillot are still arranged according to their presumed age. T…

Ezra/Books of Ezra

(4,102 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus | Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] I. General – II. Canonical Book of Ezra – III. 1 Esdras – IV. 4 Ezra – V. 5 Ezra, 6 Ezra I. General In the Masoretic canon, Ezra and Nehemiah were considered one book of Ezra on into the 15th century. The LXX adopted this as Esdras β᾿ and numbered its chapters 1–23; it prefaced, however, as Esdras α᾿, a(n older?) freer translation of 2 Chr 35f.; Ezra 1–10; Neh 7:72b-8:12 and expanded it with a pagan account (chs. 3–5) not attested in Hebrew. The Vulgate classified the second document among the apocrypha and added to it, as Esdrae IV, a Jewish apocalypse inserted in chapters 3–14 and two younger …

Qaddish

(319 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] (“holy”), a short Hebrew-Aramaic prayer handed down in various versions and containing supplications for the coming of the kingdom of God and for peace, in addition to doxological formulae. The “Half Qaddish” is recited in alternation with a prayer leader at the beginning and especially at the conclusion of the main sections of the liturgy (Prayer: XI; in the latter case often with an additional Aramaic. supplication for peace as “Complete Qaddish”); mourners pray slightly altered forms of the Q…

Torah

(3,243 words)

Author(s): Achenbach, Reinhard | Lehnardt, Andreas | Liss, Hanna | Ochs, Peter
[German Version] I. Old Testament The noun tôrāh (הרָוֹתּ) is usually derived from the verb הרי/ yrh, “show,” hiphil “instruct.” In Israelite wisdom literature, it denotes ethical and religious instruction by parents (Prov 1:8; 4:1; 6:20; 31:26) or sages (Prov 13:14) as well as religious instruction by priests (Jer 18:18). As a term denoting the law (Law and legislation: II; LXX: νόμος/ nómos), it stands at the end of an ongoing theologization of the law in ancient Israel, following the Deuteronomic centralization of the cult (Josiah) and the establishment of a central religious court in Jerusalem (Deut 17:8ff.). According to the Deuteronomistic narrative, Deuteronomy goes back to a Torah manuscript of Mosaic origin found in the temple (2 Kgs 22:8, 11; 23:24). It is ascribed to divine revelation (III; cf. Deut 5) and interpreted as the binding text of a covenant prior to Israel’s se…

Torah Shrine

(312 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas

Justus of Tiberias

(111 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] Jewish historian of the 1st century ce. His works are only known through the polemical remarks of Josephus ( Vita 336ff.) and references by and excerpts in Christian authors (Julius Africanus, Eusebius, Photius, Diogenes Laertius). Justus wrote a history of the Jewish Revolt, in which he had participated in Galilee, directed against Josephus. A chronicle of the Jewish kings from Moses to Agrippa I is only attested in fragments (FGH 734). His authorship of Commentarioli de scripturis is doubtful (Jer. Vir. ill. 14). Andreas Lehnardt Bibliography ¶ T. Rajak, “Justus o…

Megillat Taʿanit

(338 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] ( Meg. Taʿan.), “Scroll of fasts,” lists 35 days on which, because of joyous events in the past, fasting (V, 1), and in some cases also mourning, are forbidden. The Aramaic list, following the Nisan year, goes back to the time of the Second Temple, even though Hananiah ben Hiscia ( b. Šabb. 13b) or his son Eleazar, known from Josephus ( Bell. II 409), is named as its author; it was complete…

Ishmael ben Elisha

(199 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] Along with Rabbi Akiba ben Joseph", Ishmael was one of the most important rabbinical scholars of the Tannaitic period (c. 100 ce). Only isolated, vague references in rabbinic literature imply biographical details. Since there were several rabbi Ishmaels and he is usually mentioned without patronymic, their historicity can hardly be verified. He may have been from a priestly family ( b. Ber. 7a; ARN A 38), he lived, according to m. Ketub. 5:8, in Edom, in the south, and according to m. Kil. 6:4 in Kefar Aziz. According to b. Šebu. 26a, Rabbi Neḥunya ben ha-Kana was his …

Symmachos

(284 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha | Lehnardt, Andreas
(Σύμμαχος). [English version] [1] Verf. eines Aristophanes-Kommentars, 1. H. 2. Jh. Spätestens 1. H. 2. Jh. n. Chr. (Zitat bei Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz), Verf. eines Komm. zu Aristophanes [3], von spätant. und byz. Scholien-Lit. oft benutzt ( subscriptio schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). Ob S. auch uns nicht erh. Komödien kommentierte, bleibt unklar [2. 1138 f.]. Von den 41 S. namentlich zugewiesenen (Sach-)Erklärungen in den Aristophanes-Scholien beziehen sich mehr als die Hälfte auf ‘Vögel und ‘Ritter, vereinzelte auf weitere…

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] …

Qaddish

(268 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[English Version] (»heilig«), kurzes hebr.-aram. Gebet, welches in verschiedenen Versionen überliefert ist und, neben doxologischen Formeln, Bitten um das Kommen der Königsherrschaft Gottes und um Frieden enthält. Das Halb-Q. wird im Wechsel mit einem Vorbeter zu Beginn und bes. am Schluß der Hauptteile der Liturgie (Gebet: XI.) rezitiert (dann oft mit zusätzlicher aram. Friedensbitte als Voll-Q.); Trauernde beten am Grab und in den Gottesdiensten leicht veränderte Q.-Formen; das Q. de-Rabbanan wi…

Toraschrein

(280 words)

Author(s): Lehnardt, Andreas
[English Version] . Fast jede jüd. und samaritanische Synagoge enthält einen Aufbewahrungsort für die Torarolle(n). T., die archäologisch (Dura-Europos: II.) und durch Abb. auf Mosaikfußböden in Palästina (Beth-Shean, Hammat-Tiberias [Mosa…

Tora

(2,877 words)

Author(s): Achenbach, Reinhard | Lehnardt, Andreas | Liss, Hanna | Ochs, Peter
[English Version] I. Altes Tes…

Segen und Fluch

(3,412 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Steymans, Hans Ulrich | Lehnardt, Andreas | Fitzgerald, John T. | Greiner, Dorothea | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichS. und F. erscheinen aus religionswiss. Sicht als dichte, komplexe Begriffe, die sich schwer in einem einheitlichen, alle rel. Symbolsysteme übergreifenden Konzept zusammenfassen lassen. S. und F. sind nicht primär als Gegensätze, sondern als parallele, polyvalente Begriffe zu verstehen, welche unterschiedliche Formen von rel. Kommunikation zum Ausdruck bringen. Als komplexe Vorgänge bilden sie eine Kondensierung unterschiedlicher Kodierungsebenen rel. Bo…